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THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF CONNECTICUT 

LIBRARIES 




20 


SPECIAL 
COLLECTIONS 









f 



/ 



* > *^fli<W'.' 1 



THE BOYS' BOOK 



OP 



MANLY 






pXERCISES, p PORTS, 




AND tAMES, 



JA 



PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED. 




NEW YORK : 
E. P. DUTTON & Co., Publishers, 713, BROADWAY. 

1881. 



PREFACE. 



In the present day, when as much as possible is 
done to counteract the artificial life imperatively 
led by so many of us, a "Handbook of Manly 
Sports, Exercises and Games'''' is sure to be alike 
useful and acceptable. 

The great attention attracted by the feats of 
Captain Webb, O'Leary, and Weston demonstrates 
this; and, providing a text-book which treats of 
such matters as are comprised in the present pages 
proves interesting and reliable, it is bound to take a 
strong hold on public favour. Indeed, such a 
work should be in the hands of every school-boy, 
student, and young man ; and no better gift, -prize, 
or reward, or one surer of being welcome to the 
recipient, can possibly be made than a chit-chatty, 
easily-understood, yet technical epitome of in and 
out-door exercises and pastimes. 

That this book is to be depended upon, and is 
to each subject of which it treats what Fowne's 
manual is to chemistry, is proved by the two-fold 



VI PREFACE. 



fact that it contains everything upon all sports 
requisite to be known. 

Each point is treated in a practical and clear 
manner by the Man most Eminent in each 
Particular Sport, Exercise, or Game. Hence, 
Wisden is the "Cricket" authority of this Work. 
Westhall reads — "'Walking and Running," and 
the "Dumb Bells" are flung by Harrison. Kelly 
skulls our "Boating," and Beckwith strikes out in 
" Swimming." So that the Work thus practically put 
together is veritably an interesting encyclopoedia of 
all manly exercises ; — a seasonable friend, that, wet 
or dry, hot or cold, will never fail in the moment 
of need to advise, entertain and instruct upon 
each and every matter in any way connected with 
the manifold diversions that be. 

The work is profusely illustrated, and the various 
diagrams cannot fail to clearly explain anything 
which the youthful mind may at a first reading 
fail to thoroughly comprehend. 



C O ITTIEi DtsT TS. 



BICYCLING AND GYMNASTICS. 



PAGE 

Bicycling 11 

Gymnastics, — Training .. 18 
Exercises without Imple- 
ments 23 

Jumping 27 

Walking and Running . . 30 

Exercises with Implements 37 

Pole Leaping . . . . 37 

Dumb Bells 39 

Indian Clubs . . . . 40 

The Iron Bar .. .. 42 



The Suspension Bar 
The Ladder . . 
Ropes and Poles 
Parallel Bars 
The Trapeze . . 
The Giant Stride 
Rowing as an Exercise 
Rationale of Swimming 
Cricket as an Exercise 
Military Gymnastics 
Concluding Remarks 



PAGE 
43 
44 
46 
49 
51 
54 
54 
57 
59 
62 
68 



INDIAN CLUBS AND BUMB-BELLS. 



Indian Club Exercises—In- 
troductory .. .. 69 
Preliminary Training . . 69 
The Old and New System 

of Training .. .. 77 

The Clubs 83 

The First Exercises . . 83 

Further Instructions in the 

Use of Indian Clubs . . 90 
Dumb - Bells, the Proper 

Use of 96 

The English Method of 

Using the Dumb-Bells. 98 
French Dumb-Bells .. 102 

Expert Feats with Sword — 

Severing the Lemon 108 
Peeling the Apple in the 

Handkerchief .. .. ill 



Cutting an Apple inside a 
Silk 'Kerchief with- 
out injuring the latter 

To Cut a Broomstick placed 
on the Edges of Two 
Tumblers of Water . . 

Dividing a Suspended 
Orange 

Dividing the Carcase of a 
Whole Sheep 

Cutting the Leg of Mutton 

Cutting the Bar of Lead . . 

Slicing Vegetable Marrows, 
Cucumbers, Eggs, &c. 

Cutting the Orange under 
the Naked Heel 

Cutting Pillows of Down, 
Silk Handkerchiefs, &c. 



112 



113 

114 

116 
117 
117 

119 

119 

120 



CRICKET. 



Introductory 

The Implements .. 

The Art of Batting 

The Art of Bowling 

Rules for Young Bowlers. . 

Wicket-Keeping 

Fielding 

Field for Slow Underhand 
Bowling 

Field for Medium Round- 
Arm Bowling 

Field for Slow, or Medium 
Left-hand Round-Arm 
Bowling 

Field for Fast Round-Arm 
Bowling. 



123 
124 
130 
134 
136 
141 
144 

147 

149 



151 



153 



Duties of the Captain .. 153 

Rules for the Formation of 
a Cricket Club 

Laws of Double Wicket . . 

Laws of Single Wicket . . 

Bets 

Professional Talent of the 

Country.. .. .. 165 

Noted Professional Players 166 

The Gentlemen of Eng- 
land .. .. -.. 

Ditto, Alphabetical List of 

Principal Cricket Grounds 
in England 

Laws of County Wicket . . 

Concluding Remarks 



154 
156 
163 
164 



176 
177 

178 
179 
179 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



OUT-DOOR SPORTS AND PASTIMES 



PAGE 

Football 180 

„ Association Rules 181 

Base Ball 189 

Rounders .. .. .. 193 

La Crosse 194 

Hurling 196 

Strike Up and Lay Down. . 197 

Trap Ball 197 

Skittles 198 

American Skittles . . . . 199 

Bowls 200 

Northumberland Bowls .. 201 

Racquet 202 

Golf .. 204 



Skating 
Tennis 

„ Match Rules 
Badminton . . 

„ Preparing 

Ground for ditto 
„ The Game 

„ Rules .. 

„ Double 

Croquet — History of 
Game .. .. 
„ The Game 

How to Play . . 
„ New Laws 



PAGE 

, 206 

, 209 

. 216 

219 



the 



the 
and 



220 
221 
224 
225 

227 

231 
234 



ROWING AND SCULLING. 



Introductory,. 

Boats and their Fittings 

Rowing 

Steering 

Sculling 

Sliding Seats 

Training 



240 
241 
244 
250 
251 
254 
255 



The Laws of Boat Racing 

Canoeing 

The Construction of an 

Eight - oared Racing 

Boat 
Table of Winners of the 

University Boat Race. 



260 
263 



267 
268 



YACHTING AND SAILING. 



The Yacht 269 

Management . . . . 272 

Various Styles of Yacht . . 274 

Practical Advice .. .. 279 



Nautical Terms 
The Yacht at Sea 
The Life Boat 



280 

285 
293 



RIVER FISHING. 



Rods, Tackle, and Baits 

The Trout 

,, Salmon 

„ Pike 

„ Grayling 

„ Perch 

„ Carp 

„ Tench 

„ Chub 

„ Bream 

,, Barbel 

,, Roach 

,, Dace 



295 
302 
306 
310 
316 
317 
320 
322 
324 
327 
330 
331 
333 



The Gudgeon 

,, Minnow.. 

„ Bleak 

„ Pope 
Char and Guiniad 
The Rud, or Roach Carp 

,, Lamprey 

„ Loach 

„ Miller's Thumb 

„ Eel 

,, Flounder 
Angling Quarters 
Nets and Netting 



334 
335 
336 
336 
337 
337 
337 
338 
338 
338 
341 
341 
342 



SEA FISHING. 



Tackle.. 
Whiting 
The Pollack 

,, Bass 
Mackerel 
The Dab 



.. 345 


The Flounder 


.. 346 


„ Whiting Pout 


. . 347 


„ Grey Mullet 


. . 347 


,, Smelt 


.. 348 


„ Conger .. 


.. 349 


,, Sea-Bream 



350 
350 
350 
351 
351 
352 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



FENCING. 



PAGE 
353 
354 
354 



Introduction 

Requisites 

Preliminary Remarks 
Throwing Carte and Tierce 

at the Wall .. .. 355 
Positions Previous to Draw- 
ing the Sword . . . . 356 
Holding the Sword when 

in Position of Guard. . 357 

Drawing the Sword . . 357 

The Guard 357 

Advance .. .. .. 359 

Retire 359 

The Half -Lunge . . . . 359 

„ The Lunge .. .. 359 

„ Recover 360 

„ The Engage . . . . 360 

Parades 360 

Carte 362 

Tierce 362 

Seconde 363 

Demi-Circle . . . . . . 363 



Octave. . 
Contre Parades 
Attacks 

Straight Thrust 
The Disengagement 

„ One-Two 

„ One-Two-Three 



363 
365 
366 
366 
367 
367 
368 



PAGE 

Appeals, Beats on Blade, 

and Glizades . . . . 369 
The Beat and Thrust . . 370 
„ Beat and Disengage- 
ment . .. .. 370 
Cut-over Point . . . . 371 
Cut-over and Disengage- 
ment .. .. .. 371 

Double 372 

The Practice of Attack and 

Defence 372 

High Carte 373 

Tierce 373 

Carte over the Arm . . 373 

Low Carte 374 

Prime . . . . . . . . 374 

Seconde 374 

Carte outside the Arm . . 375 

Quinte .. .. .. 375 

Crossing and Binding the 

Blade 375 

Feints 376 

Passes in Carte .. .. 377 

Tierce 378 

The Underthrust when an 
Adversary thrusts in 

too close Measure . . 378 

General Advice . . . . 378 



BROADSWORD EXERCISE. 



Exercises 380 



Positions 

Cuts and Guards . . 

Cuts 

Points 

Guards 
Parry .. 
Hanging Guard 
Inside Guard 
Outside Guard 
Attack and Defence 



381 
383 
383 

384 
386 
386 

387 
387 
388 
388 



Draw Swords 
Recover Swords 
Slope Swords 
Return Swords 
Practices 
Second Practice 
Fourth Practice 
Fifth Practice 
Fort and Feeble 
Drawing Cut . 
General Remarks 



390 
390 
391 
391 
391 
392 
393 
394 
395 
395 
395 



BOXING. 



The Gloves 398 

„ Position. 398 

„ Set-to 399 

Parrying and Stopping . . 400 

Hitting 401 



Milling on the Retreat .. 401 
Getting the Head in Chan- 
cery 402 

Throwing 402 

General Remarks . . . . 403 



Introductory 
The First Essay 



SWIMMING. 

404 Swimming on the Back .. 410 
406 I Floating 411 



X 



CONTENTS. 



SWIMMING— Continued. 



PAGE 

The Plunge .. .. ..412 

Diving .. .. .. 414 

Rising to the Surface .. 416 

Swimming under Water . . 416 

Side-Swimming .. .. 418 

Swimming like a Dog . . 419 

To Swim Hand-over-Hand 420 
Swimming with One Hand 

Out of the Water .. 421 

To Swim Frogwise . . . . 422 

Balancing in the Water . . 423 

Treading Water . . . . 424 

Upright Swimming . . 424 

The Prussian System . . 425 

„ Washing-Tub .. .. 425 

„ Plank 426 

„ Wrestle 426 

„ Float 426 

,. Drive 426 



PAGE 

Leap-Frog ... .. .. 426 

Corks, Bladders, &c. . . 427 

The Cramp 427 

How to Teach Swimming 427 

Hints to Learners .. .. 431 

Good Swimming . . . . 433 

SEA BATHING— 

Bathing from the Shore. 435 

Bathing from a Machine 435 

Bathing from a Boat . . 435 

The Tides 436 

The Waves 436 

Usefulness of the Art . . 437 
How to Save Life . . . . 439 
Restoration of the Appar- 
ently Drowned . . 441 
Swimming for Ladies . . 450 
Concluding Observations 457 



BILLIARDS. 



Technical Terms used in 

the Various Games . . 460 

The Various Games . . 462 
The Winning, Losing, and 

Canon Game . . . . 463 

Rules for ditto . . . . 464 

The American Game . . 468 

Rules for ditto . . . . 469 

Carline (or Caroline) . . 470 

Laws of Carline . . . . 470 

Winning Hazard Games . . 472 

Pool .. 472 

Rules of Pool . . . . 473 

Pyramids 476 

Laws of Pyramids . . . . 477 

Pyramid Pool, or Shell-out 478 

Single Pool 478 

Skittle Pool and Minor 

Games 479 

Thurston's Rules of Skittle 

Pool 480 

Hazards, or Penny Pot . . 482 

Handicap Sweepstakes .. 483 

The Canon Game . . . . 484 

The White Winning Game 483 



Rules of ditto . . . . 484 

The White Losing Game . . 484 
„ White Winning and 

Losing Game . . . . 485 

„ Winning Canon Game 485 
„ Red Winning Canon 

Game 485 

One Pocket to Five . . 486 

Two Pockets to Four . . 486 

Side against Side . . . . 486 

The Nomination Game . . 487 

„ Commanding Game . . 487 

„ Go-Back Game .. 487 

„ French Game . . . . 489 

„ Spanish Game . . ., 489 

Scientific Principles .. 491 

Balls and Cues .. -, 493 

Angles of the Table .-. 497 

Winning Hazards . . . . 499 

Losing Hazards . . . . 503 

Canons .. .. . 507 

The Side Stroke .. .. 510 

Cramp Strokes .. .. 514 

Concluding Remarks .. 516 

A Chapter on Bagatelle .. 517 



- — -<^^s^ 




zbicttcliitq-. 




CC T^VERY man his own Locomotive " might almost be 
JU permitted as a title to these pages, when we consider 
the modern Bicycle, either in itself the acme of mechanical 
ingenuity, or as a means to the most healthful and varied 
enjoyment that the Englishman of to-day possesses. Once 
mounted, the independence of his nature asserts itself. By 
tradition, a rover, and untrammelled by Bradshaw or Cook, 
he experiences a new fascination on finding his " tight little 
island" accessible from Land's End to John O'Groat's. 

But, although the Bicycle is generally brought under 
public notice, and its popularity has been largely accelerated 



II 



BICYCLING. 



by the record of extraordinary trips and champion feats, 
as a practical method of locomotion it is still advancing 
in favor, and supplying a want that all in the enjoyment 
of health must at some time feel. From the letter of a 
gentleman recently published in The Field, we may infer 
that there are those who regard the investment in a good 
machine as a highly profitable speculation, the writer 
having accomplished on his " Tension * ' in three years the 
incredible distance of 30,000 miles, at the same time saving 
in railway fares, at a third-class tariff, the large sum of 
£125. 

Treating it, however, in this pamphlet as an exercise of 
pleasure, its superiority for the individual athlete, must 
without exception be at once allowed. Independent of the 
caprice of others to make up a game at cricket or foot-ball, 
the Bicyclist, self-contained, can roam at his fancy for 
miles, and derive in this health-giving exercise, the benefit 
which such a change of air will be sure to afford. 

But as our reader has probably long since arrived at the 
same conclusion as ourselves with regard to Bicycling, it may 
be opportune to caution the beginner, who may even have 
acquired a seat, not to be too eager in his endeavors to 
accomplish long distance; but rather, by frequent practice, 
to ensure that muscular development, without which he 
will be unable to obtain over his machine a complete and 
graceful mastery. 

We now pass on to the theory of the art, and to give a 
few hints that are necessary to enable the novice to surmount 
his introductory difficulties. 

Balance is the whole secret of Bicycle riding, and this is 
maintained by the rider's running the machine under him 
as soon as he feels himself falling ; the performance being 



12 



V 

BICYCLING. 



analogous to the movement of a sailor, who, on finding 
himself lurching to one side of the deck, mechanically steps 
out in that direction, and thus restores his equilibrium. 

Of course, practice is required to graduate the amount of 
movement to the inclination; but when the art is once 
learnt (which it may easily be in an hour), the proper 
amount of steering becomes as perfectly instinctive as the 
sailor 's step above alluded to. All the learner has therefore 
to remember is, that when he feels he is falling, he must 
pull the handle on the side he is leaning to ; this will run 
the Bicycle under him and restore his balance. For the 
first essay, a smooth road, a slight incline to start from, 
and a machine adapted to one's height are necessary. 

In selecting the latter, if the learner is dependent upon 
his own unaided efforts, it will be as well to hire a machine 
of smaller dimensions than is really proportionate to his 
size. Upon this he will feel no anxiety at his temporary 
separation from terra firma, and at the same time will be 
enabled to obtain his first propulsion either from a kerb- 
stone or from the ground itself. 

Having arrived at the starting point let the rider seat 
himself squarely in the saddle, and grasp the handles firmly* 
but not stiffly, with the front wheel pointing directly down 
hill, and in a line with the centre of his body. When he 
has once started, he should keep himself as much in the 
erect as possible; he will at first instinctively lean and 
bend his body when he finds himself falling ; but he must 
get rid of this tendency as soon as he can, and trust 
entirely to the steering handle for restoring his equilibrium. 

Having settled himself thus, he may now lift his feet, 
letting them hang back so as to clear the treadles, where- 
upon he will at once begin to move downwards ; the chances 



n 



are, however, he will not run far before the machine and 
rider will topple over to one side. The learner will at first 
probably overguide himself; and by pulling the handle too 
sharply, turn the machine across the path and stop his pro- 
gress. He must, therefore, lead back the machine, and, 
after taking his seat, &c, with the same care as at first, 
start afresh. 

If the learner desires to learn quickly and properly, the 
rules as to carefully seating oneself every time of starting, 
and of not shifting the body afterwards, must be strictly 
observed ; it is better to restore the balance by dropping 
the feet than leaning the body. 

After about three quarters of an hour's practice, the 
learner will suddenly find that he can run down hill without 
requiring any other balancing power than that afforded by 
the steering-bar and its obedient servant, the driving-wheel. 

When he has satisfied himself that the run is not a 
"fluke/* and that he really possesses the secret, he may 
try the treadles, which he must previously have left entirely 
alone. For this practice a rather higher machine must be 
taken; so that, on using the treadles, the learner's knees 
are neither brought into contact with the steering-bar, nor 
are his arms uncomfortably stretched by the distance 
backward of the saddle. The start should be made as 
before, and when he finds he is moving pretty steadily, the 
learner may lift his right foot and place it on the treadle 
as it is descending forward ; keeping his body perfectly upright 
during the movement. After he has followed the right 
treadle for a few revolutions, he may add the left foot ; and 
he should then simply follow the treadles for about a 
quarter of an hour, to accustom himself to their rise and 
fall The legs should be kept straight, and the feet parallel 



14 



BICYCLING. 



with the driving-wheel, so that the toes may not catch its 
fork in passing. When he has got accustomed to keeping 
his feet on them, he may begin to actuate the treadles ; 
remembering never to press a treadle until it is descending 
forwards, and to made his strokes as even as possible. 

Pressure is made with either the arch or the ball of the 
foot, or the toes, according to the length of the rider's legs. 
As «ach treadle is pressed, the handle on that side should be 
held steady, so as to keep the driving-wheel straight. 

In turning, large circles should be described at first ; as 
the learner progresses, he will aid the turn by leaning the 
whole machine towards the centre of the circle, the effect 
is much more graceful. 

When the learner can accomplish the foregoing, he may 
learn to mount properly. Of course, if the machine be 
low enough to admit of it, seating oneself in the saddle 
with the left foot on the ground and the right treadle at its 
highest point, raising the right foot, and pressing that treadle, 
and instantly repeating the process with the left foot, will 
start the rider ; but, as the machines of the present day are 
seldom low enough for this movement, mounting must be 
performed by the use of the jump or step. To jump, — run 
the machine along by both handles, until an impetus is 
attained; and then, bringing both feet together, give a 
jump upwards and to the right, which will land you in the 
saddle. To step on the high machines; stand over the 
small hind wheel, grasp the handles, run the machine 
along, plant the left foot on the step, and spring into the 
saddle. In mounting throw all your weight on the handles ; 
and remember, a hesitating mount means a fall. 

For dismounting, no special directions can be given, but 
in the interest of the Bicycle, which should always, if 



*5 



BICYCLING. 



possible, retain its perpendicular, we recommend the use 
of the step. Some riders prefer an inelegant tumble, 
letting the machine come to a stand-still, and leaning over 
until the right foot touches the ground. Others, while in 
motion, raise and swing the right leg over the handle 
dropping off side-saddle fashion to the left. 

Though the steering-bar is as it were the key of the 
whole machine, by the practised rider it may be temporarily 
dispensed with, and the balance kept by the pressure on the 
treadles alone. In riding side-saddle, care should be taken 
that the working foot keeps well on its treadle, or the result 
may be an awkward fall. 

The leg rest, though not added by all makers, permits a 
very convenient change in descending hills, as the balance 
may at the same time be easily preserved. 

The foregoing instructions will enable the learner to ride 
any modern machine, as they are all built on the same 
general principle. We may add, that in all cases the 
assistance of a friend is to be preferred. The first essay may 
then be safely made upon a Bicycle most suitable to the 
rider's length of limb. 

With regard to the capabilities of the Bycicle, we may 
instance the following as the most remarkable on record : 



Miles. 



Hours. Mins. Sec. 



1 ... 


... 


... 3 


... 9£ 


Zi ... ... ... 


... 


... 7 


... 4£ 


^C ••• ••• ••• 


... 


... 13 


... 21 


6 less 125 yards 


.." 


... 22 


... 6£ 


10 ... ... ... . 


.. 


... 35 


... 30 


ZAj . • •> ••* ••• 


... 1 


... 17 


... 16£ 


%)\J ' • ■••• ••• ••• i 


.. 3 


. ... *j 


... 19 


\J\J . • •• - ( ••• ••• I 


.. 7 


... .58 


... 54£ 



\6 




In selecting a Bicycle the purchaser should be very 
careful to look, not so much to the cost as to the quality 
of the machine. He should never buy except from a well- 
known maker, and then only the best. In the first place 
an inferior Bicycle is dangerous to life and limb ; and 
secondly, it is all but unmarketable if at any time it is 
desirous to sell it. When we consider the weight that a 
few pounds of metal has to bear, and the distance the 
machine will probably be required to travel, it is impos- 
sible that any but the very best materials can stand the 
constant strain ; and although a Bicycle to look at seems 
very easy of construction, yet, to the initiated, it is evident 
there are parts in it which ought to be made by very 
special tools, requiring the greatest skill of the mechanic 
for their production. The possession of these tools implies 
the expenditure of a large amount of capital, and therefore 
it is hardly to be wondered at that there are so few makers 
capable of turning out a machine which will last for any 
length of time. It seems invidious to mention names, but 
our readers will know our advice is unprejudiced and 
impartial ; and we have public opinion at our back when 
we say — the oldest and largest firm in the kingdom is the 
" Coventry Machinist Company," Coventry, and that their 
Bicycles have a very high reputation. The Cambridge 
University Bicycle Club, numbering about 120 riders, use 
this make almost exclusively, and a higher recommendation 
it seems impossible to have. This Company have lately 
opened London Offices on the Holborn Viaduct, where 
there is a large and elegant saloon in which purchasers are 
taught the use of the Bicycle free of charge. 

The following table, showing the height of wheel suitable 
to the length of leg, will be of assistance to the purchaser. 



17 B 



GYMNASTICS. 



The measurement must be made inside, and down to the 
sole of the foot : 



Diameter of 










Length of 


Front 


wheel. 










Leg. 


42 inches ... . 


• • 


• • • 4 


• • 4 


• • 


30 inches 


44 


„ ... 


• •• 


• •• 


• • • 


»•# 


31 


ii 


46 


n •*• • 


»•• 


• • • i 


»•• 


► •• 


32 


ii 


48 


ii ••• • 


• • 


• •• 4 


• •• 


• • 


33 


n 


50 


ii ••• 


• • 


• •• 


• • 


• • 


34 


19 


52 


11 ••• 


»•• 


• • • 4 


• • 


• • 


35 


ii 


54 


„ ... 4 


• • 


• • • I 


• • 


• • 


36 


»i 


55 


11 »•• 


»• • 


• •• 


i • • 


»•• 


37 


11 


58 


11 •*• 


• • 


•»•• 


> •• 1 


► •• 


38 


n 


60 


11 ••• 


• • 


• • • 


• • 


• • 


39 


n 



The prices vary according to size, and for a good machine 
will range from .£12 to £15. 



« lXi «* 



We will now proceed to the main object of this little 
manual, viz. : — 



GYMNASTICS. 



TRAINING. 

The rationale of Training is to nourish the body as rapidly 
as possible, and at the same time to get rid of the waste 
material. It may be compared, by way of illustration, to the 
rapid consumption of fuel in locomotive engines by a quick 
draught of air, and the production of steam from an immense 
extent of heated surface, obtained by exposing to the fire 
many tubes filled with water. The best fuel is supplied to 



i.8 



TRAINING. 



the man or boy in training in the shape of bread and water. 
His smoke and cinders must be got rid cf rapidly, so as to 
excite the fierce combustion demanded for the pace he has to 
go, and the long-continued efforts he has to make. To accom- 
plish this, the fire-grate and chimneys of the human engine 
must be kept clear and in perfect working order. The skin, 
which lets off the waste steam and smoke at millions of pores 
— or say twenty-eight miles of tubing, for this has been calcu- 
lated — is of the first importance ; hence, by long experience, 
from the Greeks and Romans to our day, trainers, who are 
no great physiologists, have paid the closest attention to the 
skin, whether in training horses or men. The Greeks used a 
scraper called a strigil, and they sometimes rolled in the dust 
after anointing, all of which compelled them to use a great 
amount of friction in merely cleansing the skin. Perspiration 
is excited and kept up at regular intervals ; and the pores are 
cleansed by rubbing with hard brushes and towels, with 
occasional sponging, though the bath is used sparingly. By 
this means also the circulation of the blood in the minute 
network of vessels all over the body is assisted. Men in 
ordinary health get rid of about three pounds of water alone 
from their skin daily, but in training it is much more than 
this. Then the lungs, being nearer to the central furnace of 
the body, are of even more importance to be kept at work 
than the skin ; for from them the chief part of the smoke 
must be got rid of, besides a good deal of steam, or, in other 
words, carbonic-acid gas and watery vapour. In ordinary 
good health a man expires about twenty-one ounces of steam 
daily : of course a man undergoing great exertion breathes off 
much more than this. Then the light fresh air is exchanged 
in breathing for the heavy carbonic gas, ammonia, hydrogen 
gas, and volatile animal substances, making altogether from 
six to eight per cent, of effete material got rid of by the 
lungs. Now we can see the necessity for a man having w T hat 
is called " good wind :" his lungs must be able to bear, with- 
out distress, the constant and rapid contraction and expansion, 
and the strong action of the heart in driving on the vital 



l- 



19 



GYMNASTICS. 



stream. Hence no person with a weak chest should attempt 
to train severely, though the regimen, very moderately and 
gradually applied, would certainly be beneficial ; for it may 
then simply embrace the well-known precepts of fresh air, 
exercise, simple food, no excesses, and early hours. Those 
are favoured by Nature who can endure exercise occasionally 
as severe as that gone through by pugilists and rowing-men. 
By it the lungs are ventilated as they cannot be in ordinary 
exercise, and the high vigour of the system is maintained. 
In quiet breathing, as much as 170 cubic inches of air remain 
in the chest, while about 25 inches are expired ; but by 
violent exercise this is raised to 240 cubic inches, and renewed 
at the rate of from forty to fifty times in a minute. 
a The dietary of the trainers is open to criticism upon some 
points. They prescribe a dry meat diet, on the supposition 
that it makes the flesh firm, and keeps the blood from being 
watery. This is an error ; for we know that the strongest 
men are composed of as much water as other men, and that 
this apparently idle and harmless fluid is a most vital one, 
for it forms no less than seventy per cent, of the whole body. 
The muscles would be mere shreds if deprived of their water ; 
and the singular thing is that this is not easy to accomplish 
even in dead muscle, for the water is not contained as if by a 
sponge — it cannot be pressed out of the flesh except by a 
weight which destroys the fibre ; water therefore is an essen- 
tial constituent of muscle. The nerves, which are really the 
source of all muscular energy, actually consist of 800 parts 
water in 1,000. Old Thales was not far out when he taught 
his pupils that water was the life of all creation. It is possi- 
ble to live for some time on water alone ; but when entirely: 
deprived of it death soon results. The trainers are right, 
however, as to not taking liquids in large draughts : this is 
prejudicial to digestion, and is liable to produce a dangerous 
chill or shock. It is not advantageous that thirst, which 
arises from all violent exercises, should not be quenched ; but 
this should be done by small quantities taken while the 
system is heated, and not by large draughts immediately after 



20 



TRAINING. 



the exertion is over. Water is by far the best beverage to 
be taken during any strong exercise, as in long walks over 
hilly ground in hot weather, and in any of the more arduous 
feats of running and walking. Tea, if taken cool, is, however, 
a very light and stimulating drink ; but beer, most wines, 
and spirits are injurious to all great efforts. A diet of lean 
meat and bread, with scanty vegetables, is decidedly not 
favourable to robust health ; experience has long taught us 
to follow the inclination for varieties of many kinds ; and 
perfect condition, even to efficient Training, may be kept up 
by partaking of these, always excepting young meats and 
veal, which is not only immature, but half diseased, from 
the process of daily bleeding which is adopted to produce the 
appearance of delicacy. A diet in which flesh is the chief 
article is indispensable to our climate and our habits. The 
consumption of meat in England is three times that of France ; 
and it has been proved that one English navvy did the work 
of two and a half French navvies — until the contractor fed 
up his Frenchmen, when they nearly equalled their rivals. 
But flesh-feeding is easily carried too far, and tends to over- 
load the blood with phosphoric acid and alkalies — earth, in 
fact. There is this important piece of encouragement in 
favour of adopting a regular system of exercises, that when 
the body is in perfect working order the digestion partakes 
so completely of the general high tone that nothing can 
resist it — a man becomes "as hard as nails," and rejoices in 
having the stomach of an ostrich. Let him get "out of 
condition," and he is choice and sensitive upon a hundred 
points, each one a misery to him. The pugilist is not to be 
considered so good a representative man as the navvy, be- 
cause he is kept in a state of high tension, which cannot 
last, and which is gladly escaped from ; while the navvy is 
merely in the highest working condition. The death of Tom 
Sayers from consumption, at the early age of forty, is a 
proof that severe Training is not the best thing to preserve a 
good general state of health ; but then it must be recollected 
that men of the Sayers class indulge greatly immediately 



21 



GYMNASTICS. 



after their period of Training expires. "We are not all born 
navvies ; but there is nothing to hinder us attaining the 
full physical capabilities with which Nature has endowed us, 
each in his measure. 

No matter how intellectual the calibre, or how sensitive 
the fibre, material health lies at the root of all. If 
Gymnastics were esteemed with us as important as they were 
with the ancients, and practised habitually as by them, there 
is no doubt that the public health would be raised, and new 
fields of enjoyment would open out to the multitude who 
are always wondering what ails them, or what on earth they 
can find to do. Among the* Greeks, philosopher, physician, 
and gymnast were united in one person. Galen, in his thirty- 
fifth year, dislocated his shoulder when wrestling. The 
aliptcv, who superintended the diet and training, became 
reputed physicians ; and their cure of diseases consisted 
almost entirely in adopting some of the processes of training 
in use in the palcestrce, the places built for the separate use 
of the athletce — the professional strong men, distinguished 
from the agonistce, or amateurs. Every town of importance 
had its gymnasium ; and here poets came to recite, philoso- 
phers to dispute, and the fashionable public to look on at the 
exercises and to gossip. The great contests were in running, 
j umping, leaping with weights in the hands (halteres), boxing, 
wrestling, throwing the discus (a sort of quoit-play), and hurl- 
ing the spear. All these were practised also by boys ; and they 
had a favourite game of pulling a rope against one another, 
something like our " French and English " — a game which to 
this day is practised on a large scale in Shropshire, where on 
Shrove Tuesday the different wards of Ludlow pull upon a long 
rope for the mastery. The use of the bath, with friction of 
the skin and Gymnastic Exercises, was the custom ; and most 
houses had their palcestrce, which were richly adorned with 
works of art. The Roman boys were not trained as the children 
of the Greeks were, and Gymnastics were certainly not so rigidly 
practised for their own sake : the Romans preferred the mag- 
nificence and display of the circus and the amphitheatre. 



22 



TRAINING. 



Let us now examine the various methods employed to 
reduce these theories into practice — to illustrate, in fact, the 
rationale of Training by the practice of Gymnastics. 



EXERCISES WITHOUT IMPLEMENTS. 

It is important in beginning Gymnastic Exercises that the 
pupil should carry himeslf well. In commencing, standin 
the First Position, the heels in a line with each other, and as 




STBST POSITION. 

close together as possible ; toes open, and legs straight without 
stiffness ; body perpendicular ; shoulders thrown back, and 
head erect ; hands closed and nearly touching the hips, with 
the fingers turned to the front ; eyes looking straight forward. 
The scholars, when standing in this position, practise various 
elementary movements ; such as turning the head to the right 



23 



GYMNASTICS. 



and to the left, alternately ; and then turning the head 
^ forward and backward. But care must be taken not to tire 
the limbs. 

There are a large number of exercises which are executed 
without moving from the spot stood on, and whose object 
is to render the legs and arms supple. It will suffice to 
quote some of these. Thus, for exercising the legs and 
lower extremities, lift the left foot off the ground, and raise 
the knee as high as possible (during this movement that 




EXERCISING THE LEGS. 



portion of the leg between the knee and the ankle is ver- 
tically placed, the point of the foot slanted) ; put your foot 
on the ground in the same position as it was just now, and 
execute the same movement with the right leg as we have 
just described for the left: This exercise is practised alter- 
nately with the two legs, at first slowly, then quicker, and 



24 



EXERCISES WITHOUT IMPLEMENTS. 

continues far a more or less prolonged period. During this 
exercise the head remains erect, and the body inclines a little 
to the front ; the arms hanging down, the hands closed. 

For exercising the arms and upper extremities, raise the 
closed hands above the head as high as possible, the fingers 
to the front, then bring them sharply down, bending them 
at the elbow, giving them a motion which brings them (the 
elbows) to the top of the hips, and continue thus . the same 
movements. In order to move the arms horizontally, place 
the wrists, with the fingers uppermost, on a level with the 
elbows, and preserve between the wrists the same distance as 
the width of the shoulders ; then throw the wrists straight 
out, bring the elbows back, and continue thus the movement. 
Lastly, the continued and alternate movement of the arms 
is executed in the following manner : — First, carry the 
right arm stretched out to its full extent behind the body, 
the hand closed ; bring it then to the front, and throw it 
round and round parallel to the body, describing with the fist 
the greatest possible circle, without ever bending the arm, 
and throwing it round as quickly as possible. After having 
executed this movement a certain number of times, bring the 
arm to the front and then throw it round behind, repeating 
it as many times as you did before. It is simply the same 
movement made in a contrary direction. The left arm will 
in its turn perform the same exercise. 

The Pyrrhic Exercises tend still more to strengthen and 
make supple the legs and arms. If it is a question of carrying 
the extremities in advance of the body, it is necessary to lunge 
out straight before oneself the right leg in advance, and 
stretching out vigorously with the right arm in the same 
direction as the right leg, the hand closed, the right leg bent, 
the left straight out behind, the left arm detached from the 
hip, the thumb of the left hand in the air, the head upright ; 
then bring the right extremities back again in such a manner 
that the right heel touches, or very nearly so, the middle of 
the left foot, and the right arm is close to the side, and as far 
behind as possible. 



25 



GYMNASTICS. 



But as the pupil cannot always maintain his equilibrium for 
any length of time, the whole of his weight being on his left 
foot, he lunges out again, by throwing his wrist vigorously out 
in front. This exercise is practised in the same manner by 
his left extremities. 

The bending of the lower limbs is also a very useful exercise. 
In order to put yourself in position, place your toes about 
three or four inches apart, and at the same time put your 
hands upon your hips, the fingers in front and the thumb 
behind, thus : — 




THE STOOP. 

This is called the Stoop. Bend the knees together, and 
rise ; then bend down again, and rise again. At the first 
attempt you should not bend down too low, the second may 
be a little lower, and at the third or fourth attempt the heels 
should touch the top of the hips. During this series of move- 
ments the head should be well poised, so as to be always in 
the centre of the body. This retention of the trunk in an 
upright position is of the greatest importance in Gymnastic 
Exercises. 



26 



JUMPING. 



Jumping. 

There are many ways of Jumping : I shall only describe the 
most important — that is to say, those which are the most 
usually practised in Gymnastic Exercises, and which are often 
put in practice in the course of every man's life. Such are 
the Wide or Horizontal Jump, the Vertical Jump, and the 
High Jump. 




THE WIDE JUMP. 

The Wide Jump. — In order to jump a distance on the bare 
ground, or over a ditch, brook, &c, close-footed, and without 
any preliminary run whatever, the jumper places his two feet 
close together, then he bends down, throws his closed hands to 
the front to a level with his shoulders, and the same distance 
apart as the width of the latter ; he repeats the same move- 
ment a second and a third time, but the last time he presses 
his feet firmly on the ground, and by a quick and vigorous 
bending action of his arms and legs he springs, clears the space, 



27 



and comes down upon the tips of his toes. It is important to 
bend the legs at the moment when you touch the ground, so 
as to break the shock produced by the weight of the body 
falling on them. In practising this exercise the pupil should 
at first jump short distances, to enable him to preserve the 
equilibrium of the body, and to acquire the necessary sup- 
pleness little by little. Exaggerated efforts only have bad 
results. 
Jumping from a Height.— This is a very useful, but at the 




JUMPING FKOM A HEIGHT. 

same time a somewhat difficult exercise, not to be performed 
without danger if sufficient precautions be not taken. This 
jump should first be practised from rather low elevations ; 
then by degrees the jumper may extend the distance until he 
is able to jump from a tolerable height. In fact he should 
never jump from a great height until he has first learned to 



28 



JUMPING. 



master the principles of jumping from lower elevations. This 
is how this exercise is performed : — Once placed at the height 
from where you wish, to jump, clench the hands, place the 
feet together, and let them project a few inches over the bank, 
or whatever else you are about to jump from ; then bend down 
to the feet, carrying at the same instant the hands up as far 
as possible. Practise this movement twice ; at the third 
time the feet leave the spot on which you are standing, and 
you fly over the space by throwing yourself up in the air ; 




THE HIGH JUMP. 



the legs are in a straight line with the body, so as to execute 
the bending movement at the very moment when the feet 
touch the ground. At this movement the hands are elevated, 
and as you come to the ground you bend the knees and fall 
forward on your hands, in order to break the shock. But of 



29 



GYMNASTICS. 



course this only applies to severe jumps. Where the distance 
is small you can come down on your feet without any great 
shock. 

The High Jump.— For the High Jump — that is, jumping 
from a lower to a higher platform — it is necessary to close the 
hands, and place the feet together; then bend the knees, 
throwing out the arms in the direction you are about to 
jump. After having practised these movements two or three 
times, you execute those already described for the wide 
jump. The force of the bend of the legs should be always 
sharp and sudden, and in proportion to the height to be 
jumped. 

The Running Jump. — Brace yourself well up, take a sharp 
run, and make your jump without fear or hesitation, increas- 
ing the distance jumped with each trial. A man ought 
to be always able to jump a distance nearly equal to his own 
height ; and, with a little practice, every healthy young man 
can. But the practice must be taken gradually and regularly, 
with sufficient training. 

Walking and Running. 

Walking is the most simple and the most natural exercise 
possible. To walk is to cause an alternate movement of the 
legs. The point of the toe is slightly turned out ; the thighs 
are held without stiffness ; the upper part of the body is 
kept steady, and a little in advance ; the arms fall naturally, 
without any contraction of the muscles, with an alternate 
movement of the right and left arms to the front. 

In Walking the weight of the body rests on one foot while 
the other is advanced ; it is then thrown upon the advanced 
foot while the other is brought forward ; and so on in suc- 
cession. Thus we see that we always rest on one foot in 
the process of Walking. In this mode of progression the 
equal distribution of motion is such that many muscles are 
employed in a greater or less degree, each acts in unison 
with the rest, and the whole remain compact and united. 



30 



WALKING. 



Hence the time of its movements may be quicker or slower 
without deranging the union of the parts or the equilibrium 
of the whole. It is owing to these circumstances that 
Walking displays so much of the character of the walker — 
that it is light and gay in women and children, steady and 
grave in men or elderly persons, irregular in the nervous and 
irritable, measured in the affected and formal, brisk in the 
sanguine, heavy in the phlegmatic, and proud or humble, bold 
or timid, and so on, in strict correspondence with individual 
character. A firm yet easy and graceful walk is by no means 
common. There are few men who walk well if they have not 
learned to regulate their motions by the lessons of a master ; 
and this instruction is still more necessary for ladies. Walking 
may be performed in three different times — slow, moderate, 
or quick — each pace somewhat modifying its action. 

The Slow Walk or March. — In this the weight of the 
body is advanced from the heel to the instep, and the toes 
are most turned out. This being done, one foot, the left for 
instance, is advanced, with the knee straight and the toe 
inclined to the ground, which it touches after the heel. 
The right foot is then immediately raised and similarly 
advanced, inclined, and brought to the ground ; and so on 
in succession. 

The Moderate Pace. — Here the weight of the body is ad- 
vanced from the heel to the ball of the foot ; the toes are 
turned well out, and it is the heel of the foot which first 
touches and first leaves the ground. In this step less of the 
foot may be said actively to cover the ground ; and this 
adoption of nearer and stronger aids of support and action is 
essential to the increased quickness and exertion of the pace. 
The mechanism of this fact has not been sufficiently attended 
to. People pass from a slow march to the quick pace they know 
not how, hence the awkwardness and embarrassment of their 
walk when their pace becomes moderate, and the misery they 
endure when, for instance, this pace has to be performed by 
them, unaccompanied. 

The Quick Pace. — Here the weight of the body is advanced 



31 



GYMNASTICS. 



from the heel to the toes, the toes are least turned out, and 
still nearer and stronger points of support and action are chosen. 
The outer edge of the heel first touches the ground, and the 
sole of the foot projects the weight. It is important to remark, 
as to all these paces, that the weight is successively more 
thrown forward, and the toes are successively less turned out. 
In the general walking of ladies the foot should be put 
forward without stiffness, in about the fourth dancing posi- 
tion, and without any effort to turn the foot out, as it throws 
the body awry. The arms should fall in their natural position, 
and all their movements and oppositions to the feet should 
be easy and unconstrained ; and the pace should be neither 
too slow nor too quick. The gait should be in harmony with 
the person, natural and tranquil, without giving the appear- 
ance of difficulty in advancing ; and active, without the 
appearance of being in a hurry. 

In regular Walking each step should be equal in length and 
speed. In quick Walking the pace can be gradually increased 
from 70 or 80 to 100 or 110 steps a minute. Five miles an 
hour is considered excellent Walking, though many professional 
pedestrians can accomplish seven, or even more. In April, 
1873, Mr. W. J. Morgan walked seven miles in the splendid 
time of 54 minutes 56 seconds. This feat was performed 
at the Amateur Championship Meeting at the Lillie Bridge 
Grounds, West Brompton, and is by more than half a minute 
the shortest time in which seven miles has been walked by 
an amateur. 

The Gymnastic Step requires more force and suppleness 
than the ordinary step. It is executed by raising the leg in 
such a manner that the thigh is horizontal and the leg vertical, 
the point of the foot being held very low. The Gymnastic 
Step is difficult and punishing at the commencement, but, 
with custom, it very soon ceases to fatigue you more than the 
ordinary step, and more completely exercises the muscles. 
Practised on inclined planes, it requires a muscular action 
more considerable than when it takes place on horizontal 
ground. If you ascend a hill the effort is made in a direction 



32 



WALKING. 



directly opposed to the general tendency of the body's gravity. 
The body is curved, the upper part a little in advance ; the 
action of the muscles of the leg and thigh is considerable ; 
the circulation of the blood and the respiration are accelerated 
by the violence of the muscular contractions. If you descend 
a hill it is just the reverse. The effort consists in holding 
up the body, which has a tendency to fall forward, and it is 
in order to moderate this tendency that you endeavour to 
throw forward your legs and hold back the upper part of 
your body ; the knees rather bent, the heels touching the 
ground, and the paces rather short. You must, in one word, 
assimilate, as it were, the action of the legs to that of the 
sticks of which travellers make use in mountainous countries. 
This kind of walking not only acts on the muscles, but exer- 
cises a beneficial influence on all the organs and functions 
of the body. 

In order to Walk backwards it is necessary to incline the 
upper part of the body a little back. The weight should 
principally be borne on the right leg ; the left leg, being 
raised and carried behind, touches the ground with the point 
of the foot first. Crossing the legs should be avoided. 

Eunning. — Foot-racing is a very important exercise, and one 
of the most difficult to sustain, if it is a question of rapidly 
running over a long distance. It is, however, only a very 
natural movement applied to the legs, and, backed by a firm 
will, the runner should be able to maintain it for a time more 
or less long. That which is the most fatiguing in running is 
not precisely the movement of the legs. Once that you have 
rushed forward, the body is carried in advance by virtue of 
the force acquired by the run ; the legs have, so to speak, 
nothing else to do than to maintain the equilibrium, and pre- 
vent the body from falling, as this often occurs if the foot 
strikes against any object on the ground. 

The greatest difficulty to overcome in impetuous and sus- 
tained Running is to accustom the diest to support the violent 
exercise to which it is subject. When you run a current of 
air always flies into the lungs, the blood circulates more 



33 



GYMNASTICS. 



quickly, respiration becomes more frequent, and the warmth 
of the body rapidly increases. But, by exercising yourself by 
degrees, you are not very long in accustoming yourself to this 
superabundance of air, and in a very little time the pressure 
on the chest and stomach almost dies away. You learn how 
to nurse, as it were, your strength at the commencement of 
your run. Accustom yourself to take regular paces, and you 




SUNNING. 

will be able to run over a very considerable distance. It is 
considered a good run to cover a mile in five minutes ; but 
there are very few, even among the professional runners, who 
can do eleven miles in an hour. I have myself accomplished 
ten miles within the hour, but I should find it difficult now 
to run six. Mills, Richards, Lang, and McKinstrie, the Scot- 
tish champion, have in their time accomplished great feats. 
Deerfoot, the so-called American Indian, was beaten by White, 



34 



RUNNING. 



of Gateshead, in a ten-mile race at Hackney Wick. Mills 
ran a mile in 4 minutes 20 seconds, which, until August, 1865, 
was the fastest mile run upon record. Lang and Richards, 
on the 19th of August, 1865, accomplished the extraordinary 
feat of running a dead heat in 4 minutes 17* seconds ; but 
the year before, Lang ran a mile, down-hill, in 4 minutes 2 
seconds, the fastest run ever known. This took place at New- 
market. In June, 1864, Mills ran a mile at the Royal Oak 
Park, Manchester, in 4 minutes 21 seconds, beating Lang by 
12 inches. McKinstrie ran half a mile in the wonderfully 
short space of 1 minute 58 seconds, in 1865, at Manchester ; 
and Albison ran a mile at the Copenhagen Ground, Man- 
chester, in 4 minutes 22 seconds. Amateur runners now 
very nearly approach these times. Mr. J. Scott, of the 
London Athletic Club, has run a mile in 4 minutes 32 
seconds, and four miles in 21 J minutes. In the Oxford 
and Cambridge Inter- University Sports, 1873, the mile race 
was run in the shortest amateur time on record — 4 minutes 
28 seconds ; this being only 10* seconds — or about 60 or 70 
yards in the mile — slower than the best professional time. 

And now as to the 'practical art of Running. The fore- 
arms and wrists are carried quickly and alternately to the 
front, in such a manner that the left arm moves with the 
right leg, and the right arm with the left leg. The heel 
scarcely touches the ground, to give to the step the necessary 
quickness and elasticity ; the body, inclined forward, pro- 
gresses without any movement of itself ; the head is carried 
a little forward. The most perfect uniformity should exist 
in the movements of the upper and lower extremities. 

Foot-races, in which it is a question of covering at the 
greatest speed a certain distance, are exercises which require 
that you should run in a very progressive and at the same 
time in a very cautious manner, as much for duration as for 
speed. They demand, also, certain precautions which should 
never be neglected. " I recommend you expressly," says an 
able gymnastic professor, M never to undertake long distances, 
unless you immediately afterwards enter a chamber or closed 



35 



GYMNASTICS. 



apartment, free from draughts of air. It is necessary to change 
the shirt, and, if need be, all the clothes, so as to avoid a 
crowd of little indispositions which generally come on through 
wearing damp or wet linen." The walker should be lightly 
dressed, and should wear shoes or slippers, without pressure 
on the ankles ; he should also be furnished with a belt, which 
should sustain the chest and lower part of the stomach. But 
he must not girt himself too tightly, for all his movements 
should be free. Long courses should not take place before 
three or four o'clock in the afternoon, or at least not till some 
time after meals, and in a good temperature. 

The Running Jump. — I have already shown the manner of 
jumping without a run ; but you can jump also in running, 
and here is the way in which it is done : — Taking his position 
preparatory to running, and starting off, the runner arrives at 
the point over which he is to jump ; he then quits the ground 
by vigorously pressing it with the foot which, at that very 
moment, was in advance of the other ; at the same time 
throwing his hands to the height of his shoulders, and in the 
same direction as that which he is about to take, he jumps 
over the space, reaches the ground in bending his lower 
extremities, and becomes upright again. These principles 
apply equally to the high jump, with this difference only, 
that in the second case the hands should be in front, in the 
same direction as that which the body takes to leap over the 
obstacle. 

There are two essential rules to be observed in the Running 
Jump : when the jumper throws himself forward he must 
employ all his vigour, so as to make abound as far as possible ; 
when he has thrown himself forward he must employ all his 
activity, in order to fall as softly as possible. If he fall on 
his heels, all the body receives a great shock ; the brain 
strikes against the bones which surround it, which may often 
result in injuries to the head. If he fall too much on his 
toes, he may, perhaps, sprain them. It is necessary, then, to 
contrive so as to fall on the sole or ball of the foot, and only 
to let the heel touch the ground afterwards. 



36 



THE RUNNING JUMP. 



When you jump only a short distance you sometimes fall, 
especially if the ground is at all uneven ; that is because you 
have not jumped high enough. It is necessary, then, when 
you make your spring, to do it in such a manner that at the 
moment when you fall to the ground your feet should be 
able to rest squarely on the soil. If you do not jump high 
enough you find yourself ricochetting like the stones with 
which children amuse themselves by throwing to skim on the 
water. But ricochets are no amusement for the jumper, who 
sometimes rises from the ground with a bruise on his face, or 
with grazed hands and arms. 



EXERCISES WITH IMPLEMENTS. 

Amongst the Gymnastic Exercises which may be executed 
with the aid of Portable Implements, we shall choose those 
which appear to us to give to the body the greatest suppleness 
and vigour. 

Pole-leaping. 

The pole which is used for this exercise should be of sound 
ash, rounded throughout its length, which should be in pro- 
portion to the height of the jumper and the space to be 
jumped over. It is advisable to practise this kind of jumping 
at first without a run. For this purpose he who is about to 
jump fixes the end of the pole into the ground in front of him, 
at a distance which may be gradually increased with the 
efforts of the jumper ; then he seizes the pole with his two 
hands — the top one a little above his head, and the lower one 
a little above the level of his hips. He springs off equally with 
both feet, throwing most of his weight upon his arms, and 
pushing himself forward as far as possible by bearing on the 
pole, which he then slackens, and falls to the ground, observ- 
ing the same principles we have already pointed out. In 
order to jump over a space with a run, he places himself at a 



37 



GYMNASTICS. 



certain distance from the space over which he is to leap, and 
after having seized the pole with his right hand a little above 
his head (the thumb in the air), and with his left hand a 
little above his thighs (the thumb downwards), he starts for- 
ward, holding the lower end of the pole in front of him. 
Arrived at the edge of the ditch, or whatever it may be, over 
which he is to leap, he sticks the pole in the ground before 




POLE-LEAPING. 



him, then, by a sudden and active effort, he raises his body, 
bearing his hands on the pole in such a manner as to turn it 
from the right-hand side to the left, and leaps the space, the 
body being nearly in a horizontal position ; he then reaches 
the ground by bending on the joints of the legs. The pole- 
leaper should at first practise at short distances, which he 
can gradually increase. 



38 



DUMB-BELLS. 



Dumb-bells. 

These instruments were used by the ancients in their Gym- 
nastics. Two masses of iron, generally spherical, united by a 
short wooden or iron rod, which the hand easily clasps, con- 
stitute the Dumb-bells : by means of these you can execute 
a multitude of varied exercises. The most simple of these 
exercises consists in alternately bringing the dumb-bells to 
the front and raising them to the height of the shoulder. 




DUMB-BELLS. 



To effect this, you hold at first the dumb-bell in your hand 
close to your thigh, remaining for a moment in this position. 
Then you raise the dumb-bells before you with jerking till 
they reach your shoulders, then bring them back again to the 
first position. Do this first with one arm and then with the 
other. In order to simultaneously raise the dumb-bells in 
front to the height of the shoulders, you hold them in the 



39 



GYMNASTICS. 



manner already described — that is to say, with the hands 
close to the thighs — then raise them both at the same time 
until they are on a level with the shoulders, and bring them 
back again. Eepeat this exercise continually. Other methods 
teach you to raise the dumb-bells alternately and simultaneously 
to the right and left, to the height of the shoulders ; to hold 
the dumb-bells straight out before you, and then to raise 
them up high ; to hold the dumb-bells for a time with the 
arms stretched out as horizontal as possible ; to imitate the 
boxer's motions, &c. 

Indian Clubs. 

The exercises with the Indian Clubs are of a more recent 
date than those with dumb-bells. They were introduced 
into Europe by a military officer, who had seen the Persians 
exercise with them. These exercises are performed alternately 
with the two hands, and sometimes simultaneously, with two 
instruments of a massive conical form, which in Persia are 
called nulo, and in India mugdaughs. They are very useful 
for increasing the muscular power of the arms and shoulders, 
opening the chest, and strengthening the hands and wrists. 
They have also the advantage of rendering the player with 
them ambidextrous, or two-handed — that is to say, of making 
the left hand as able and vigorous as the right, and enabling 
him to use one as readily as the other. As instruments of 
exercise they are as fitted for women and girls as for men and 
boys. Gracefully used, they give a good carriage and deport- 
ment, not always obtained by other means. Dumb-bell 
practice should precede the use of the Indian clubs. In 
beginning with the latter, take off your coat and cravat, 
loosen your braces and waistcoat, and put on a belt. Thus 
you will be free in all your movements. 

The most simple exercises with the Indian clubs consist 
in carrying them to the shoulder, sometimes with the right 
arm, sometimes with the left — in carrying the club before 
and behind, to the left and to the right. In the more difficult 
exercises you move the clubs alternately around the body, 



40 



INDIAN CLUBS. 



seizing them at first by the hand, and holding them parallel 
to the legs, the arms held down without stiffness, the clubs 
in a straight line with them. Then raise the right club, 
without the slightest jerk, in front and near to the body in the 
direction of the left shoulder, until the fore-arm passes the 
head, the club always remaining vertical. Then continue to 
pass the club behind the body, bringing it towards the right ' 




INDIAN CLUBS. 



shoulder, and letting it gradually descend to the ground. 
The same movement is repeated with the left club, by com- 
mencing to raise it towards the right shoulder, and so on 
continually. Practise all the movements slowly ; but when 
you have once familiarized yourself with the exercises you 
may execute them more quickly, always taking care that 
one club descends while the other ascends. 

[For further instructions in Dumb-bell and Indian Club 



J 



41 



GYMNASTICS. 



Exercises, I would refer you to Professor Harrison's able 
treatise in the Champion Handbook series. The subject 
is too important to be dismissed in the few remarks which 
the limit of this little volume enables me to make.] 

The Iron Bar. 

Exercise with the Iron Bar develops all parts of the body. 
The exercise consists in twirling and throwing the bar the 




THE IRON BAR. 



greatest distance. Any number of persons can engage in the 
contest, and it is no small feat to prove a victor in the sport. 
The weight of the bar should be in proportion to the strength 
of the player. This is the way in which it is played :— The 
competitor seizes the bar in the middle with his right hand, 
and brings his left foot in advance in such a manner as to 
allow it to firmly rest on his left leg. He then throws his 
right arm as far behind him as he can, the bar resting in a 



42 



THE IRON BAR. 



vertical position, and the left arm stretched out a little to the 
front. In this position he brings the bar straight in front of 
him, making it describe a horizontal half -circle, and holding 
it always vertical. He will then throw it back again, and 
bring it a second time to the front. Lastly, he will throw it 
back again a third time ; and this time he will hurl it with 
all his force, relinquishing his hold of it as soon as it arrives 
in front, in such a manner that it shall while flying along pre- 
serve its vertical position and fall endways on the ground. 
The greatest difficulty in this movement consists in maintain- 
ing the bar in a vertical position when it is thrown, while 
endeavouring to make it fly as far as possible. 



EXERCISES WITH FIXED AUXILIARIES. 

The Gymnastic Exercises which can be executed with the 
aid of Fixed Auxiliaries are as numerous as they are varied. 
The detailed description of all these would of themselves oc- 
cupy a volume ; I shall therefore only describe those which 
are most commonly practised in gymnasiums and play-grounds. 

The Suspension Bar. 
The exercises with the Suspension Bar are very useful, on 
account of the considerable development which they give to 
the muscular power of the chest. With perseverance and a 
wise gradation, they always produce the best results. The 
most simple exercise consists in suspending yourself by the 
hands, simultaneously and alternatively — that is to say, at 
first by both hands at the same time, then by the right hand 
only, then by the left hand only; the arms and the body 
always being stretched out at full length, the feet close toge- 
ther, the legs hanging down, and the head upright. There 
are various exercises which can be executed by means of the 
suspension bar — to raise the head above the bar by strength of 
the arms ; to hang by the bend of the arm, and by the bend 



43 



GYMNASTICS. 



of the knees and the arms ; to hang by the hands and advance 
to the left or to the right, hand over hand ; to hang by 




THE SUSPENSION BAR. 



the hands and jerk yourself to the right or to the left, &c. 
All these will soon become familiar to the amateur athlete. 

The Ladder. 
The first exercises practised by aid of the wooden Ladder 
do not offer any very serious difficulties. They consist of 
ascending and descending a ladder with the aid of the legs and 



44 



THE LADDER. 



hands, with the face turned to the ladder ; and of ascending 
and descending with the aid of the legs and hands, with the 
back turned to the ladder. Then come the exercises a little 
more difficult ; for example, ascending the ladder with the aid 
of the feet only, and descending by sliding down the ladder. 
In order to perform this exercise it is necessary, after having 
placed yourself before the lacder, the face to it, to put the 




THE LADDEB. 



left foot on the first round without touching the ladder at all 
with the hands ; to incline the upper part of the body a little 
forward, and raise the arms, bending them in such a manner 
as to preserve the equilibrium of the body. This position 
once taken, you raise the body by straightening the left leg ; 
the right leg is then brought on to the upper round, and you 
continue thus as far as the top of the ladder. Once arrived 



45 



GYMNASTICS. 



there, it is necessary to seize the uprights tightly with the 
hands, bending the arms a little, and then to twist the right 
foot round to the back of the right upright, and the left 
round to the back of the left upright. Each of the two 
hands clasps one of the uprights ; and then you slacken 
the hold of the legs and hands and slide to the ground. 

The principal and the best exercises, which can still be pro- 
gressively executed, are the following : to ascend the rounds 
and to descend them, by placing the hands, one after the 
other, on the same round ; to ascend the rounds and to de- 
scend them, by placing the hands, one after the Other, on a 
different round ; to ascend the rounds and to descend them, 
by jerks ; to ascend and descend by the two uprights, by 
jerks ; lastly, to pass from the front of the ladder to the back, 
and vice versa. 

Ropes and iPoles. 

These exercises are excellent aids to strength and agility. 
Let me first point out the way to ascend and descend a 
Knotted Rope. Lay hold of the rope as high up as you can, 
the hands one below the other, and close together ; raise 
the body by strength of arm, the heels both together, and 
the legs hanging down ; turn the feet round one of the 
knots, which will form a kind of rest for the body ; then 
seize the rope higher up ; and with these alternate movements 
of the hands and feet the body at last reaches the top of the 
rope. During these exercises you should avoid jerks and 
shocks. You descend the knotted rope by inverting the 
order of ascent. 

To Climb the Naked Rope is a little more difficult. It 
is necessary to grasp the rope with the right leg, by making 
it pass outside the leg from right to left, and in such a man- 
ner that the rope in turning round the leg presses against the 
calf and passes under the knee-joint. In order to get a point 
of support, you seize the rope with your hands, somewhat 
high up, and raise the body by making an effort of the arms 



4 6 



— that is to say, pulling yourself up — and letting the rope 
slip between your legs ; then as you press the rope again with 
your feet you are prevented from slipping down again. These 
alternate movements of the hands and feet bring the climber 
to the top of the rope. In order to descend, let the rope slip 
between your legs, bringing the hands down alternately, one 
beneath the other. 




CLIMBING THE HOPE. 



To Climb a Mast or Pole, you should grasp it with the 
hands as high as you can, the arms stretched round it, and 
the body upright ; then press the front of the mast tightly 
with your legs, at the inside of the right knee and the front 
of the right foot, while you keep the left tightly against the 
back of the mast, and raise your body by pulling yourself 



47 



GYMNASTICS. 



up by the arms, at the same time working with your legs. 
In order to descend, place your hands alternately to the 
height of your waistband, and then glide gently to the ground. 
The same principles are followed in climbing or descending a 
swinging pole. It is not very difficult to climb two parallel 




Climbing the polb. 

poles at the same time, supposing them to be not more than 
two or three feet apart. You must alternately pull yourself 
by each arm, keeping the legs close together, and taking care 
to lower the toes, so as to deaden the shock if you fall to the 
ground. The descent is made by reversing the mode described^ 
the principle being precisely the same. 



4 8 



PARALLEL BARS. 



Parallel Bars. 




Exercise with the Parallel Bars is one of the most common 
of the numerous feats practised in the gymnasium. They 
are very easy to perform on, and they are useful as aids to 
physical education. 

In the first exercise, the most simple of all, place the hands 
on the bars, the thumbs inside, the fingers close together 
on the outside, and the feet equally close together on the 
ground ; then make an effort of the arms, bearing strongly 
on the hands, and raise yourself by a little spring from the 
ground. Once raised, you can support yourself easily by the 
arms. Keep your body upright, with your feet down ; then 
swing forwards and backwards, making a little jump with the 
hands along the bars. 



49 



D 



GYMNASTICS. 



A second exercise consists of taking the same position, 
bending the arms, keeping the legs close together, a little 
bent behind, without the feet touching the ground ; now 
raise yourself by strength of arms, bend down again, and 
raise yourself once more. Continue the same movements at 
pleasure. You will soon gain sufficient strength and con- 
fidence to enable you to travel from one end of the bar to the 
other by alternate pressure and movement of the hands ; to 
travel by a series of little jerks or jumps on the hands ; and 




THE BALANCE. 

to balance your legs out straight in front, so that the whole 
of the body be out straight and only resting on the arms. 

Vaulting. — This is a rather more difficult operation. To 
vault from one side of the bar to the other it is necessary to 
place the two hands on the bars, to swing backwards and for- 
wards once or twice, and then to throw the legs over either 
side of the bars ; if over the right-hand bar, give yourself an 
extra propulsion with the right hand, so as to avoid the back 
or any other part of the body coming in contact with the bar. 
The same principles are observed for the left-hand bar and 
for the wooden horse. 



50 



THE TRAPEZE. 



The Trapeze. 




FIRST EXERCISE. 



Exercises on the Trapeze offer a series of important move- 
ments for the development of the chest, at the same time 
contributing to strengthen the wrist and shoulders ; they 
also accustom you to holding the head downwards without 
feeling inconvenience or giddiness. These exercises cannot 
be fully taught in books : by practice only can excellence in 
them be acquired. It will be sufficient to describe the most 
ordinary exercises on the trapeze ; all the rest will come with 
practice under the direction of an intelligent professor. 

First Exercise. — Place yourself under the trapeze, with the 
legs close together, raise your hands, seize the cross-bar at the 
width of your shoulders, and raise yourself by shortening the 



51 



GYMNASTICS. 



arms and bringing the chin to a level with the bar of the 
trapeze ; then still farther raise yourself, and at the same 
time incline your body forward in such a manner that it rests 
on the cross-bar, but the principal weight being on the arms. 
Swing backwards and forwards in this position. 

Second Exercise. — Place yourself under the trape*ze ; seize 
the cross-bar as before, placing the two hands on it at the 




TBAPEZE — SECOND EXEBCISE. 

width of the shoulders ; then raise the body off the ground by 
strength of arms. Throw back the shoulders, raise the legs 
in front, bending them in such a manner that they pass be- 
tween the arms and the cross-bar of the trapeze, at the same 
time stretching the arms as much as possible, in order to 
facilitate the passage of the legs. Then continue to let the 
legs descend, stretching them as far behind as possible. 



52 



After maintaining yourself in this position for awhile, slacken 
the hands, and fall softly to the ground, at the same time 
bringing the hands to the front. 

Third Exercise. — Raise yourself on the bar as before, taking 
the position as in the first exercise ; then raise yourself to the 
waist, stretch out the arms to their full length, seize the rope 
with the right hand, bearing on the right arm, and turn the 




TRAPEZE - THIRD EXERCISE. 



body, in order to seat yourself on the trapeze. Replace the 
right hand by the left, seize the other rope with the right 
hand, inclining the upper part of the body a little back ; 
shift the legs back until the cross-bar catches under the back 
of the knee-joints, the hands at the same time slipping down 
as far as the cross-bar ; then throw the body back, and leave 
go of the cross-bar with the hands. The body will now 



53 



GYMNASTICS. 



remain suspended by the knee-joints. After hanging in this 
manner, and swinging backwards and forwards for awhile, 
you should, while the trapeze is on the swing, leave go with 
the knees, and jerk yourself in such a manner as to fall to 
the ground on your feet. 

The Giant Stride. 

Most persons who have ever been in an out-door gymnasium 
are acquainted with the pole and ropes called the Giant Stride. 
The top of a strong mast is provided with a number of pul- 
leys like a windlass, from which hang a series of ropes, at the 
end of each of which is an iron or wooden handle. The 
giant stride is shown so plainly in the frontispiece that any 
detailed description of it is unnecessary. Two or three per- 
formers take each in their right hands one of the handles, and 
then, at a signal, run to the right or left as far as the rope 
will allow. The body is held upright, the right leg in advance. 
The performers, being at equal distances from one another, 
start off together from the left foot, and begin to throw them- 
selves forward, increasing each time the speed with each 
round. They should endeavour always to preserve the dis- 
tances between them by bearing strongly on the right arm 
and lightly touching the ground with their feet. Now and 
then the giant stride can be executed in several ways — 
towards the left by laying hold of the handle with the right 
hand and the rope with the left ; towards the right by holding 
the handle with the left hand and the rope with the right. The 
point to be arrived at is to make as many turns as one can 
without touching the ground with the feet. 



ROWING AS AN EXERCISE. 

There is no exercise in the world so exhilarating as Rowing, 
when properly performed. What sight is more grand, more 
exciting, more really beautiful than the 'Contest between the 



54 



ROWING. 



University eights ? Newspaper writers are continually telling 
us, year after year, that the style of each respective crew is 
" not at all up to the mark," " not at all good ;" " the time is 
bad," "the swing is bad," and so on ad nauseam ; implying 
that the general style of University Rowing is deteriorating. 
And yet these same reporters are gravely unanimous in 
chronicling the time in which the race is rowed. 

In Rowing, as in everything else, there is a right and a 
wrong way ; and yet there is scarcely a river in the world 
whose champions have not some special marks and characteris- 
tics. How different the North-country style and O.U.B.C. 
(Oxford University Boat Club) boats, or that of American 
and London Rowing. Yet each one vaunts its own, and 
the uninitiated continue to be puzzled at the different ways 
different crews have of Rowing. But even they are beginning 
to know that sheer physical strength is only a secondary 
element of success, and something further is required. Pro- 
pelling a boat must be governed by the ordinary rules of 
mechanics. A crew can never be as perfect as nicely regulated 
machines, which have no arms to tire and no breath to exhaust ; 
but it can, nevertheless, approach very closely to the standard, 
and the best style will be the nearest approach. The inquiry, 
then, is how to apply the greatest force with the least labour ; 
nor is the problem difficult of solution. All the real hard 
work of Rowing necessarily lies in pulling the oar through the 
water : the quicker this is done, the faster speeds the boat, but 
the greater becomes the exertion. Now, for this dash, weight 
is required ; and where the greatest weight can be thrown on 
will be the chief point for work, and that point is when the 
body is farthest in front of its work. In other words, the 
long forward reach is the only foundation for a strong pull. 
The stroke which enables men to work naturally with their 
bodies in the position most adapted for their work, although 
it does call out the greatest power, is at the same time far less 
trying than such jerky, spasmodic efforts as strain the body 
without producing anything like a corresponding effect on the 
boat. There is one more element : the forward motion must 



55 



GYMNASTICS. 



be slow in comparison with the backward ; without this, the 
sharp dash is impossible, save for a few strokes, the exertion 
being too severe. After hard work Nature demands rest; 
and here the beautiful harmony of good Rowing appears, in 
that rest and labour merge into one another. The best style, 
then, for speed and stay, is a long, slow reach forward, and a 
quick dash backward. A perfect stroke may be analyzed into 
the following motions : — 

1. The body to move slowly forward until at its farthest 
reach. 

2. There the hands to be slightly raised, that the blade may 
be lowered to the water. 

3. A momentary balance, and the body to dash itself 
backwards from off the stretcher until a little beyond the 
perpendicular. 

4. The oar to be brought well home to the chest by bring- 
ing the elbows well past the ribs. 

5. The wrists to be dropped sharply, and the hands to spring 
forward immediately till they are perfectly straight, before the 
body recommences motion No. 1. 

Keep your seat firmly ; bend your body gracefully to the 
stroke, with your feet firmly planted on the stretcher ; and 
feather your oar neatly as you bring it out of the water. 
Avoid jerking the body forward, if you wish to become a good 
oarsman, and do not dip too deep. Take the side of the stream 
when rowing against tide, for there you will find the least 
resistance. In meeting a boat, the one that has the tide in 
its favour must give way. In turning with sculls, back-water 
with the left hand, and pull with the right. In landing, bring 
the boat in slanting to the shore rather than bow in. In 
cutter-rowing, take time from the stroke-oar, and attend to 
the coxswain. Avoid crab-catching, by taking a sufficiently 
deep pull ; at the same time be careful that you do not waste 
your strength by pulling too deep and throwing up useless 
water. Keep your back straight, your arms ready, and your 
legs firm. Lastly, keep your temper — a most important 
caution in all in-door and out-door amusements. 



56 



SWIMMING. 



THE RATIONALE OF SWIMMING. 

Much has been written, both wisely and absurdly, about 
Swimming. As an exercise, however, it should hold a high 
place in the education of both sexes ; for it tends to strengthen 
the body and renovate the nervous system. The ancients 
held the art of Swimming in great esteem, and placed it, 
indeed, on an equality with polite literature ; so that when 
speaking of any one of deficient education, they said, " He 
has learned neither letters nor Swimming " — Neque litteras 
didicit neque nature. 

On the Continent, especially in the military and public 
schools, Swimming is taught as a regular Gymnastic Exercise. 
Be'rard, the inspector of the French gymnasiums, speaks thus 
of the methods pursued in the military colleges : — " It will 
appear surprising, perhaps, that Swimming is included amongst 
the number of exercises demonstrated in the colleges. One 
will be the more astonished to learn that the Swimming takes 
place more in the air than in the water. No part of Gym- 
nastics is more methodically taught in the military schools. 
Each of the different stages of natation is the object of a 
special study. You first learn the movements of the arms, 
then the legs, then the contractions of each of the arms with 
that of the corresponding leg, until at last, lying flat on your 
stomach on a stool, you execute with your four limbs at one 
time the proper movements of the swimmer." 

The faculty of sustaining the body in the water is not as 
natural to man as to the quadrupeds. Man does not swim 
instinctively, but he can be taught to do so in a few days ; 
and very little practice will give him confidence in the water. 
The first and most important requisite of the swimmer is 
confidence. Every lad should know that his body is specifi- 
cally lighter than the water, and that it is really almost 
impossible for the body to sink if left to itself. Plain 
Swimming is a perfectly easy and simple operation. In taking 
your first dip, do not attempt to jump in, but walk quietly 
till the water reaches your waist. Now " take a duck," so as 



57 



GYMNASTICS. 



to thoroughly wet your head and the whole of your body. 
You will soon get accustomed to the sensation, which is 
exceedingly agreeable in hot weather. Wade a little farther, 
till the water reaches to your shoulders ; then turn your face 
to the shore, and strike out. Keep your hands open, with 
the palms rather concave, and the fingers close together, so 
that no water can pass through them. Now lean with your 
chest on the water, and as you throw your arms forward 
your body will assume a horizontal position, just beneath 
the surface. With slow and steady action let the legs follow 
the motion of the hands, or rather act simultaneously with 
them. Then spread the hands so as to describe a half -circle, 
the elbows coming close to the body, and the hands to the 
chest. A few yards is all you will accomplish at first. If 
you feel any inconvenience by the water entering your mouth, 
close your lips, and it cannot get in. As you progress, 
the management of the breath will cause you neither trouble 
nor anxiety. Notwithstanding what you may read in books 
on this matter, just keep up your head, your body straight, 
your limbs extended, and your breath will take care of itself. 
Slow and steady is the rule in learning : swiftness will be 
certain to come by-and-by. 

Keep your head well up, and, in getting ready for each 
successive stroke, draw back the legs by a simultaneous 
motion. Keep the feet wide apart, with the toes well turned 
out ; and, as you send out the arms, kick the legs backwards 
and sideways to their full extent, keeping them separate till 
they have described as wide a circle as possible, the legs 
coming close together at the end of each stroke. Press against 
the water with the sole of the foot, and not with the toes, 
and then you will get a much better purchase, and make 
more easy and rapid progress. For you must recollect that, 
though the limpid water divides easily enough as your hands 
and feet pass through it, a real resistance is offered by it to 
the body of the swimmer ; and it is on this resistance you 
-must, to a certain extent, rely in propelling yourself forward. 
Without this simultaneous action of the arms and legs it is 



58 



SWIMMING. 



impossible to become a good swimmer. In propelling the 
body through the water it is of the utmost consequence to 
use the feet properly ; and to do so it is necessary so to 
turn the ankle-joint that, in drawing the leg up after the 
kick, the instep, or upper part of the foot, offers the smallest 
possible resistance to the water. This action of the ankle 
is exceedingly important, and is, indeed, one of the great 
secrets of good Swimming. 

If the young swimmer is at all nervous, he should get 
assistance from a friend rather than from corks, ropes, or 
bladders. A good assistant to the tyro, however, will be 
found in a heavy plank, on which he may rest his hands 
occasionally, and so sustain himself, or push it before him as 
he proceeds. There is no necessity for going out of your 
depth, for great depth of water is not necessary for ordinary 
plain Swimming. 

Swimming cannot be taught on paper, though you may 
get from books a few useful instructions. In a sea-girt land 
like ours it is curious that we should have so few good 
swimmers. In the busy life of great cities the art of Nata- 
tion is shamefully neglected ; and even in the army and 
navy Swimming forms no part, or only a very small part, of 
the young man's professional education. Why, as a people, 
do we neglect Swimming ? Not, certainly, for lack of water, 
for the country is well supplied with rivers and streams, and 
the great ocean is everywhere within sixty miles of our homes ; 
not from any natural distaste for water, for our boys love to 
paddle and bathe whenever and wherever they can ; not, 
certainly, for fear, for, among all the nations of the world, 
the Anglo-Saxons alone have entirely succeeded in making a 
friend, a servant, and a plaything of the sea ! 



CRICKKT AS AN EXERCISE. 

Best of all out-door games — the national game of England, 
indeed — Cricket stands high as a means of exercise. The lad 



59 



who plays Cricket regularly throughout the season needs 
but little training, for its practice is a course of the best 
training possible. In some form or other, Cricket has existed 
in this country for nearly four centuries. As a sport it is 
thoroughly manly, and therefore essentially British. It is 
impossible to conceive its decay, unless the national character 
should degenerate, and popular sports cease to be attractive. 
It is already so venerable as to claim a place among the most 
cherished and time-worn of our institutions. Although not 
so old as Magna Charta, it secures quite as much reverence 
on the part of the majority of those who love the traditions 
of their fathers. But respect for its antiquity has not pre- 
vented its undergoing a steady improvement. Like the 
British Constitution itself, it has been modified by the laws 
which experience and the ajtered circumstances of the times 
have rendered necessary ; and as long as it retains this flexi- 
bility, and the grave and youthful seigniors who administer 
its affairs exhibit the wisdom which is begotten of prudence, 
so long will it continue to thrive like the great system by 
whose example it has benefited. The principles of the game 
have remained the same for a long succession of years, but, 
after serious and weighty deliberations, new laws have from 
time to time been promulgated. More than this — like our 
political fabric, the institution of Cricket has found its way 
into other lands. It was a long time before it got into 
France. The gay and versatile Frenchman does not see 
the fun of hitting, running after, or trying to catch a 
ball all day long, with the thermometer at 90 degrees ; least 
of all does he care to stand with his hands in his pockets for 
six or seven hours, while others are broiling under the com- 
bined influence of a nearly tropical sun and of self-inflicted 
and exhaustive labours. He is not versed in the mysteries of 
bowling, wicket-keeping, long-stopping, and fielding. If he had 
been " to the manner born " — if he had entered the world 
with a bat in one hand and a ball in the other — the love of 
the game, and therefore the power of appreciating it, would 
have grown up with him ; but it is too much to expect that 



60 



CRICKET. 



the athletic youth of Paris will all at once embrace what is to 
them a new idea, and march off to the Bois de Boulogne to 
make the sylvan glade ring again with the echo of their vir- 
gin bats. Still a Paris Cricket club has been formed, and it 
is to be hoped that a good result will attend this effort to 
transplant to another soil what is, after all, an institution of 
peculiarly English origin and growth. 

The Germans are great in all athletic exercises — in run- 
ning, wrestling, and every gymnastic feat they vie with any 
nation in the world ; but Cricket has never been one of 
their national games, although the formation of one club in 
Homburg, and, I believe, of another in Baden-Baden, gives 
promise that one day the heroes of Lord's and the Oval will 
be able to pitch their wickets in the very heart of the Teuton 
nation. This would be a great day in the international 
history of Cricket. I should like to see an All-England 
Eleven pitted against an All- Germany Eleven ; or as many 
good bats of our two Universities making up a match with an 
equal number of such broad-shouldered and strong-armed 
young students as one may meet with at Bonn and Heidelberg. 
It would be a friendly contest, which would help to rub off 
some old prejudices without injury to life or limb. Not less 
pleasant is it to find that Italy, too, is borrowing our national 
game. But, after all, Cricket is; and must be for a long time 
to come, an almost exclusively British sport. Our Cricket- 
grounds will remain without a rival in foreign lands. The 
muscular force, combined with so much of true science, which 
we see exhibited on those broad, springy acres of turf, can 
only be acquired by the steady training of generations of 
players from childhood upwards. In England the ranks of 
the great players are fed from a thousand village clubs. 
During the summer months the green fields of every hamlet 
are dotted with cricketers, and once or twice at least in every 
season rival villages try their mettle in hard-fought conflicts, 
and endeavour to pluck, the one from the other, the laurels 
which the victorious alone can wear. Nor are the great towns 
behind the rural districts. Manchester, Sheffield, Nottingham, 



61 



GYMNASTICS. 



Canterbury, and Brighton make up county and All-England 
matches, which are every whit as successful as those which 
attract thousands to the regions of St. John's Wood and 
Kennington ; while Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Cheltenham, Marl- rf 
borough, and the other great schools, make up capital elevens 
every year. "What wonder then, that, wherever England 
establishes a colony, Cricket is the pastime of the earliest 
settlers, and prospers with their prosperity ! 



MILITARY GYMNASTICS. 

I now give a few brief explanations as to the Gymnastics 
practised generally in the Army, the rather that my readers 
may acquaint themselves with the facts than that they may 
practice the exercises, which are strictly provided for the 
training of soldiers. 

Indispensable requisites for a good soldier are, great activity, 
precision, and dexterity in all his movements. The ordinary 
exercises, however, are entirely insufficient to effect this 
physical training, being directed principally to the carriage of 
the person, the motions in rank and file, and the manage- 
ment of the weapons. In order, therefore, to render the 
soldier agile, and to increase his strength and muscle, the 
practice of Gymnastics, upon which the Greeks and Romans 
laid great stress, has now been made one of the objects of 
military instruction, and reduced to a species of system, such 
as is found most applicable to the wants of war service. 

The first exercises of Military Gymnastics relate to the 
right positions of foot, knee, hip, shoulders, arms, head, and 
the whole body, to render the limbs pliable and maintain the 
body in equilibrium ; upon which follow the staff and ball 
exercises, to strengthen the muscles of the breast, arms, and 
spine. The wheeling exercises, which succeed these, have 
for object to maintain the good carriage of the body, once 
acquired, in all directions, and that the wheelings should be 
made rapidly and with precision ; for which purpose the 



62 



MILITARY GYMNASTICS. 



exercises are continued in advancing, marching, and running, 
as well in straight line as in zigzag and curve, singly and in 
rank and file. 

The next exercises are in Leaping, partly free, partly with 
the leaping-pole — the leap in length, the leap in height, and 
the leap in depth ; and then the Swinging or Vaulting. 
The leaps on to and over the vaulting-horse are divided into 
longitudinal and cross leaps ; the first from behind, the last 
from one side. At first the effort is only to complete the 
leap by the assistance of the hand, afterwards without touch- 
ing with the hands. One of the most remarkable leaps is 
the Back Leap, where the leaper clears the saddle by a 
running jump, resting both hands upon the cantles. In 
rising, the legs are stretched wide, with the toes pointed 
outwards, so that one leg passes over the crupper, the other 
over the 'neck of the horse, without touching him. The 
hands then let go the cantles, and the deseent is made with 
the legs close together, the back towards the horse. If it is 
desired to render the leap more complicated, the half -turn 
can be made at the same time, bringing the face towards the 
horse in alighting. Very difficult, also, are the Half and 
"Whole Thief's Leap. The Half-thief's Leap is made by a 
run directly towards the saddle ; then, at the distance of a 
half to two paces from it, springing up with the left foot 
alone, bringing the right shoulder, by a turn, directly over 
the middle of the saddle, the well- extended right leg, with 
the toes pointed forwards, raised so high as to clear it entirely, 
and ending in the saddle. The right leg must not be swung 
over the crupper, but must go directly forwards ; the hands 
are not rested, and must not touch the horse, so that the leap 
is sometimes made holding at the same time one or two flags 
or muskets. 

In the Full Thief's Leap the spring is made also on the 
left foot alone, but in rising the right is brought up as well, 
and the leaper passes entirely over the saddle without touch- 
ing it, and comes down on the other side of the horse. This 
leap also is made with flags or muskets, and the half -turn 



63 



GYMNASTICS. 



can be made in it likewise, so that in alighting the face is 
towards the horse. 

After Vaulting come Bathing and Swimming, in which 
the soldier is practised, not merely in the ordinary swimming 
and treading water, but also in swimming with the full equip- 
ment and carrying the weapons ; in exercising and firing while 
in the water ; in riding upon the swimming horse in rank 
and file ; and he is taught also how to proceed in rescuing 
persons from drowning. {See Champion Handbook, " Swim- 
ming.") 

So soon as these exercises are completed, the men pass 
to the Beam on the Ground, the Balancing Beam, and the 
Hanging Beam. 

The first exercises only teach the man to preserve his 
equilibrium, even under the most difficult circumstances, and 
at the same time not to lose the proper carriage of the body. 
But when the soldier comes upon the balancing beam he is 
raised above the ground, and must in the beginning maintain 
his equilibrium by means of his outstretched arms, until 
after a time he learns to keep it with his arms folded, is even 
able to step over objects held in front of him, or to stoop 
down and remove things which are lying upon the beam ; 
and at the end of the beam to turn round, or to go back- 
wards, and pass another person on the beam. Then follow 
exercises in balancing on one foot, with the other hanging 
down, changing the feet, and thus moving forward ; and, 
finally, exercising with the musket upon the beam, which, of 
course, is placed higher and higher, as the men acquire 
greater confidence. Lastly, comes marching with the whole 
equipment upon the beam, at first when supported, and 
finally when suspended from ropes at each end of the hanging 
beam. 

The exercises in Climbing are very various, The men 
climb first upon a rope-ladder with wooden rungs, then upon 
the common rope-ladder, carried obliquely to the beam : this 
climbing is at first with both hands and feet, afterwards with 
the hands alone. Then come exercises upon the free hanging 



64 



rope with wooden rungs inserted, then on a rope which has 
only knots instead of rungs, and finally on the smooth rope ; 
all of these exercises being also with the hands alone, and 
on the rope stretched obliquely, in which, at first, to guard 
against accident, particularly where the climber is using the 
hands alone, an assistant is employed, who supports the 
climber by means of a rope passing over a roller. The same 
exercises are made also between two ropes stretched in the 
same manner. Then begins climbing on the ladder-pole, an 
upright pole through which rungs are inserted in the ladder 
form, or in a spiral line ; and this leads to climbing on the 
smooth pole, of five to seven inches in diameter, which is 
grasped by the hands, one above the other, and at the same 
time between the calf of one leg and the shin-bone and 
ankle-joint of the other (see p. 43). The beam elevated on 
posts is crossed by the climber, either sitting upon it, as on 
a horse, or crosswise, and moving forward by the use of one 
or both hands. In this exercise the climber has two ropes 
fastened to rings on a girdle round his waist, and passing on 
each side of the beam to the ground, where they are held by 
two men, to support him in case he loses his balance. These 
exercises can also be made hanging, or in other positions. 
Climbing on a ladder with moveable rungs is a peculiar 
exercise. The ladder consists of two ladder-rails, which are 
grooved on the inner side, so that the rungs can be pushed 
up and down between the two rails. In the middle hangs a 
rope passing through holes in the rungs, and having a knot 
for each rung to rest upon. The climber clasps the ladder- 
rails with his arms, and ascends the rungs with his feet for 
their assistance. The common ladder is mounted while 
standing obliquely, at first with both hands, then with the 
face turned outwards and the hands resting on the ladder 
behind the back ; then only one hand is used, while some- 
thing is carried in the other ; and finally the ladder is 
ascended and descended without the use of the hands at all. 
In this assistants are required at first, who keep hold of a 
rope, which passes over a roller and is fastened to the waist 



6$ E 



GYMNASTICS. 



of the climber, before or behind, to preserve his equilibrium. 
These exercises can be variously modified ; as, for instance, 
by two persons passing each other on the ladder ; by ascend- 
ing on the front and descending on the back ; by overreaching 
one rung ; by ascending and descending on the inside ; and 
at last with the hands alone, the body hanging free in the 
air ; or with hands and feet in the same rung at once. 

In all these last exercises an assistant is required at first 
with a rope, which sustains in part the weight of the body, 
until the muscles of the arms have attained the necessary 
strength. To this class belongs also the mounting and 
descending a ladder, carrying a load on the back, and without 
the use of the hands, with the aid of an assistant. The last 
of the climbing exercises is mounting the perpendicular ladder 
and descending on the other side, after passing round the 
ladder-rail at the top : this may be done also with the hands 
alone, after sufficient practice. The next exercise is climbing 
a wall by means of small orifices made for the purpose. In 
a wall openings are made, six inches long and four high, and 
from six to eight inches distant from each other ; the climber 
places his hands and feet in these alternately, and thus 
mounts or descends the wall. To these exercises belongs 
also the mounting of a wall by means of a pyramid of twelve 
persons ; the thirteenth is brought in position to surmount 
the upper angle of a wall from twenty to twenty-two feet 
high ; if the wall is lower, then two, six, or more men are 
sufficient. It is necessary always to take care that in the 
lower stages only the strongest men are placed. Narrow 
ditches are overleaped without assistance, wider ones by 
means of the leapmg-pole ; if still wider, and there are 
strong beams to lay over them, they are crossed as in sieges ; 
if the beams are weaker, with the body in a horizontal position, 
sitting aside or crosswise ; or a rope can be stretched across 
and fastened to a higher point on the opposite side, upon 
which men then clamber over. A wall can be scaled by 
means of the pyramid, of more or fewer men, according to 
the height; or by the climbing-poles, the knotted rope, 



66 



MILITARY GYMNASTICS. 



or the rope-ladder. When the top is reached, the descent on 
the other side is made by leaping down from small eleva- 
tions, or else knotted ropes or rope-ladders are fastened to 
props or hooks, and the men climb or are lowered down by 
these. 

Corporeal Exercises. — These are designed to give greater 
flexibility to the body. They consist, first, of exercises in 
running and swinging with a rope, which, fastened to an 
elevated point at one end, is outstretched by the man who 
holds it at the other, going backwards until he just touches 
the ground with his toes. In this position the running in a 
circle and various other running and swinging exercises are 
performed. Another of these exercises is the swinging over 
a ditch or river. A frame is erected on one bank, of a height 
proportionate to the breadth of the stream, and in this a 
hook is fixed, from which ropes are hung. The man who 
desires to leap over the stream steps upon a somewhat elevated 
platform, takes one of the ropes and holds it so that the end 
hangs loose over his back, while he grasps the rope with both 
hands outstretched, and leans backwards as far as possible. 
He then lifts his feet, and thus leaves his standing-place, swing- 
ing, pendulum-like, forward to the other side of the obstacle, 
upon reaching which he lets go of the rope and goes on his 
way, the rope falling back again to the side whence he came. 
Exercises of the bars and the horizontal pole form a very 
important part of these corporeal exercises. The bar on which 
the first is made consists of two beams fixed upon posts, 
not very far apart, and in such a manner that they can be 
raised or lowered according to the height of the exercisers. 
The exercises are various. The horizontal pole is a peculiar 
apparatus. Of the numerous exercises upon this, we shall 
mention only the under- grip, in which the pole is grasped 
in such a manner that both thumbs are not turned to the 
same side, but away from each other and outwards ; while 
the hands seize the pole on the outside and from below 
upwards. 



67 



GYMNASTICS. 



CONCLUDING REMARKS. 

The most convenient times for practising Gymnastic Exer- 
cises are the morning and evening. Immediately after meal- 
times such practice may be injurious to digestion. In the 
middle of the day the heat is too great in summer to allow of 
much robust exercise of this kind. An infallible and very 
simple sign of the exact amount of exercise which we should 
take is the appetite. If the appetite is good, if the digestion 
works well, we cannot take too much exercise ; but if the 
appetite falls off, it is necessary to moderate the exercise, for 
it is a proof that it has changed to fatigue. 

Another rule, not less important, is not to employ all our 
strength at the beginning or at the finish of an exercise. We 
should proceed gently, increase gradually, and end moderately. 
This plan of operation is useful in order to avoid the sudden 
cooling of the body. "We need not fear putting ourselves in 
a perspiration when in the middle of the exercises, but it is 
necessary to avoid getting in a great heat at the end. In all 
cases it is advisable to change the clothes after practice. 
The garments worn during the exercises should be large and 
loose. Take care not to carry money, knives, &c, in the 
pockets, as they may be lost or cause accident. A belt is 
useful to protect the abdomen, strengthen the chest, and save 
yourself from wrenches arising from any awkward movement. 
Do not sit on the ground during or after exercise. Whilst 
hot, neither drink cold water nor wash the face ; and when 
you conclude your exercises clothe yourself well, and do not 
remain standing about idly. 

Our youths have their athletic exercises, such as run- 
ning, jumping, and cricket — cricket best of all ; but adults 
should by no means neglect Gymnastics. In every village, 
town, and city I would have a public gymnasium, where all 
might indulge in the free and uncontrolled exercise of their 
limbs ; and so, in these " degenerate modern times," we might 
rival the Olympic Games of the ancients. 



68 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES, 



I.— INTRODUCTORY. 

Physical training lias of late years come to be con- 
sidered, and rightly so, as a necessary adjunct of the 
education of youth. Various are the means adopted, 
hut one result only is ohtained — namely, strength, and 
the right use of the limbs. Whether the means consist 
of running, walking, climbing, leaping, vaulting, skating, 
swimming, riding, driving, cricket, rowing, or the feats 
pertaining to the gymnasium, the object is equally 
desirable and equally beneficial. But among the aids 
to physical education patronised by teachers in our 
higher scholastic establishments, the Mugdah, or Indian 
club, is now admitted to be one of the most efficient. 
By the instructions following, I hope to enable all my 
readers to practise for themselves, and so obtain the 
necessary training. It is hardly necessary to say much 
in favour of bodily strength ; for all writers, thinkers, 
and teachers admit that the cultivation of body and 
mind should proceed simultaneously. You know the 
old Latin proverb — Mens sana in corpore sano ; and few 
will dispute that to possess a sound mind in a sound 
body is the greatest of blessings. 

II.— PRELIMINARY TRAINING. 

It is a matter of common remark that many per- 
sons have, by too precipitately "going in" for hard 
exercise, seriously injured their health for life. Why is 
this ? The fault, assuredly, is not that of the particular 
exercise in question, but their own. 



69 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



I will explain my meaning more fully. Take the case 
of a somewhat delicate boy, of sedentary habits, we will 
suppose, who, hearing his friend talking of As power 
of swinging from a bar in a gymnasium, or B 1 s great 
development of muscle, as evinced by his ability to go 
through the Indian club exercise with the heavier clubs, 
resolves to emulate such feats forthwith. He goes at 
once to a gymnasium, and, supposing the gymnastic in- 
structor is injudicious enough to suffer it, injures his 
constitution by attempting too much before, by a mild 
course of previous training, he is able to accomplish 
even a very little properly. The consequence is, his 
end is not answered ; and his relatives say, "Oh, this 
comes of these violent exercises ! " Is this fair ? As- 
suredly it is not. 

No boy, save in some exceptional cases of great con- 
stitutional powers, should attempt gymnastic feats 
otherwise than by degrees ; and before commencing the 
exercise of the Indian clubs it is well for amateurs to 
improve their general health, if at all delicate, and 
harden their muscles, by walking, running, leaping, 
swinging by the arms, and lifting moderate weights. 
And perhaps, of all exercises fitted for the aforesaid 
preliminary training, none is better than walking ; but 
even that must not be abused by excess. 

As I am not here writing for professionals, but for 
amateurs, I will content myself by laying down a few 
simple rules, by following which you will soon find 
yourself in a fit condition to become an adept at the 
Mugdah, or Indian club. I will suppose that you are 
not entirely master of your own time, but that at any 
rate you can go to bed and get up early, without which 
any really beneficial training is almost next to an im- 
possibility. I will suppose, in summer you can get up, 
say at six o'clock ; have your cold bath, or, if you have 
not that convenience, a good sluice all over with cold 
water, and a hard rub down with a rough towel till your 
flesh is in a glow, will do nearly as well ; and then have 
your breakfast, which should consist, if you take meat, 
of good plain roast or boiled beef or mutton, rather 
under-done, stale bread, and a cup of tea. An egg beat 
up in tea is a very good thing. As soon as you have 



70 



given this time to digest, start for a walk, going at a pace 
which is easy to you. Your speed you can increase day 
after day as your condition improves, till you will find, 
in a very few weeks, that walking five miles in one hour 
is almost as easy as walking four was previously. I am 
not teaching you how to become a pedestrian, remember ; 
that is no part of my province now. All I want to im- 
press upon you is, that ere you enter upon your Indian 
club exercise it is well you should get into fair health, 
and walking will do this for you as soon as anything I 
know, as a preliminary. 

As to diet, your own common sense, and not your in- 
clination, must be consulted. If you cannot make up 
your mind to deny yourself certain articles of food 
which experience tells you are unwholesome, you will 
never become a proficient in the use of the Mugdah. If 
you can, you will soon reap the inestimable benefits to 
your mental as well as bodily health to be derived 
from it. Avoid stimulating liquors, or use them very 
sparingly, giving sound malt liquor the preference. Too 
much liquid of any kind is bad for wind and muscle 
alike. Against tobacco I need hardly warn any sensible 
young aspirant to gymnastic honours. No man ever 
trained on it yet to profit. As far as you are able, avoid 
spices, salt provisions, and seasonings. 

Be regular, in your preliminary training, as to the 
time at which you take and the duration of your 
exercise. If at the commencement of your walking you 
find yourself puffy, with too much flabby flesh about 
you, do not be in too great a hurry violently to get it 
off by purgatives and hard exercise on a sudden. The 
former will, of course, in some cases be, in moderation, 
of service ; and remember this especially, it is always a 
bad thing to take exercise while medicine is in operation. 
In fact, the less physic taken the better. A little Epsom 
salts, a couple of antibilious pills, a dose of castor-oil or 
of salts and senna, will probably be most suitable. 

Do not take your walk before breakfast if you find 
yourself in any way faint on going out with an empty 
stomach ; and if you would soon get into condition, 
always after the exercise taken has brought out perspira- 
tion on your skin, strip and give yourself a good dry 



n : 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



rub ; the pleasurable sensation produced thereby will of 
itself alone reward you for the trouble. 

As to the time of feeding, the earlier you have your 
breakfast the better, and if you can dine at mid-day do 
so ; if you cannot, take a biscuit for lunch and a glass 
of good sound ale, and no more. Avoid anything ap- 
proaching to a heavy supper as carefully as you would 
taking hard exercise on a full stomach. In the one 
case you would get the nightmare, in the other you 
would injure your wind, and in both your digestion. 

Attend particularly to the state of your stomach, and 
accommodate your diet to its circumstances. If you find 
a small portion of fresh vegetables, such as greens, or 
mealy potatoes, suit you, do not deny yourself these. 
If you find when taking really good exercise that an 
extra pint of ale in the course of the day really improves 
your condition, by all means have it. You want to get 
into good health, not to make a martyr of yourself. 

If you feel worried in your mind, exercise will nearly 
always be found, if not entirely to remove, at any rate 
to ameliorate your anxiety. Many a man, who otherwise 
would have sat at home nursing his grief unavailingly, 
has by a little brisk exercise increased the flow of his 
spirits, improved the action of his liver — and all people 
with sluggish livers are prone to melancholy— and caused 
himself to take a more hopeful and wholesome view of 
his circumstances. 

What can be effected by systematic training is some- 
thing wonderful. Boys and men, at first puny, delicate, 
wheezy, pale-faced, feeble mortals enough, have become, 
merely by attending to a few simple rules, strong, hale, 
active, ruddy, and in full enjoyment of all their faculties, 
half of which, till they discovered that exercise was to 
them the one thing needful, and as such their best 
physician, were completely lost to them. I will venture 
unhesitatingly to say, that hundreds of young people 
who in great cities annually die of consumption, could 
they only have been persuaded to put themselves 
through a little mild training, and then through a course 
of Indian club exercises, would have lived to thank him 
who gave them the advice. 

To persons of sedentary occupations which necessarily 



72 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



tend to contract the chest, and so to lessen the requisite 
quantity of air they should get into their lungs, the use 
of the clubs is invaluable. The clubs can be made at 
a very low figure, and the doctor's bill will be de- 
creased. 

Having exercised the muscles of your legs by walking, 
running, &c, lifting light weights is a good beginning 
ere you " go in " for a course of clubs. Then comes the 
swing, which you can easily rig for yourself. This 
you will find opens the chest, and, as you can suit the 
work taken with it to your strength, there is no risk of 
doing yourself harm thereby. 

I recommend these things for two reasons : firstly, 
because, of course, I know that proficiency with the clubs 
will more readily be obtained by a person who by walk- 
ing, swinging, lifting light weights, &c, has got himself 
into fit condition to do really good work with them — and 
there is a right way and a wrong way of setting to work 
with the Mugdah as with everything else ; and, secondly, 
because 1 do not wish anybody who, neglecting my 
foregone advice, takes up the clubs, uses them clumsily, 
tires his arms, back, and loins uselessly, and when he 
puts them down finds himself no better, but, on the 
contrary, rather the worse for his trouble, to run away 
with the impression that the Mugdah is only fit for 
professionals, and better avoided by all who do not want 
stiff, or possibly strained muscles. 

It is but common sense that if a person who, after 
sitting all day at a desk, or dissipating half his night in 
bad atmospheres and bad company, adopts any course of 
gymnastics without the least attention to previous pre- 
paration, he will suffer for it. If the heart, through any 
unwholesome mode of life, is suddenly shocked into a 
more violent action than its valves can bear, the con- 
sequences are obvious. It is like overwinding a watch, 
or overloading a gun that is made of steel of insufficient 
temper to bear the extra strain upon it. 

No person, be he man or boy, if he has neglected 
proper attention to regularity of diet, sleep, and exercise, 
can hope to become a new creature all at once. But 
perseverance will remedy most evils of this kind, if not 
of too old a growth. A month's quiet preliminary 



73 



training, if a man have no organic disease about him, 
will work marvels. The eye that before was dull, 
heavy, bilious-looking, weak, and watery, will soon grow 
bright and clear with the keen, confident glance of 
health. The complexion that before was muddy, spotty, 
unhealthily red, or pale, or sallow, will assume the clear, 
fair hue of good condition. The skin will improve in 
like manner ; the quickness with which perspiration 
dries on rubbing with towels after exercise is a good test 
of such improvement. The muscles that before were 
mere flabby, useless sinews, miserably shrunken from 
nature's originally fair proportions, will enlarge per- 
ceptibly day by clay, and the man or boy who but a 
short while ago slouched along almost as though the 
least exertion were a dreary trouble to him, will find 
his chest broader, his respiration more free, his legs, 
arms, back, and loins stronger, and the mere feeling that 
he is alive and well, strong and hearty, of itself will be 
a pleasure such as none but those who have experienced 
it ever knew. 

Speaking in this sense of the advantages derivable 
from the use of a swing for the arms, an eminent medical 
man thus writes : — 

" I wish to say a few words to whom it may concern, 
on the use of the swing, as a preventive and cure of 
consumption. I mean the suspending of the body by 
the hands, by means of -a rope or chain fastened to a 
beam at one end, and at the other a stick three feet long, 
convenient to grasp with the hands. The rope should 
be fastened to the centre of the stick, which should hang 
six or eight inches above the head. 

" Let a person grasp this stick with the hands about 
two feet and a half apart, and swing very moderately at 
first, and gradually increase as the muscles gain strength 
from the exercise, until it may be freely used three or 
four times a day. 

"The connection of the arms with the body (with the 
exception of the clavicle with the shoulder-blade and 
sternum or breast-bone) being a muscular attachment to 
the ribs, the effect of this exercise is to elevate the ribs, 
and enlarge the chest ; and, as nature allows no vacuum, 
the lungs expand to fill up the cavity, increasing the 



74 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



volume of air — the natural purifier of the blood — and 
preventing the deposit of tuberculous matter. I have 
prescribed the above for all cases of bleeding from the 
lungs and threatened consumption for thirty-five years, 
and have been able to increase the measure of the chest 
from two to four inches within a few months, and always 
with good results. 

" Let those who love life cultivate a well-formed, capa- 
cious chest. The student, the merchant, the sedentary, 
the young of both sexes — ay, all — should have a swing 
upon which to stretch themselves daily, and I am morally 
certain that if this were to be practised by the rising 
generation, in a dress allowing a free and full develop- 
ment of the body, thousands, yea, tens of thousands, 
would be saved from consumption." 

I? I w T ere asked to answer in what in my humble 
opinion lies the true secret of health, I should frankly 
answer in two words — exercise and moderation. 

As I do not suppose many of my readers are likely to 
become professional athletes capable of extraordinary 
feats to set London staring, after the manner of Leotard, 
Olmar, &c, I have not thought it necessary to go into 
more lengthy details on training. 

It is not necessary for a young man or boy to be 
able to wield dumb-bells of seventy pounds weight 
each, any more than it is necessary for him to be able 
to walk twenty-one miles under three hours, clear 
twenty-two feet at a running jump, or run a mile on the 
flat in four minutes and a half. 

But it is well that every Englishman, not afflicted 
with any unavoidable infirmity, should have the use of 
the muscles God gave him ; and to this end I know of 
few if any better means than the adoption of my system 
hereafter laid down for you. 

I may, moreover, remark with reference to pedestri- 
anism, that while walking and running undoubtedly 
strengthen the lower limbs, the clubs not only do this, 
but do more : they strengthen the legs partially, the 
loins greatly, and the muscles of the arms and back 
enormously. 

Again, to look at the matter in a mere business point 
of view, it is not every one who can afford to give as 



75 



- 

INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



much time to pedestrianism, as a general practice, as 
may be required. A long walk takes persons engaged in 
business too far away from their shops or offices. But 
this will not apply to the clubs ; as almost any man 
who can afford the first outlay can find time every day 
at some hour to take a little wholesome exercise with 
them. If he does so, he will also find, after a while, 
that when he goes to his work again he is twice as good 
a man as he was before. 

At the risk of being accused of making the observa- 
tion at a somewhat awkward place in this little treatise, 
I will here mention that a well-fitting belt round the 
waist will be found of great assistance in all athletic 
sports. But you must not wear too wide a belt, or gird 
it too tightly, or the chest and abdomen will be unduly 
compressed. It is hardly necessary to say that* the 
figure attained by the acrobat is not desirable for a gen- 
tleman. The belt should be placed on the loins so as to 
support the trousers without braces. An ordinary India- 
web belt, with straps and buckles, is sufficient for the 
Indian club and most other athletic exercises. 

We see that in regular training the healtn of the 
stomach, the limbs, and the skin are all attended to. 
Two or three months of training may be followed by 
such sports as cricket, golf, quoits, or bowls ; the occa- 
sional indulgence in which, combined with regular 
walking and running, will be found sufficient to keep 
the body in good condition — the muscles hard and firm, 
the limbs supple, the chest expanded, the head erect, 
and all the faculties clear and well balanced. The food 
here recommended, and the regimen proposed, are, in 
fact, the grand secrets of the training system. Avoid 
drugs, than which nothing is so injurious to the really 
healthy man while undergoing a regular system of 
training. I, for one, do not believe in the efficacy of 
Epsom salts and other drastics, though I know that 
they are largely used by jockeys and some pedestrians, 
who find it necessary to reduce themselves to a given 
weight in a short space of time. All the efforts of the 
trainer should be directed to the reduction of fat and 
the hardening of the muscular fibre ; but for gentle- 
men there is no necessitv for the use of blankets and 



7 6 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



the coriander-seed liquor. All that is really required is 
exercise systematically pursued. After a few weeks it 
will be found that the skin becomes soft, smooth, and 
elastic, the flesh firm, and the spirits light and 
cheerful. 



III.— THE OLD AND NEW SYSTEM OF TRAINING. 

In the " good old times" — which often strike me as 
having been very bad old times — when a man had to 
walk a match, or run a race, his trainers used to physic 
and sweat him, till the poor fellow was worn to mere 
skin and bone, and had no elasticity of limb or spirit 
left in him. Thift plan was all very well, perhaps, for 
attaining endurance, though even this is an open 
question ; but it was destructive to health in the long 
run, and certainly is not the sort of thing to recommend 
to parents and guardians. The new system has, how- 
ever, almost abolished physic. Training, considered as 
a means of getting the body into a condition to perform 
certain feats of activity and strength, somewhat out of 
the usual and ordinary course of most men's lives, is 
now-a-days a much more simple and sensible matter. 

The late Charles Westall, in his little book on Train- 
ing, gives some excellent hints on this -subject, which 
I venture to reproduce for the benefit of my young 
readers. His notions, as will be seen, are much the 
same as my own ; and, although I am not addressing 
my friends as professional walking men infuturo, I am 
glad he and I agree in many things, and I may here 
observe that, though it will not be necessary for them 
to go through as much work as he suggests, they never- 
theless will do well to bear his admonitions in mind. 

"The first and primary aim ought to be the endea- 
vour to prepare the body by gentle purgative medicines, 
so as to cleanse the stomach, bowels, and tissues from 
all extraneous matter, which might interfere with the 
ability to undergo the extra exertion it is his lot to take 
before a man is in a fit state to struggle through any 
arduous task with a good chance of success. 

" The number of purgatives recommended by trainers 



77 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES, 



are legion, but the simpler will always be found the 
best. The writer has, in all instances, found that a 
couple of antibilious pills at night, and salts and senna 
in the morning, answer every purpose. It is reasonable, 
however, to suppose that any one who has arrived at 
sufficient years to compete in a pedestrian contest has 
found out the proper remedies for his particular internal 
complaints. The internal portion of the man's frame, 
therefore, being in a healthy condition, the time has 
arrived when the athlete may commence his training in 
proper earnest, and if he be bulky, or of obese habit, he 
has no light task before him. If he has to train for a 
long-distance match, the preparation will be almost 
similar, whether for walking or running. 

" The work to be dene depends very much on the 
time of the year. In the su aimer the man should rise 
at six in the morning, so that after having taken his 
bath, either shower or otherwise, there will have been 
time for a slow walk of an hour's duration to have been 
taken before sitting down to breakfast, that is, if the 
weather be favourable ; but if otherwise, a bout at the 
dumb bells, or half an hour with a skipping-rope, 
swinging trapeze, or vaulting-bar, will be found not 
unfavourable as a good substitute. Many men can do 
without having any nourishment whatever before going 
for the morning's walk, but these are exceptions to the 
rule. Most men who take the hour's walk before 
breaking the fast feel faint and weak in their work after 
breakfast, at the commencement of their training, and 
the blame is laid on the matutinal walk ; when, if a 
new-laid egg had been beaten in a good cup of tea, and 
taken previous to going out, no symptom of faintness 
would have been felt, although it is probable some 
fatigue would be felt from the unwonted exertion. 
The walk should be taken at such a pace that the 
skin does not become moist, but has a good healthy 
glow on the surface, and the man should be ready for 
his breakfast at eight o'clock. The breakfast should 
consist of a good mutton-chop or cutlet, from half a 
pound upwards, according to appetite, with dry bread at 
least two days old, or dry toast, washed down with a cup 
or two of good tea (about half a pint in all), but with 



7 8 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



little and, if possible, no milk. Some give a glass of 
old ale with breakfast, but it is at this time of the 
day too early to introduce any such stimulant. After 
having rested for a sufficient time to allow the process 
of digestion to take place, the time will have arrived 
for the work to commence which is to reduce the 
mass of fat which at this time impedes every hurried 
action of the muscle and blood-vessel. This portion 
of the training requires great care and thought, for 
the weight of clothing and distance accomplished at 
speed must be commensurate with the strength of the 
pedestrian. At the commencement of the work a sharp 
walk of a couple of miles out, and a smart run home, are 
as much as will be advisable to risk. On the safe 
arrival at the training quarters, no time must be lost in 
getting rid of the wet clothes, when a thorough rubbing 
should be administered, after which the man should lie 
between blankets, and be rubbed from time to time, 
until the skin is thoroughly dry. Most of the leading 
pedestrians of the day, when they come in from their 
run, divest themselves of their reeking flannels, and 
jump under a cold shower-bath, on emerging from 
which they are thoroughly rubbed down, which at once 
destroys all feeling of fatigue or lassitude. In a few 
days the pedestrian will be able to increase his distance 
to nearly double the first few attempts, at a greater 
pace, and with greater ease to himself. After again 
dressing, he must always be on the move, and as the 
feeling of fatigue passes away he will be anxiously 
waiting for the summons to dinner, which should come 
about one o'clock, and which should consist of a good 
plain joint of the best beef or mutton, with stale bread 
or toast, accompanied by a draught of good sound old 
ale, the quantity of which, however, must be regulated 
by the j udgment of the trainer. It has been found of 
late years that extreme strictness in all cases should be 
put on one side, and a small portion of fresh vegetables 
allowed, such as fresh greens or potatoes ; and, in some 
instances, good light puddings have been found neces- 
sary to be added to the bill of fare, when the appetite, 
from severe work or other causes, has been rendered 
more delicate than usual. 



79 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



"The continued use of meat and bread, unless the 
man has a wonderful appetite and constitution, will 
once, if not more, in almost every man's training, pall 
upon his palate, when the trainer should at once try the 
effect of poultry or game, if possible ; but, at any rate, 
not give the trained man an opportimity of strengthen- 
ing his partial dislike to his previous fare. In cases 
like these, the only wrong thing is to persevere in the 
previous diet ; for if a man cannot tackle his food with 
a healthy appetite, how is it possible that he can take 
his proper share of work ? The quantity of ale should 
not exceed a pint, unless there has been a greater 
amount of work accomplished in the morning than 
usual, when a small drink of old ale at noon would be 
far from wrong policy, and a good refresher to the 
imbiber. Wine in small quantities is sometimes bene- 
ficial, but should not be taken at all when malt liquors 
are the standard drink. If it is possible to do without 
wine, the better. The chief thing in diet is to find out 
what best agrees with the man, and which in most 
instances will be found to be what he has been most 
used to previously. 

"After a thorough rest of an hour's duration, the 
pedestrian should stroll about for an hour or two, and 
then, divesting himself of his ordinary attire, don his 
racing gear and shoes, and practise his distance, or, at 
any rate, some portion of the same, whether he is train- 
ing for running or walking. This portion of the day's 
work must be regulated by the judgment and advice 
of the trainer, who, of course, is the holder of the 
watch by which the athlete is timed, and is the only 
person capable of knowing how far towards success the 
trained man has progressed in his preparation. It is 
impossible for the pedestrian to judge by his own feel- 
ings how he is performing or has performed, in conse- 
quence, perhapSj of being stiff from his work, weak from 
reducing, or jaded from want of rest. The trainer 
should encourage his man when going through his trial 
successfully, but stop him when making bad time, if he 
is assured the tried man is using the proper exertion, 
1 The rule of always stopping him when the pedestrian 
| has all his power out, and yet the watch shows the pace 

L 



80 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



is not * up to the mark,' should never be broken, for 
the man who so struggles, however game he may be, or 
however well in health, takes more of the steel out of 
himself than days of careful nursing will restore. If 
stopped in time, another trial may be attempted on the 
following day, or, at any rate, the next but one." 

Combined with walking, a bout with the Dumb-bells, 
Indian clubs, or the Ranelagh, will be highly useful. 

And now let me say a word or two about the latter 
instrument. 

The importance and usefulness of gymnastic exercises 
as an adjunct to training, and as a means for preserving 
health and vigour, cannot be too highly estimated or too 
frequently enforced. But, as every one has not ready 
access to a gymnasium, some system that is within the 
reach of all, and that may be practised at home in all 
seasons, is very desirable. Such a system is presented 
by Mr. Frank Milnes, of Gloucester, who, in his Ranelagh 
or Dotosthene, presents us with a pocket gymnasium 
and training apparatus of great value and portability. 

This mechanical invention consists of a new adaptation 
of vulcanized india-rubber, by the elasticity and resist- 
ing power of which the necessary exercise of the muscles 
is obtained. The construction of the instrument is very 
simple. Several cylindrical bands of india-rubber (four, 
five, or six, as the case may be), of equal length, are 
fastened together at the ends to strong steel rings. One 
of the rings is joined by a spring snap to a wheel pulley, 
on the bevilled edge of which a finely twisted rope plays, 
and at each end of this rope is a stirrup handle, with a 
wooden roller moving freely at the flat end for the 
grasp. This is the whole machine. When not in use 
it may be carried in the pocket or laid in a drawer. 
When you are about to use it, you hang the ring at the 
top end upon a strong hook, driven in the wall or into 
the lintel of a door, about six or seven feet from the 
ground. You then take the handles, and standing with 
your back to the apparatus, with your front toe about 
seven feet from the vertical line of the hook, so that the 
hands are about level with the shoulders, you must now 
press the chest forward, so as to cause a slight strain on 
the india-rubber bands, at the same time maintaining 



81 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



the equipoise of the body. Turn the feet a little out- 
wards, and project the body forward, at the same time 
advancing the left foot. The hands are then to be ex- 
tended straight forward from the shoulders. Then open 
them slowly, and let them go backward with the im- 
pulse of the elastic bands, till you bring yourself into 
the first position. Repeat this exercise for a few 
minutes, and you will find that your chest is opened 
and your respiration easy. 

It will be seen that the use of this instrument gives 
freedom to the muscles of the chest, arms, loins, and 
legs, and, in fact, brings all the muscles and tendons of 
the body into free action. Of course, the exercise may 
be varied considerably. There is the rowing action, 
the swimming action, the fencing action, the pugilistic 
action, the archery action, and a vast number of other 
motions, all of which have a direct tendency to give free- 
dom to the flexors, extensors, pectorals, and shoulders. 
But I must explain that all jerking motions are to be 
carefully avoided, as they have a tendency to extend 
the muscles unduly, and not ^infrequently lay the 
foundation of a permanent injury to the system. But 
from this action the Ranelagh, properly used, is entirely 
free. A few minutes' practice daily will be found 
equally beneficial to the strong man, the delicate 
woman, or the young child, who may equally enjoy 
the exercise afforded by this novel and valuable instru- 
ment without experiencing any sense of fatigue ; and, 
as a relief from lassitude, we know of no contrivance 
so easily adopted, so entirely free from all objection, 
and so well adapted to the purposes for which it is 
designed. 

It is almost impossible to over-estimate the great 
service rendered to training by the use of the Indian 
clubs. In fact, in the entire round of gymnastic exer- 
cises, no such efficient instruments as these have been 
discovered for bringing into action the muscles and 
tendons of the arms and trunk, which are generally less 
used than those of the legs. In the army the Indian 
clubs are constantly in requisition, and no gymnasium 
can be considered complete without them. 



82 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



IV.— THE CLUBS. 

As I have already said, Indian clubs are not easily- 
made by an ordinary turner, in consequence of the great 
nicety required in balancing, and apportioning the 
weight in the right direction. They are constructed 
of various woods, and cost about a guinea a pair for 
the smaller sizes, gradually increasing in price according 
to weight. 

If you carefully follow my directions, you will soon 
be in a condition to undertake the exercise of the trapeze 
and other athletic amusements. None of these are dan- 
gerous or harmful, if kept within proper limits ; for it 
must be remembered that their office is the right order- 
ing and education of the limbs and muscles, and not the 
exhibition of startling feats or wonderful performances. 
These may well be left to the Leotards, Olmars, and 
other public exhibitors of gymnastic surprises. 



V.— THE FIRST EXERCISES. 

It has been said that practice with the dumb-bells, 
the foils, and cricket- bat — in addition to which, Cobbett, 
it will be remembered, said a good word for the spade — 
brings all the muscles of the body into action, but, as 
instruments for exercising the limbs, they are vastly 
inferior to the Mugdah, or Indian club. Contributing 
to the full development of every muscle of the trunk, 
arms, and legs, they are more graceful and showy in 
practice than dumb-bells. I must, however, warn you 
not to begin with too heavy a club ; but rather to 
practise with a light instrument, and go gradually on 
till you can take the regular eleven-pounder club, or 
even the heavy ones, such as are used by the regular 
professors of the art. Milo of Crotona commenced, it 
is said, by carrying a calf, till at last, by practice and 
perseverance, he could run away with a bull on his 
shoulders. But you recollect that even he suffered by 
trying to do too much ; for when — as Ovid tells us — he 



S3 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



was an old man, lie endeavoured to rend an oak, and 
caught his fingers in the cleft of the tree ; and, being 
unable to extricate them, was devoured by wild beasts ! 

Ease and grace must not be neglected ; for without 
these the club exercises win little applause from 
spectators. Even with inferior strength, he who studies 
posture, upright carriage, and elegance of action will 
command admiration. In swinging the clubs (which 
should be carefully selected so as to suit the strength of 
the pupil — neither too light nor too heavy) let them 
make a full free circuit, without jerk or loss of balance. 
The greatest difficulty I have experienced with pupils 
has been to break them of that ugly jerk which 
amateurs are so apt to contract in their first exercises 
with the clubs. 

Exercise 1. — Advance ; bring your heels well together, 
and place your clubs on the floor. It should be ex- 




Fig. 4. — Exercise 1. 

plained that each club has a flat bottom, and rests on 
the ground without liability to topple over. Stand per- 
fectly erect, with your chest well forward, and over your 
toes ; your arms straight, with hands to the front and 
your little fingers close to your sides. Retire one step, 



8 4 



INDIAN CIUB EXERCISES. 



left foot first ; and then again advance oetween the 
clubs, right foot first, bringing the left forward, with 
heels together as before. 

This method of advancing to the clubs is common to 
all the exercises. It has this advantage — that it steadies 
the body, and prevents that swaying about on taking 
up the clubs, to which all novices are liable. Moreover, 
being regular, it is also graceful. 

Now lay hold of the clubs firmly by the handles, with 
the palms of the hands towards your body ; raise them, 
and cross them over your head, bringing your arms in a 
perpendicular line with your body, as in the illustration. 
Then let them slowly drop in a horizontal line with 
your shoulders, gradually sinking them till your little 
fingers touch the seam of your trousers, with the palms 
well to the front. Yery good. Now drop the clubs, 
and stand erect as before, and retire a step, ready for 
the next exercise. You must not imagine, however, 
that you have learned all you have to learn, by merely 
reading these instructions. Each step in the first ex- 
ercise must be conquered before you commence the 
second ; for upon your thorough comprehension of the 
preliminary proceedings, and your capability of per- 
forming this initiative exercise, depends much of your 
subsequent success. As the first blow often decides the 
fray, so the first exercise in Mugdah very commonly 
determines the distinction between a graceful performer 
and a bungler. Recollect that the method of taking up 
the club is always with the palms inwards. If you 
attempt any of the preliminary exercises with the 
palms turned from your body, you will assuredly fail 
to accomplish them with ease and dexterity — if, indeed, 
you can perform certain of them at all. All the move- 
ments must be performed slowly and regularly, without 
hurry or undue exertion. The form of the club, with 
the weight farthest from the hand, causes it to swing in 
a circular direction when raised above the hip. This 
tendency opens the chest, and brings all the muscles of 
the arms and the upper part of the body into free 
action, while the trunk and legs partake of the general 
movement without much physical exertion. But of 
course I do not mean that you are to go tamely to work. 



85 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES, 



A certain amount of real exertion is necessary ; and, as 
you advance in the different exercises, you will find 
many opportunities for throwing in plenty of vigour 
and dexterity. Always stand firmly, with the weight 
of the body resting rather on the ball of the foot than 
on the heel. The muscles of the legs will thus acquire 
the rigidity necessary to give a counterpoise to the 
weights carried by the hands in any direction. 

Exercise 2. — Advance as before, with one foot between 
the clubs. Then lay hold of them, and bring them back 
to the rear foot. 

Eaise the clubs perpendicularly, with your hands 
close to your sides, and in a line with your elbows. At 
the moment you raise them, advance with the rear foot 
to within half a yard of the other, with the heels in a 
line. You will thus have a firm broad foundation, the 
feet well apart, and the body having a tendency to 
incline very slightly forward. Now throw one club 
round your head, by bringing it over the other club, 
sinking your hand well down the back of your neck ; 




Fig. 5. — Exercises 2 and 3. 



and, at the same time bringing your elbow well up to 
the side of your head, you make a circle, returning the 



86 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



club to your side, whence it started ; and vice versd with 
the other club, and you again bring the clubs into an 
upright position. Bear in mind that you commence 
making a circle the moment you start the club or clubs, 
as in some exercises you will have to swing two clubs 
at one and the same moment. 

A few minutes' rest, and then commence. 

Exercise 3. — Advance as before. liaise the clubs into 
position as in fig. 2. Bend the wrists outwards, then 
throw the club round the head in a reverse way to 
that shown in Exercise 2. Bring your right wrist well 
round the left ear, extending the left-hand club hori- 
zontally, and vice versd. This exercise developes the 
biceps, and acts immensely oil the pectoral muscles. 

Exercise 4 is also shown in the engraving which forms 
the frontispiece. Advance as before, and take both clubs 




Fig. 6. — Exercise 4. 

and raise them perpendicularly ; then throw the two 
alternately from right to left and from left to right, at 
the same time carrying the right hand round the left 
ear, and the left hand round the right ear ; both elbows 
welL up to the head, sinking the hands at the back of 
the neck. Apparently, both hands pass round in pre- 



87 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



cisely the same circles ; but this is not actually the 
case, for the one hand makes a smaller circle than the 
other ; and so on, alternately. You will comprehend 
this immediately you begin to practise. This exercise 
operates equally on the muscles on either side of the 
body, every one of which is brought into free and 
powerful action. 

Exercise 5. — Begin from the first position, the body 
being turned laterally either to the right or the left. 
Raise the clubs perpendicularly as before ; then, with 
well-extended arms, pass the clubs round the head in 
circles — the one club making a smaller circle than the 




Fig. 7. — Exercise 5. 

pther — alternately with right and left hand. The club 
in the right hand is thrown upwards to the left, at the 
full extent of the arm, and makes a large circle in front, 
and a smaller curve behind ; while the club in the left 
hand makes, at the same time, a smaller circle in front 
of the head, behind the shoulders ; until, crossing each 
other before the head, rather on the right side, their 
movements are entirely reversed— the club in the right 
hand performing the small circle round the head, while 
that in the left performs the larger one. These move- 



88 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



ments you can alternate so long as the exercise is 
continued. 

Exercise 6. — Standing in first position, take the clubs, 
bring both arms well round in front of the body, and 
swing them round the back of the head, sinking both 
hands, and throwing the clubs freely in circles ; then 
bring the clubs to the front, and, holding them perpen- 
dicularly, reverse the circle. 

Each of these movements should be practised sepa- 
rately, but not sufficiently long to cause any great 
fatigue, or you will defeat the end in view, which is to 
exercise, not to tire the muscles. 




Fig. 8. — Exercise 6. 

The great thing is to attain ease and confidence in 
swinging the clubs — elegance and grace will follow, or 
rather accompany, the exercises ; for it is almost im- 
possible to throw the Mugdah round and round the head 
in an awkward or ungraceful manner. Stand firmly, 
with your feet well apart, and your body upright ; but, 
at the same time, hold your head easily and allow the 
muscles of the arms and chest to have full play. These 
directions, indeed, apply to all kinds of athletic sports, 



s 9 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



but especially are they important to observe with the 
Mugdah. Walking, running, leaping, pole-balancing, 
rowing, skating, swimming, and climbing are all good 
in their way as gymnastic exercises ; and for their full, 
free, and healthful enjoyment, a regular process of train- 
ing is absolutely necessary. Strength alone will ac- 
complish little, unless it be so husbanded and brought 
into subjection as to be capable of being employed 
advantageously, and put forth at the moment when it is 
most required. Now, it is well known that the body 
and limbs may be so trained as to be made subservient 
to the will, and capable of enduring an almost incredible 
amount of exertion without afterwards experiencing any 
very sensible degree of lassitude or fatigue. Thus, with 
professional runners, athletes, and gymnasts, the con- 
stitution is hardened to feats of endurance and strength 
which, to the untrained man, although in perfect health 
and vigour, are simply impossible. The instruments 
formerly employed in nearly all stages of training were 
the dumb-bells ; but the Indian clubs are best, as they 
give more amusement during the exercise. This fact is 
acknowledged by all the noblemen and gentlemen I 
have had the honour of teaching, and their use in the 
army is evidence of their superiority. Do not imagine, 
however, that the Indian clubs are mere toys, or that 
they can be taken up and put down as you would take 
up a cricket-bat. What is necessary is, that you should 
accustom yourselves to their use, and thus you will 
acquire real strength, and power to join with pleasure 
in any of the field sports in which English boys delight, 
and which are the great characteristics of Englishmen 
all over the world. 



VI.— FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS IN THE USE OF THE 

INDIAN CLUBS 

We have now crossed the pons asinorum, and the 
exercises that follow may be looked upon as the natural 
and regular result of a familiarity with the Indian clubs. 

Exercise 7. — Stand in the first position and take the 
clubs in the usual way, palms inward. Turn the body 



90 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



a little to the right, the feet remaining firm on the 
ground, about a foot apart, so as to form a good firm 
base. Swing the clubs upward, as in the first figure (1), 
and make, at the extent of the arms," and in front of the 
body, the circle in the direction shown, downward by 
the feet and upward over the head, so that the clubs fall 
in a somewhat lesser circle towards the side from which 
they started (2). The centre figure in the illustration 
shows you the position of the body and arms during 
the first part of this exercise, and the third figure repre- 
sents the reverse of the position shown in Exercise 4. 
The Indians are particularly clever in this exercise, 
whereby the clubs are thrown in circles round the head 
and shoulders ; the one forming rather a smaller circle 
than the other, till the position at starting is again 
attained. Practise this, first on one side and then 
on the .other alternately, till you have thoroughly 
acquired the necessary ease and ability in handling the 
Mugdah. 

Exercise 8. — This is a still further modification of the 
preceding exercises, and requires to be performed with 
steady exactness. Bring the clubs into the first position, 
and incline the body slightly to either one or the other 
side. Then turn the wrists so as to bring the clubs into 
the position shown in the first figure, and swing the 
clubs in a circle three or four times at the extent of the 
outstretched arms, in the direction shown by the lines in 
the engraving. When completing the final circle, the 
arms are to be thrown higher up, so as to describe a 
larger sweep, the body being turned a little to the left. 
But, instead of forming the smaller curve, behind, as in 
the next exercise, both the clubs are thrown over the 
back, sinking the hands well clown the back of the 
neck (2). From this position the clubs are to be pro- 
jected towards the front, and so you may vary the 
exercise alternately on either side. Now reverse the 
clubs, and let them drop in front as shown in the 
engraving (3). Swing them to and fro, right and left, 
upward, in front, and behind, till you have familiarized 
yourself with this kind of movement, and so on alter- 
nately. 



9i 




92 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 




93 



INDIAN CLUB EXERCISES. 



Exercise, 9. — This is the most difficult, but at the same 
time most graceful, way of using the Mugdah. The 
Indians have a clever way of throwing the clubs from 
the hand and catching them as they descend ; but this 
manner of using them is rather fitted for a public dis- 
play of agility than useful as an athletic exercise. Of 
course, many modifications of the way in which the 
clubs are manipulated are introduced by various per- 
formers, but they all depend on a full and perfect 
acquaintance with the previous exercises. In the 
exercise now under consideration the hands are reversed, 
and the clubs at starting are held pendent in front, with 
the palms inward. The exercise consists principally in 
the describing of two circles obliquely round the head, 
one to the right, and the other to the left. A careful 
examination of the diagram will render this apparent. 
The club in the right hand must be swept upwards on 
the right side behind the head (2), and passing to the 
left, the front, the right, and behind, completes the 
circle. In the meantime, the club in the left hand is 
swung at the moment following the movement of the 
right hand, and describes the opposite circle (3). These 
movements are very exactly shown by the circles in the 
diagram. Continue this exercise alternately ; first right, 
then left, and so on at pleasure. 

Great muscular exertion is not necessary, but you will 
find that, as you proceed, you will be able to handle a 
heavier and longer club than was at first possible ; and 
your body and limbs cannot but attain a hardness, 
strength, and adaptability necessary for the complete 
enjoyment of the usual out-door sports. 

More exercises might be shown, but enough has been 
said to enable the amateur to develop all the muscular 
power of which he is capable, by the use of the Mugdah 
or Indian club. 



94 




95 



DUMB-BELLS. 



I.— THE PROPER USE OF DUMB-BELLS. 

Dumb-bells are very good things for exercising the 
muscles of the arms and upper part of the body. Their 
general utility is undeniable, though, as I have already 
said, they are inferior to the Indian clubs in giving that 
full play to all the muscles of the body which active exer- 
cise requires. When particular muscles only are brought 
into play, the other muscles are weakened ; therefore it 
is important that any athletic exercise should bear 
equally on all parts of the body. It is well known that 
some of our best oarsmen, though there are many excep- 
tions to the rule, have great strength in their arms and 
chest, and but little power in their legs ; while, on the 
contrary, professional pedestrians as a rule acquire 
immense power in the lower limbs to the depreciation 
of the upper parts of the body. Various instances of 
great strength are recorded. Marshal Saxe is said to 
have been able to stop a chariot at full speed, by seizing 
and holding the wheel ; and it is recorded of Count 
OrlofF, the Russian General, that he broke a horse-shoe 
between his fingers ; but these and similar extraordinary 
performances, it must be confessed, are not very well 
authenticated. Even if they were, they are very excep- 
tional instances. What we want is, to train the whole 
body to endurance ; and for this purpose all kinds of 
athletic exercises are to be commended. 

If the fatigue is too great after playing with the bells 
or the clubs, refrain for a while, and practise only with 
the lighter kinds, and be careful to use them without a 
jerk, as the chest is not so strong in youth as in the 
adult, and is very likely to be accidentally injured. The 



9 6 



DUMB-BELLS. 



violent throwing out of the bells and clubs tends to 
weaken the joints of the arms ; it must never be for- 
gotten that the purpose of training is not to fatigue, but 
to strengthen. Health, vigour, and activity depend 
much more upon regular living and careful diet than 
upon the occasional iatigue induced by violent exercise. 
Home training is therefore to be pursued in conjunction 
with that of the gymnasium ; and thus will you acquire 
that first of blessings — a blessing without which all plea- 
sures, mental and physical, are but feebly and insuffi- 
ciently enjoyed — a sound mind in a sound body. 

In order to give the proper degree of exercise to the 
various muscles in the trunk and limbs, it is necessary 
not only that you lift and throw about the dumb-bells, 
but that you should so lift and move them as to ac- 
complish the purpose sought by their use, in the most 
complete and advantageous manner. You will easily 
understand that a lad may be able to strike a ball to a 
considerable distance with a cricket-bat, and yet be no 
cricketer ; or that he may be able to throw in a fourteen- 
pound skittle ball, and still be a very indifferent player 
at ninepins. In like manner, dumb-bells may be used 
in such a way as to afford little or no benefit to the user 
in the strengthening and hardening of his muscles. 
There is much in the " way of doing things " — a "knack," 
as it is called. You know, for instance, how much more 
easily and handily a carpenter uses his tools than an 
amateur. That arises not merely from long practice, 
but also from the fact that he was properly taught in 
the earliest days of his apprenticeship. I am aware that 
it is very difficult to teach mechanical arts by mere 
description, however plain and graphic; but where 
actual practical teaching is not attainable, a hint, a 
caution, or a bit of sound advice, often proves of im- 
mense utility : in the use of the dumb-bells, then, I 
wish to do for my pupil 1 what the master does for his 
apprentice, just show him how to rightly handle the 
instrument with which he practises. 

Well, in the first place, as to the weight of the dumb- 
bells, I think the best plan is to begin with a light pair, 
say three pounds each ; and then, as you find yourself 
improving in strength, you can gradually increase their 



97 g 



DUMB-BELLS. 



size and weight to any extent yon choose. Yon can 
then proceed till yon can lift, hold ont at arm's length, 
and throw backwards and forwards and ronnd the head 
a pair of bells fourteen pounds' weight, or even more. 
I myself have been wont occasionally to perform with a 
pair of dumb-bells weighing seventy pounds each. This 
is, however, rather a feat of strength than of utility. It 
is not necessary that gentlemen should attempt these 
extreme tours deforce. 

Next as to position : stand firmly, with the chest well 
out, the head erect, the feet apart, and endeavour to do 
all the exercises in as graceful a manner as possible. 
There is much in this matter of grace. The purpose of 
all physical education is to teach us how we may employ 
our limbs in the best and most effective manner ; and I 
am sorry to say that in the majority of the middle-class 
schools mental and bodily training are not, as they should 
be, made to go hand in hand. Again, in training, as in 
food for infants, " little and often " should be the rule. 
Never persevere in any bodily exercise till you are 
thoroughly exhausted; if you do, you defeat the object 
of, and become disgusted with, the amusement ; and, 
lastly, try various kinds and descriptions of exercise. 
At one time the dumb-bells, at another the Indian clubs; 
now the foil and now the cricket bat ; one day a run, 
and another a ride ; sometimes leaping and then vault- 
ing, with the parallel bars and the rope ; at other times 
throwing the discus, rowing, boating, diving, or even 
dancing. All these are good as exercises ; but the 
dumb-bells may be taken for, say, half an hour every 
morning and evening as fit preparation for any kind of 
mental or bodily labour or pleasure. 



II.— THE ENGLISH METHOD OF USING THE DUMB- 
BELLS. 



First Exercise. 



Position 1.— Hands to front, chest well out, elbows 
back, body perfectly erect, and heels together. Take 
the dumb-bells, bring them to the front of the chest, as 



9 8 



DUMB-BELLS. 



in the diagram, then raise them above your head, as far 
as your arms will extend — first one and then the other 
— see diagrams 1 and 2. Eepeat, always resuming the 
original position in an easy and graceful manner. 

Position 2.— From the first position raise both hands 
together, and then bring them back as before, the chest 






Positions 1, 2, 3. 

well forward, and the head erect. Then bring the hands 
to the hips. Eepeat. 

Position 3. — Now take the bells and bring them 
under the arm-pits, as in the engraving. Alternately 
raise and depress the hands. As the flexors and exten- 
sors of the upper arm are brought into play by the 
former exercises, so in this the muscles of the wrist and 
fore -arm are exercised. Eepeat as often as necessary to 
perfect, but not to tire yourself. 

Second Exercise. 

Position 4. — From Position 3 assume the motions 
of a boxer, and pass the hands one over the other in 
front, striking out and drawing back alternately without 
jerk or violent movement. 

Third Exercise. 

Position 5. — From Position 4 pass to Position 5, as 
shown in the engraving. Let the feet be half a yard 



99 



DUMB-BELLS. 



apart, and throw the arms and elbows well back ; then 
reverse the motion, by turning right and left, head well 
over the chest and your weight on the big toe. This 
movement is done with a spring ; and as you throw out 
your left arm, turn on the left toe, and vice versa. Re- 
peat. Bear in mind that as you come round in this 




Position 4. Position 5. 

position, you carry the right arm straight round to the 
left breast, well extending the right arm as before. 
Repeat this exercise till perfect. Here not only are the 
muscles of the arms and legs brought into activity, but 
the whole trunk partakes of the motion, and, as in 
boxing, limbs, body, and brain, are all employed. 

Fourth Exercise. 

Position 6.— Place the bells on the ground between 
the feet, which must be well apart. Now bend forward 
as in the illustration, take up the bells, and carry them 
upward, with well-extended arm, till you again assume 
the First Position. Now throw the bells up and down, 
as in Position 2, extending the arms, and finally bring- 
ing the bells between the feet, as at first. This is a good 
exercise, to be practised first with one bell and one arm, 
and then the other : lastly, try the exercise with both 
bells. 

Fifth Exercise. 

Position 7. — From Position 1 extend the arms, and 



100 



DUMB-BELLS. 



swing them well back from the chest, keeping the hands 
parallel with the shoulders. Many adepts are able to 
swing the bells at the back as well as at the front, but 
it requires great practice to do this, and also great care. 
You can only perform this feat by dint of continual 




Position 6. Position 7. Position 8. 

trials. The bells should be carried round, as shown in 
the engraving ; when after a while you can make them 
touch behind, as well as in front. 



Sixth Exercise. 

Position 8. — This exercise is the reverse of the last 
— the main object being to swing the bells as far 
back and forward as the length of the arm will permit, 
keeping the hands as close together behind as possible. 

These are the usual exercises taught by the English 
method ; but several other ways of throwing the arms 
will suggest themselves — as over and around the 
head, &c. ; but enough has been shown to enable any 
amateur to practise with the dumb-bells so as to insure 
a large amount of actual benefit. For weak and invalid 
constitutions, dumb-bells provide sufficient exercise 
without any great labour or fatigue. 



IOI 



FRENCH DUMB-BELLS 



The French have a far more elegant and amusing style 
of playing with dumb-bells, known as Trelar's method. 
It is taught in the French army, and generally in the 
higher class of schools. 

In these exercises the dumb-bells are fixed to the ends 
of a wooden or iron bar, so that the instrument presents 
the appearance of a pole, weighted at the ends with 
round knobs. The bar should be proportioned in length 
to the stretch of the performer's arms. From five to six 
feet is the usual length, but it should rather be longer 
than shorter than the person using it. The chief 
utility of this exercise is to promote ease of limb and 
grace of figure. In fact, it is far superior, though not, 
perhaps, quite so accessible and available as the ordinary 
dumb-bells. In the modern German school of gymnas- 
tics the use of the French dumb-bells is very frequent. 
They are employed in connection with the well-known 
"extension motions" — body erect, hands to the front, 
hand extended above the head and then brought down 
to the toes ; arms thrown outwards, upwards, forwards, 
backwards ; palms to the front, palms to the back, and 
so on, ad infinitum. The " extension motions" are very 
useful ; but, as they are best practised in classes, I do not 
here enlarge upon them. The Indian clubs and dumb- 
bells, on the contrary, may, with the aid of this hand- 
book, be used to great advantage by a single person in a 
small chamber or other convenient place. Increase of 
muscular strength is, of course, the object of all exercises 
of this description, whether practised solus or in classes. 
There is, however, a regular plan to pursue in order that 
the exercise should proceed progressively. The amateur 
cannot do better than follow the exercises in the order 
here laid down. 



102 



FRENCH DUMB-BELLS. 



First Exercise. 

With the bar on the ground before you, stand upright 
as in the diagram (1). Then advance the right foot, as in 




Fig. 1. 



fig. 2, bend downwards without bending the knees, and 
with the right hand seize the bar, bringing it up hori- 




Fig. 2. 



I 



zontally across the chest, as shown in fig. 3. Now cany 
the arm downwards, turn the wrist with the palm up, 
and from this position swing the bar and replace it on 
the ground. Keverse the exercise by advancing left foot 
and seizing the bar with the left hand. Then use both 



103 



FRENCH DUMB-BELLS. 



hands, instead of one, stretching the hands as far as you 
o — aa s , q 




Fig. 3 

can, and repeat. This is a capital exercise, as it brings 
all the muscles of the trunk and limbs into play. 




Fig. 4. 



L_ 



104 



FRENCH DUMB-BELLS. 



Second Exercise. 

From the first position, with the body erect, seize the 
bar with both hands, and by the same movement extend 
the arms so as to hold the bar as near to its extremities 
as you can. Carry the bar round, with an easy move- 
ment, to your back, and vice vend. 



Third Exercise. 

Now advance with right foot, take the bar as in the 
second position,, with both hands pretty close together — 
length, the stretch of your hands — and pass the bar over 
your head, as shown in the illustration, and afterwards 
reverse it in the direction of the dotted line and arrow. 
The same movement is then to be repeated with the left 
foot forward. . Kemember that when the right foot is 




Fig. 5. 

advanced the right hand goes up, and when the left foot 

is advanced the left hand is raised, and so on alternately. 

An examination of the diagrams (figs. 4 and 5), will 

explain more readily than any description the manner 



105 



FRENCH DUMB-BELLS. 



in which the bar is to be swung ; but you must remember 
that all violent and jerking action is to be avoided, and 
that all the motions are to be carried on with the ease 
that is, in fact, elegance in gymnastics. 



Fourth Exercise. 

From Position 1, advance with the right foot, and 
bring the left up to it. Then, turning to the left, ad- 




Fig. 6. 

vance left foot, stoop, seize the bar by the end, near to 
the knob, with left hand, raise the bar with the left 
hand, and at the same moment take it with the right 
hand above the centre, as in fig. 6. The next movement 
is to bring the bar to the position shown in the following 
engraving, whence it may be swung forwards and back- 
wards. These movements are to be repeated, first with 
one hand and then with the other. 







Fig. 7. 



106 



FRENCH DUMB-BELLS. 



All these exercises, both in the English and French 
methods, appear very simple when described on paper ; 
but when you come to try them you will discover that 
they are difficult enough to give you no little practice 
before you can accomplish them with ease and dexterity. 
As aids to indoor training they are very useful ; and, 
when combined with the Indian clubs, they will be found 
to constitute all the requisites of a portable Gymnasium. 
The French bar, as well as the English dumb-bells, are 
comparatively inexpensive. Both should be found — and 
used — in every school and every family. 



L ' 



107 



EXPERT FEATS WITH THE 
SWORD. 



Few public exhibitions are so popular ao feats of 
strength and agility, skill, and expert manliness. With- 
out attempting to teach the use of the sword, which 
would require far more space than I can here command, 
I may show how some of the most celebrated sword- 
feats are performed. All my readers remember Sir 
Walter Scott's famous description of the feat said to have 
been performed by Saladin, the Moor, of cutting a piece 
of silk in twain, as it floated in the X with a sharp 
sabre. Many feats of similar charactc may be per- 
formed with a well-tempered and tolerably sharp sword ; 
and executed by a skilful operator, seem really won- 
derful, though, as a matter of fact, many apparently 
very difficult feats may be accomplished with compara- 
tively little practice. Dividing the bar of lead, cutting 
the leg of mutton, or the sheep, in halves with a single 
stroke, and many other similar exercises, depend rather 
upon knowledge and knack than upon actual strength. 
A moderate degree of strength, and great precision of 
eye and hand, are requisite for the successful accomplish- 
ment of all feats with the sword ; and constant practice is, 
of course, necessary before the performer can thoroughly 
master any of the exercises which I shall now endeavour 
to explain. 

SEVERING THE LEMON ON THE NAKED HAND. 

This feat is a very remarkable one. A lemon is held in 
the open galm of an assistant, and the performer, with a 



1 08 



EXPERT FEATS WITH THE SWORD. 



single cut, divides it fairly in halves, without injuring 
or so much as scratching the hand of the person who 
holds it. 




SEVERING THE LEMON. 



This is generally known as "Sir Charles Napier's 
Feat" as the following anecdote will explain : — On a 
certain occasion, the general was reviewing the troops in 
India, when a company of native jugglers, on the con- 
clusion of the business of the day, came forward to 
exhibit their tricks before the soldiery. Among other 
clever feats, was the severing a lemon on the hand of a 
bystander. The general expressed his astonishment at 
this performance, but could not believe but that there 
was some collusion between the jugglers. He therefore 
asked them whether they would cut the lemon on his 
own hand. On replying in the affirmative, the general 
held out one of his hands ; but the performer, perceiving 
that it was contracted through an old wound, chose the 
other hand. " Ah," said the general, " I thought there 



109 



EXPERT FEATS 



was some trick between you !" But the juggler placed 
the lemon in the general's other hand, raised his sharp 
sword in the air, and in an instant the two halves of the 
fruit fell to the ground. Sir Charles admitted after- 
wards that, had he not challenged the daring perform- 
ance, he would have withdrawn his hand ; and he 
described the feeling of the sharp edge coming down 
upon his palm, as that of a cold wet thread passing 
across it. 

This feeling I attribute rather to mental impression 
than to the sword's edge touching the general's hand ; 
and in my performance of this feat, I have accomplished 
it a dozen times on my own hand in a single evening, 
without the slightest touch of the sword. 

First, I must tell you that there is not the least 
danger, provided the holder of the lemon has entire 
confidence in the ability of the performer. The follow- 
ing is the correct method of procedure. The operator 
should place the lemon in the hand of a lady or gentle- 
man, and instruct her or him to keep the palm quite 
open, with the fingers close together, but not stiff, and 
the thumb spread back as far from the forefinger as 
possible. Then he should stand at the side of the 
person holding the lemon, and pass the sword over his 
head, bring it down under his hand, then up again, and 
so on several times, in order to test the nerve of the 
holder, and inspire him with confidence. When he 
finds he does not flinch, the operator should suddenly 
make the proper cut, and the lemon falls in twain, 
without hurting the hand that held it. 

Well : what is the proper cut ? Here is a diagram of 
the old-fashioned sword cuts. By studying and practis- 
ing these cuts you may soon perform all the feats here 
described. The proper cut for the lemon feat is Ho. 7, 
or the down-cut. The point and hilt of the sword must 
be perfectly horizontal', so that the edge does not touch 
one part of the hand more than another, and the stroke 
of the sword must be a downward cut, not hard, but 
proportioned to the size of the lemon. Be sure that in 
this cut there is not the slightest drawing motion, or you 
will infallibly wound the hand. In order, however, 
that my readers may get accustomed to this feat, and 



no 



WITH THE SWORD. 



others of a similar character, I have devised a substitute 
for the hand, which is shown in the first illustration. 
On the top of it is a small pad of horsehair, covered 



z *£ 


>v 1 


>v 






>^3 



THE SWORD CUTS. 



with leather, so that the performer can see the force of 
his cut by the indentations he makes. The top of the 
stand may be arranged with a hole, or socket, so as to 
hold an egg, a cucumber, or anything else that it may 
be desirable to cut. 



PEELING THE APPLE IN THE HANDKERCHIEF. 

This is a feat similar to the succeeding one ; only, 
instead of the cut towards the centre, you must make 
Cut 4 at the edge of the apple, which must hang well 
down in the handkerchief. As each piece of the skin is 
cut off, it must be taken out of the handkerchief. The 
real secret of this feat is the directness of the cut. In 



III 



.EXPERT FEATS , 



practising it, you had better begin with a blunt sword, 
with which there is less chance of cutting the silk than 
with a sharp-edged one. 



GUTTING AN APPLE INSIDE A SILK HANDKERCHIEF 
WITHOUT INJURING THE LATTER. 

This feat is known as Omar Pasha's feat, from the 
fact that he is said to have first practised it, never fail- 
ing to sever the apple without cutting the handkerchief, 




CUTTING THE APPLE INSIDE THE HANDKEKCHIEF. 

but, on the contrary, carrying the silk on the edge of 
the sword nearly through the apple. There is no con- 
juring in this feat, which is performed with a sharp 
sword or scimitar, by Cut 4. The secret is that the 
sudden cut is unaccompanied by the slightest drawing 
action whatever ; for, if you make the least drawback 
with your sword, you will inevitably cut the silk. 



112 



WITH THE SWORD, 



Choose a good codlin, or any ripe eating apple that is 
not too brittle. Place the apple sideways in the centre 
of the handkerchief, and gather the four corners together. 
Then, when the handkerchief is held up by the corners, 
make the cut without bending the elbow. It will be 
seen that the apple is divided fairly in the centre, and 
the silk forced through the fruit. 



TO CUT A BROOMSTICK PLACED ON THE EDGES OF 
TWO TUMBLERS OF WATER. 

Dr. Bachoffner introduced this feat in his lecture at 
the Polytechnic to show the force of concussion. He 
had a broomstick balanced nicely between the inner 




cutting: the bkoomstick. 



edges of two tumblers filled with water, and, with a 
powerful stroke of a sharp sword, divided the stick 



Hi 



H 



EXPERT FEATS 



without either injuring the tumblers or spilling the 
water. The secret of this feat, as correctly explained by 
the doctor, lies in the concussion being between the sword 
and the stick only ; but it requires to be very nicely 
performed. The stick must be accurately placed upon 
the tumblers, each end of the stick resting about three- 
eighths of an inch over the edge of the tumblers ; then, 
with Cut 7, strike the stick directly in the centre, being 
careful not to draw back the sword, or to allow the hilt 
and the point to diverge from the horizontal. The 
glasses must be placed on strong steady tressels, or on 
two tables, flat, and firmly resting on the ground. 

A more difficult modification of this feat is that of 
placing the broomstick on two very thin-stemmed wine- 
glasses, the stick being suspended on the latter by means 
of pins stuck into the end of the broomstick. In this 
feat, care must be taken that the stick actually touches 
the glasses. About three-eighths of an inch of each 
pin must project from the ends of the stick, and the cut 
made by one direct impulse, without draw or hesitation. 

The great secret of this, and other like feats with the 
sword, is to be found in the exactitude with which the 
stroke is made. Of course considerable practice is 
necessary before one succeeds sufficiently well to be able 
to perform them in public. But there is really no great 
art in them, providing you conquer the first difficulties. 
Some feats require a very sharp, thin sword ; others a 
strong, stout sabre ; but as you proceed you will find 
out for yourself what sort of weapon is best adapted 
for the particular feat to be performed. 



DIVIDING A SUSPENDED ORANGE. 

A very pretty and graceful feat this, which requires 
considerable practice, and nice calculation of time and 
distance, to accomplish properly ; for you must remember 
that failure in a single feat is loss of credit for the re- 
mainder of the performances. You must pass a thread 
through an orange with a needle, and make a knot at 



114 



WITH THE SWORD. 



the other end to prevent the thread slipping through. 
Leave about a yard or so of the thread above the 
orange, which may be suspended from the ceiling, or 
from the end of a stick which is held in the hand of a 
bystander. Then take a sharp scimitar, and with a well- 
directed Cut 5 divide the thread about midway, and, as 
the orange falls, make Cut 6, as shown in the diagram, 




DIVIDING THE SUSPENDED ORANGE. 

and you will cleave the orange fairly in halves. This 
feat is best performed by placing yourself in such a posi- 
tion as will give you uncontrolled command of the room. 
Make the first cut just above your own chest, and the 
last a few inches below it, calculating the time the orange 
takes to fall, just as you would calculate on hitting a 
ball with a rounder stick. The adroit performance of 
this feat is always received with applause. It can be 
equally well done with a sharp carving knife, but it is 
best to practise with the sword with which you mean to 



J 



us 



EXPERT FEATS 



show the trick. Quickness of eye and dexterity of hand 
are the grand assistants in this v as well as in all sword- 
feats. 



DIVIDING THE CABCASE OF A WHOLE SHEEP. 

Among other popular feats with the sword are the 
dividing of the carcase of an entire sheep with a single 
cut, the severing of a leg of mutton in two halves, and 
the dividing of bars of lead, pillows of down, silk 




DIVIDING THE SHEEP. 

handkerchiefs, &c, as well as various other feats with 
the sabre. 

In the sheep feat, the carcase is fairly suspended, head 
downwards, and the performer should stand so as to take 
a three-quarter view of the animal, neither too much on 
one side nor too much at the back. The sword should 



Il6 



WITH THE SWORD. 



be grasped tightly, close to the hilt, with the second 
joints of the fingers in a line with the edge, so that you 
may make a perfectly horizontal cut. Should the sword 
be held differently, the cut will be sure to be either up 
or down, thereby making a larger cut, with the chance 
of failure. Dividing the sheep is generally performed 
by Cut 6, although I have done it with Cut 5 ; but this 
last cut I do not recommend, as it is less powerful than 
Cut 6. The sheep should be struck with the sword 
about ten or eleven inches from its point, which will be 
found the cutting part of it. If the sheep be a very 
large one, the blow of the sword should be given so that, 
with the cut, you can at the same time thrust. But this 
cut and thrust is not necessary with a small sheep. The 
sword generally used for the sheep, leg of mutton, and 
bar of lead feats, is a ship's cutlass, some inches longer 
and stronger, and made of superior metal to that of the 
ordinary cutlass. The price of such a sword is about 
£1 Is. 



CUTTING THE LEG OF MUTTON. 

This feat is performed in the same manner as cutting 
the sheep, with a steady, horizontal Cut 6. 

For both feats, the sword should be ground to a razor 
edge. Of course, frequent practice is necessary before 
success can be attained. The leg of mutton should be 
suspended by the shank from a beam in the ceiling, or a 
tripod of timber, or other convenient stand. The mutton 
should not be too newly killed. 



CUTTING THE BAR OF LEAD. 

This is a very pretty, but not very difficult feat. It is 
performed with a heavy ship's cutlass, ground sharp. 
The bar may either be placed on a stand or suspended, 
and in performing this feat a direct, decisive cut is neces- 
sary. Begin with a thin narrow bar, and increase the 
thickness as you become proficient. 



117 



EXPERT FEATS 



You will find it better to cast your own bars than to 
buy them, as any admixture of solder or other metal 
will be fatal to success. Any blacksmith can make 
you the iron mould for a few shillings, or the bar 




THE BAR OF LEAD AND THE MOULD. 

may be cast in sand, but you must be particularly care- 
ful that the sand is perfectly dry, or the hot lead will 
fly and become dangerous. In melting the lead, re- 
member that it should not be made too hot, as if it 
burns the bar is hard, and very difficult to cut. Allow 
the lead to cool gradually ; do not plunge it into water, 
or take any other means of rapidly getting rid of the 
caloric, for if you do, you will make the bar so hard as 
to render it nearly impossible to cut. The lead when 
cast is triangular in shape. The above is an end view 
ol the bar, and in cutting it you must strike the edge 
first. 



118 



WITH THE SWORD. 



SLICING VEGETABLE MARROWS, CUCUMBERS, 
EGGS, ETC. 

The Indians pride themselves very much on these 
feats, which Lord Hardwicke fully described to me. 
They practise them under the shade of the Kaila, or 
Plaintain tree, and the sword they use is called the 
Khandatrou. They commence cutting at the tree, some- 
times from as high as they can reach, and sometimes 
close to the butt ; and then, cutting as thin slices as 
possible, they gradually ascend, slicing it up as we do a 
cucumber — the thinner the slices the more admirable the 
performance. After they have cut or made as many 
slices as they can, they shake the tree, and it tumbles 
into pieces ! In this country the vegetable marrow or 
cucumber may be substituted for the Plaintain tree. 
The plan is to place the butt of the cucumber or 
marrow firmly in a piece of clay, and standing it on 
the table, commence cutting from the bottom end, into 
as many thin slices as possible, all the way up, without 
disturbing the perpendicular position of the cucumber. 
A similar feat has been performed with a boiled egg 
placed in the clay. But you commence at the top of 
the egg, taking off as many slices as possible, without 
breaking the bottom shell. These feats require to be 
performed very dexterously, with a sharp thin sword. 

There are other feats performed by the Indians, of a 
very clever, but rather dangerous character ; such, for 
instance, as cutting a clove in halves on the nose of a 
brother performer. One Indian lies on the ground, and 
the clove is placed perpendicularly on his nose, and 
the swordsman, after making some of the most extra- 
ordinary twinings and twistings, brings his sword down 
on the clove, and severs it in halves, to the intense 
astonishment of the beholders. 



CUTTING THE ORANGE UNDER THE NAKED HEEL. 

The assistant stands on a chair, and places his right 
heel on the orange. He stands with his feet well apart, 
the toes and heels in a horizontal line. The swordsman 



119 



EXPERT FEATS 



\ 



then advances, right foot first, and when he has taken a 
step on to the left, he immediately turns, and cuts the 
orange in two in turning. This is done with Cut 6, and 
is a highly difficult feat, even to the most accomplished 
swordsman. 



CUTTING PILLOWS OF DOWN, SILK HANDKERCHIEFS, 

EIBBONS, ETC. 

These feats can only be performed with a razor-edged 
scimitar of excellent temper ; a soft blade will not take 
a sufficiently fine edge. The scimitar should be kept in 
a wooden sheath, when not in use, and should be rubbed 
on a strop like a razor, both before and after use. The 
pillow is usually thrown up in the air, and the swords- 
man makes a circular drawing cut from 6 to 5 as the 
pillow falls. The handkerchief, ribbons, &c, are usually 
opposed to the edge of the sword, close to the hilt, and 
with a very swift drawing cut they are severed in two. 
The ability of the swordsman is shown by his cutting 
them into the greatest possible number of pieces. 



Sword-play is of very ancient origin, as we find it 
mentioned frequently in the Saxon chronicles, and in 
the pages of Froissart, Stow, and others ; but the feats 
here mentioned are of comparatively modern intro- 
duction. The athletes among the Romans were all used 
to the sword, and doubtless performed with it many 
wonderful and daring feats ; but they are vastly ex- 
ceeded by the native tribes in India, to whom the razor- 
edged sabre is perfectly familiar. 

The strong, long, tremendous sword of the ancients 
in time gave place to the rapier and the sabre. On the 
Continent especially, the rapier was regularly employed 
in duels. " The masters of the noble science," says Sir 
Walter Scott, " were chiefly Italians. They made great 
mystery of their art and mode of instruction ; never 
suffered any person to be present but the scholar who 
was to be taught, and even closely examined beds and 
other places of possible concealment. These lessons 



120 



WITH THE SWORD. 



l[ often gave the most treacherous advantages ; for the 
challenger, having the right to choose his weapons, 
frequently selected some strange, unusual, or incon- 
venient description of arms, the use of which he 
practised under these instructors, and thus killed at his 
ease his antagonist, to whom it was for the first time 
presented." Broadswords and targets were used by the 
Highlanders till about the year 1745. 

A Highlander once fought a Frenchman at Margate, 
Their weapons a rapier, backsword and target ; 
Brisk monsieur advanced as fast as he could, 
But all his fine pushes were caught on the wood ; 
And Sawney with backsword did slash him and nick him, 
While t'other, enraged that he could not once prick him, 
Cried, li Sirrah, you rascal, you great big black boar, 
Me fight you, begar ! if you'll come from your door !" 

The thorough use of the sword as a weapon of offence 
was not completely understood, however, till bucklers 
or shields were abolished ; but even lately, in some parts 
of India, the shield was used in conjunction with the 
sabre. To show with what cleverness the native tribes 
of India use their weapons, we may take an extract 
from Captain Nolan's popular work : — 

"When I was in India," he says, "an engagement 
took place between the Nizam's Irregular Horse and 
some rebels. My attention was particularly drawn to 
the doctor's report of his killed and wounded, most of 
whom suffered by the sword. In the column of remarks, 
such entries as the following were numerous : ' Arm 
cut from the shoulder ' — ' Head severed ' — * Both hands 
cut off (apparently at one blow) above the wrists, in 
holding up the arms to protect the head ' — ' Leg cut off 
above knee,' and so on." 

Captain Nolan afterwards visited the scene of action ; 
"and fancy my astonishment" he says: "the swords 
they had used were chiefly old Dragoon blades that had 
been cast from our service. The men had remounted 
them after their own fashion. The hilt and handle, both 
of metal, were small in the grip, rather flat, not round 
like ours, where the edge seldom falls true. They had 
an edge like a razor, from hilt to point, and were worn 



121 



EXPERT FEATS WITH THE SWORD. 



in wooden scabbards. An old trooper of the Nizam's 
told me that old English sword-blades were in great 
favour with them, remounted and ground sharp. I 
asked c How do you strike with your swords to cut off 
men's limbs 1 ' * Strike hard, sir,' replied the old trooper. 
'Yes, of course ; but how do you teach them to use 
their swords in that particular way ?' (drawing it). 'We 
never teach them any way. A sharp sword will cut in 
any one's hand/ " 

Now here the old trooper was wrong ; or, perhaps, he 
did not care to explain his entire secret. The real 
reason of his dexterity lay in the oblique drawing 
motion common to the warriors of Eastern nations, who 
are generally famous as swordsmen. The chopping and 
driving method formerly taught in European armies is 
not nearly so effective as the oblique drawing cut I have 
so frequently mentioned. 

In all exercises with the sword, coolness and dexterity 
are paramount ; but, as I have merely introduced a few 
of the more prominent experiments, I must refrain from 
further remark. The use of the sword in fencing is 
a study altogether too important to be discussed in a few 
pages. 

So much for expert feats with the sword. But you 
must not suppose that any one of them can be per- 
formed without considerable practice. Failure, no less 
than perseverance, is the parent of success ; therefore 
do not be discouraged if, in your first attempts, you do 
not succeed so well as you could wish. Try, and try, 
and try again. Some of my best pupils have com- 
menced in the most awkward fashion ; but by dint of 
patience and perseverance they have become expert 
swordsmen. 



122 



CRICKET. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

AS to the origin of Cricket, I do not pretend to speak with 
authority. All I know is that the game as now played 
is of comparatively modern introduction. Strutt, in his 
" Sports and Pastimes," says that the word is derived from 
the old Saxon Cricce, a stick or staff with which the ball was 
struck ; and he gives two engravings from old manuscripts of 
the twelfth century, to show how the game was played in the 
primitive days of our ancestors. Not more than a hundred 
years have elapsed since the laws which now regulate the 
size of the bat, the height of the stumps, the weight of the 
ball, and the distance between the wickets were determined. 
Cricket is played in two ways — double and single wicket. 
In double wicket the full game is played by twenty-two 
players— eleven on each side; with two umpires and two 
scorers. Single wicket may be played by any number of 
players, from two upwards. In the first game the runs ere 
made from wicket to wicket, but in the last the striker runs 
from the wicket to the bowling stump, which he touches and 
then returns to his place. If he fail to touch the bowling 
stump and get back to the Wicket, he does not score that 
run; and if he does not succeed in getting back before his 
wicket is put down, he is out. In other respects the remarks 
for bowling, batting, and fielding serve equally for single 



123 



CRICKET. 



and double wicket, for each of which there is an admitted 
code of laws. 

It is not for me to speak in favour of the popular, health- 
giving, and admirable game of Cricket. Every man and every 
boy in the three kingdoms will agree in giving it the first 
place in their regard as the king of all out-door amusements. 
So much has been written in praise of the theory of the 
game that I may well be excused if I proceed at once to a 
consideration of its practice. What is wanted is a plain, 
practical, understandable treatise ; and that is what I have 
attempted. 

Cricket requires constant practice ; and to be a good 
cricketer is to be wary, yet bold ; strong, yet gentle ; self- 
possessed and cautious, firm and manly. There is no game in 
the world that so completely teaches a boy to rely on his own 
resources, and to be ever ready to take advantage of any ad- 
vantageous opportunities, as Cricket, when properly played. 

Among the general advantages of Cricket are the means 
it affords for physical improvement, the opportunities for 
bringing rich and poor into friendly communication, the 
inculcation of gentlemanly feeling, and the principles of 
mutual charity, good- will, and moral harmony. 



I.— THE IMPLEMENTS. 

Mrs. Glass observed, with great good sense, " Catch your 
hare before you cook it;" so I say, First get your bat. 

The Bat. — I need not trouble you with anything about the 
alterations that have from time to time taken place in the 
size and shape of the regulation bat; every cricketer knows 
that it must not exceed 38 inches in length and 4i in breadth. 
There are various kinds of bats made for boys ; but let me 
warn you by all means to avoid toy-shop goods. Boys may 
have a perfectly well-made and thoroughly seasoned bat for 
3s. 6d., or you can go to half-a-guinea or fifteen shillings for 
a cane-handled or treble whalebone -handled, warranted not 
to break. Depend upon it, that the best plan is to try the 



124 



THE IMPLEMENTS. 



best article at first. The size of the bat must, of course, 
depend on the height of the batsman ; and it will be found 
best to begin with a small, light, springy one, easy to the 
hand, and well strung. The cane-handled bat, now 
so popular with cricketers, is one of the greatest 
improvements ever introduced into the game ; and 
I doubt very much whether the great hits we see 
occasionally could be made with the old-fashioned 
bat, without greatly injuring it. When the bat 
is out of use, and particularly when put away for 
the winter, it should be kept well oiled, with either 
linseed or sweet oil. 

The Ball. — The regulation ball must not be less 
than nine inches, nor more than nine inches and 
a quarter, in circumference, and must not weigh 
more than five ounces and three quarters, nor less 
than five ounces and a half ; but for young boys 
these balls will be found too heavy. It is best, 
however, for boys from fourteen upwards to accus- 
tom themselves to the regular-sized ball. Avoid 
cheap balls ; they are worthless, and dear at any 
price. A new kind of ball, however, will be found 
very well adapted for playground and ordinary 
practice : it is known as " Nicholson's Patent 
Compound," and is both cheap and durable. The 
old-fashioned double-seamed ball, when well made, 
will be found to answer all purposes ; but if you 
want a thoroughly good ball, that will last you 
throughout all the season and keep its shape 
and hardness in all weathers, buy a treble-seamed, and buy 
it of a good maker. 



V 



BOY'S bat. 




BALL. 




SPIKES. 



X25 



CRIOKET. 



The Stumps. — The stumps must not exceed twenty-seven 
inches in height above the ground, and the bails must be 

eight inches in length. The length 
of the bails, therefore, regulates 
the width of the stumps apart 
from each other. They must 
be pitched perfectly upright ; and 
when the three are in the ground 
with the bails on, they constitute 
what is known as the wicket. 

Leg -guards, tubular india-rubber 
gloves, spike-soled shoes, belts, caps, 
shirts, and other cricketing requi- 
sites, must be left very much to the 
taste of the cricketer. The game 
may be played without them ; but 
the properly-appointed cricketer 
always possesses them. As to 
where to purchase bats, balls, &c, 
I hardly like to give an opinion; 
but I may perhaps be allowed to 
say that at the regular Cricket 
outfitters in London and the 
principal towns you may pur- 
chase all the very best of cricket- 
ing implements, at the cheapest 
rates. 

There has been introduced a very 
handy case for keeping the bat and 
gloves in; and as a picture is 
jl sometimes more eloquent than 
words, I present you with a repre- 
sentation of it. 

The Catapulta. — This instru- 

THE stumps. ment is very useful in learning 

the art of batting. It is — as most persons are aware — a 

modern adaptation for sport of the old Roman, instrument of 




126 



THE IMPLEMENTS. 




LEG-GUARD. 



CASE FOR BAT 
AND GLOVES. 



127 



CRICKET. 



war. Though apparently a formidable-looking instrument, 
it can be so managed as to deliver a ball with the greatest 




BATTING GLOVES. 



possible exactness, and with any degree of swiftness. A 
boy can work it, and when the employment of a professional 
bowler is not to be had it is found very useful. 




WICKET-KEEPING GLOVES. 

The Long-stopping Net will also be found very handy 
when the number of players on the field is small: it saves 
much running about, by stopping the ball at any distance 
behind the wicket. 



128 




129 



CRICKET. 



II.— THE ART OF BATTING. 

The art of batting not only comprises the way to hit a 
ball, but how to be able to play correctly at every kind of 

ball that is bowled. First — as to 
position, play as tall as you can, 
without pain or inconvenience to 
yourself; and on going in, ask for 
"middle." Having obtained the 
proper block, place yourself into 
position — easy, unconstrained, and 
alert ; with the heels well together, 
and the toes pretty wide apart; 
keep the knees straight and firm, 
so that you can use the right foot 
as a pivot, and play with the left foot 
easy and pointed towards the bowler. 
On the next page is an engraving 
which you will do well to imitate. 
Keep the hands well together, 
near the lower part of the handle, 
but do not let them touch. Take 
your bat's length from the wicket 
for a block, and never play with 
a short block, or you will be in 
danger of hitting your wicket 
when M playing back." Avoid all 
cramped and awkward positions, 
and mind you keep your legs from 
before your wicket. 

When the bowler is about to de- 
liver the ball, throw the bat back, 
still keeping your position as to 
your feet ; and be careful always to 
let the bat hit the ball, and not the 
ball the bat. Your main business is 
to defend your wicket, run-getting 
being a secondary consideration 




I30 



BATTING. 



with young players. When, therefore, yon see a ball coming 
straight to the wicket, block it back ; but a well-pitched straight 
ball should always be met with a forward block, which for 
beginners is safer than back play, which is often dangerous on 
account of the ball shooting or twisting on to the wicket. Play 
steadily till you get a good sight of the ball, and be cautious 




THE POSITION. 

in hitting ; as, off a bowler whose style you do not under- 
stand, you often knock up a catch. Be suspicious of a ball 
being straight, even if it does not appear so at the pitch ; and 
be careful to play at such a ball with an upright bat. The 
most dangerous balls are generally considered to be 
"shooters " and "break-backs;" that is, balls that, instead 
of rising from the pitch, shoot along the ground into the 
wicket ; and those which, from being rather wide at the 



131 



CRICKET. 



stumps, turn in and take the bails. The way to play shooters 
is to play back, and block the ball dead on the ground ; though 
professional players, who are used to such balls, often take 
great liberties with them. The best plan for an amateur is 
to be careful and block them. Break-backs may be treated 
in much the same manner as shooters, but not quite so low. 
" Sneaks," or balls that roll on the ground heavily all the 
way, must be treated with caution ; for though a player when 
well set may hit them with impunity, one on first going in 
should be careful how he plays them. "Long-hops," which 
are balls that bounce twice or thrice on the ground, are 
simple balls to play. The proper play, as a rule, is to play 
forward, especially when they are not too well pitched. Be 
cautious of playing back at such balls. " Lobbers," or full- 
pitched slows, are often bowled purposely for a catch, so that 
you must keep them well down, if you do not want to see 
them lodged in the hands of a square-leg or long-on ; or, if 
you miss them, to hear a " row in your timber-yard." 

In Hitting at a leg-ball keep the feet well together, and 
put your full strength into the hit. Be sure to strike it at 
the right moment. 

In Driving, or playing a ball to long-on or long-off, it is 
best to play it all along the ground, which can be accom- 
plished quite as easily as a "blind-swipe," or an on-drive 
right up in the air. Though these hits are often applauded, 
they are very likely to give a catch to the long field. An 
off-drive is harder to make than an on-drive, there being a 
certain degree of wrist-play, as well as strength, required 
for it. 

The Draw, about the prettiest hit on the field, is accom- 
plished when the ball is rather wide of the stumps, and 
comes between them and the legs. To make this hit, play 
with the bat slanted towards the leg-side of the wicket, and 
first advance the bat, still held upright, to meet it, giving 
the ball a gentle push. It will generally glide off the bat, 
far enough to get a run, or perhaps two. 

The Cut is one of the most difficult hits in Cricket, and 
can only be made when the ball rises above the off bail j then, 



132 



BATTING. 



when it is about in a line with the wicket, draw the left leg 
back, and with a horizontal bat give the ball a smart tap, so 
as to send it sharply between point and slip. 




THE CUT, 



The Square-leg Hit is made when the ball is pitched 
rather wide of the wicket on the leg side. Advance the 
left foot and play down it as hard as yon can, at the same 
moment turning half round. 




THE SQUARE-LEG HIT. 

How to Play Slow Bowling. — If you are tall and have a 
good reach, take a step in advance, and play the ball for- 
ward. If not, wait for it on the ground, and block it down 
smartly. It is dangerous to run in at slow, till you are 
thoroughly master of your bat. A half volley, a ball that 
just rises from the pitch in time for you to hit it, deserves 
the hardest hitting you can bestow on it. 



133 



CRICKET. 



The Tice, or nearly full pitch, may be played forward, or 
blocked, just as it comes straight on to or wide of the wicket. 

Left-hand bowling is often difficult to play, but, as it com- 
monly turns to the off, you can treat it as an off ball. 

Generally speaking, you must well watch the style of the 
bowler, and be prepared for any variation he may make in 
the course of the over. Look well to the nature of the hit, 
whether made by yourself or the batsman at the other 
wicket, and always be prepared for a run. If your partner 
runs, help him by making a sharp start, even when it ap- 
pears risky, rather than lose a run ; but do not be too anxious 
to score, especially in the first over, or you will lose your 
wicket for a single, or perhaps even for a "duck's egg." In 
running to the wicket, make certain that you ground your 
bat within the popping crease. The proper side to run is 
the right, which will prevent your coming into collision with 
the other batsman or his bat. The instant the ball has left 
the bowler's hand, walk a little way towards the batsman, 
which, should a hit be made, will give you a few yards 
less to run, and perhaps enable you to get a run off a short 
hit which might otherwise have been lost. To avoid being 
stumped, always keep one leg within the popping crease, and 
be ready to run whenever a chance presents itself. When 
at your wicket, never step aside from a ball, however fast it 
comes ; but if you cannot hit it, block it. Many a run is 
made from a good block, especially with fast round-hand 
bowlers. Forward play is generally the best ; but if you run 
out of your ground to a ball and miss it, you will be pretty 
sure to be stumped by a good wicket-keeper. But with some 
styles of bowling you may chance a run-in with impunity. 
And when you do run in, make sure of hitting the ball, and 
hit it hard. 



Ill— THE ART OF BOWLING. 

All my experience in the cricket-field points to a single 
conclusion, namely, that the art of bowling does not receive 



134 



BOWLING. 



the attention from amateur that it deserves, and that, in 
fact, it must have paid to it by all who desire to become 
thorough cricketers. Most young players depend rathei 
upon the strength of their batting than upon the accuracy 
of their bowling ; and it is not at all an unusual thing to find 
half-a-dozen tolerable batsmen in a club to a couple of good 
bowlers. A good deal of this indifference about bowling 
arises from the employment in clubs of a professional 




THE BOWLER. 



bowler ; added to which is the undoubted fact that bowling is 
more tedious and less pleasurable to gentlemen players than 
batting. But then there is an immense amount of pleasure 
in bowling a maiden over, or in fairly taking a middle stump 
with a well-delivered ball. 



135 



CRICKET. 



No young player should neglect the art of bowling, for 
upon it depends the secret of success in Cricket. You may 
have a good field, but if your bowler delivers his balls wide, 
or short-pitched, or in any way easy to hit, the batsman will 
be sure to get runs. But as no one can become proficient in 
anything without practice, so no amateur can expect to be- 
come a good bowler unless he sets himself seriously to work, 
and determines to succeed. 

How is he to do this ? First, by learning to bowl straight 
to the wicket. A good plan is to draw a line about two feet 
on either side of the wicket, and endeavour always to deliver 
the ball so that it pitches between these lines. You will soon 
learn to pitch direct to the wicket. Eemember that the 
bowler's principal object is to hit the wicket; and before you 
settle upon any particular style of bowling, try various plans, 
and that which is easiest and most effective you should prac- 
tise continually. By-and-by you will become so accustomed 
to the several styles of ball, as to be able to vary your pace 
and pitch at pleasure. 

It will be as well in this place, perhaps, that I should give 
a few 

General Rules for all Young Bowlers. 

1. Hold the ball lightly across the seam. This gives it 
more twist, and carries it well to the wicket, at the same time 
giving you more power over its delivery. 

2. Stand upright at the start ; and in the act of bowling 
let the body incline a little forward, so that your arm and 
trunk act in unison. 

3. Avoid all awkward positions, and do not fatigue your- 
self with too long a run. About five or six paces will be 
sufficient to give impetus to the fastest ball. 

4. The proper way of holding the ball is to take it between 
the fingers, and not in the palm of the hand, as I have seen 
done by many who call themselves players. 

5. Many bowlers accustom themselves to only one side of 
the wicket j this is bad, as the nature of the ground may 



I36 



RULES FOR BOWLERS. 



make one side better than the other ; yon should therefore 
use yourself to bowl on both sides of the wicket. 

6. Pitch your ball as near the crease as you can with 
safety; but if you pitch the ball in too far, a clever batsman 
will make a forward drive, and get runs. 

7. Look well to the style of your batsman, so as to take 
advantage of all his weak points. If you find that he is in 
the habit of running in at the ball, pitch shorter and shorter, 
when if he miss, he will be either bowled or stumped by the 
wicket-keeper; but if you find the batsman is in the habit 
of playing back, then lengthen the pitch of the ball, so as to 
mislead him as to its rise and curve. 

8. Without altering your action you will find it advisable 
to vary your pace ; it is not always the fastest ball that is 
the most destructive: a ball pitched well up obliges the bats- 
man to play back, which is somewhat harder than "forward 
play." 

9. Avoid bowling balls that hit the ground twice, as they 
are generally very easy to play, but it is not bad policy now 
and then to bowl a ball that is easy to play, for the purpose 
of getting a catch. 

10. As the leg-stump is the most difficult to defend, you 
should practise bowling at it, when, if your batsman miss it, 
he is very likely to be given out, leg before wicket. 

11. Be careful always to keep one foot within the crease. 

12. Stand square with the wicket you bowl at, start readily, 
and quicken your pace as you near the crease. 

13. If you are a slow bowler, screw the ball occasionally, 
which will puzzle your batsman considerably. 

14. Practise for an hour every day at a good batsman j 
loose bowling is easy to play, and the only way to acquire 
precision is to adopt one style and stick to it. 

There are two styles of bowling, " Round-arm' ? and 
" Underhand :" let me say something of each. 

Round-arm Fast. — Bowling that is merely straight to the 
wicket is not very difficult to play. Good bowling should 
be full of surprises, twists, screws, turns, rises, and other 



137 



CRICKET. 



" dodges," to puzzle the batsman 5 these can all be effected 
with round- arm fast balls. 

And here let me explain to you how it is that a ball flies 
quicker after having touched the ground. If, says a well- 
read writer on Cricket, you spin a top and let it go towards 
the wall, so slowly you can hardly see it move, the moment 
it touches the wall it whizzes away as if the wall were hot. 
The reason is, that it is only when the top rests against the 
wall that there is any fulcrum or resistance to give the 
rotatory motion, or the " spin," any effect. Again : if you 
give a side-spin to a billiard ball, it will rebound from the 
cushion much faster than it went to it. Here, again, the 
spin finds some surface to act upon the ball, and, as it were, 
takes a spring from the cushion, more or less in proportion to 
the degree of the spin, or rotatory motion round its own 
axis. It is the same with bowling : send the ball spinning 
from your hand, and it has new life the moment it touches 
the ground ; but this spin cannot so easily be given with fast 
bowling ; and if a fast ball is made to spin, the force with 
which it goes prevents the spin from producing so great an 
effect from the ground. The essence of a fine delivery is to 
give a spinning motion to the ball. But if so, what a deal 
a bowler has to think of ! Besides straightness, good length, 
and various dodges, has he actually to think about the spin 
he gives with his fingers, as the ball is leaving them ? No. 
The bowler has to do it, but it must come naturally, or by 
habit : he will never bowl accurately if he thinks about the 
spin. 

The twist is not so easy with fast balls as with slows, be- 
cause the ball comes straighter from the pitch to the bat, and 
the curve is not oblique. The faster you bowl, the shorter 
you must pitch j because, as I have already said, you cannot 
get so much spin or twist on a fast ball as on a medium or 
slow. Round-arm bowling depends more on the swing of 
the arm than on the twist of the body; so that the fast 
bowler can vary his pace more easily than the slow one, with- 
out betraying the fact to the batsman. 

Round-arm balls, whether fast or slow, are delivered with 



138 



BOWLING. 



a straight arm, nearly level with the shoulder, though, of 
course, some players will adopt a lower, and some a higher 
action. The round-arm ball is pitched from the hand of the 
bowler at a slight angle, and when it touches the ground 
takes a direct course to the wicket, or on either side of it, 
according to the pitch. But remember, the ball must by no 
means be thrown or jerked, though it may be bowled over 
the wicket, sometimes to the left, sometimes to the right. 
Rule 10, which I shall give by-and-by, has been modified by 
a late resolution of the Marylebone Cricket Club, so that the 
bowler has more liberty than hitherto about the height of the 
ball from the shoulder. 

Round-arm Medium. — This style of ball is safest to bowl, 
and hardest to play, in consequence of curious twists and 
circuitous surprises. Nearly all the maxims for the fast 
style will apply to this, and these balls are more likely to 
hit the wicket than the fast kind, and are less tiring to the 
bowler. 

Round-arm Slow. — This style is generally effective in 
the hands of a judicious bowler, but he must be careful to 
pitch well into the wicket. A high drooping ball is the most 
dangerous, as a sharp curve, which few batsmen can fully 
calculate on, is the consequence. No low-delivered ball be- 
comes a good slow. Of course, slow bowling is much easier 
than fast, but it should be very accurate; so pitched as not 
to be easily picked up by the batsman. A twist in from the 
leg generally follows a well-delivered slow ; and if the bats- 
man strike at it and miss it, the wicket-keeper ought to be 
quick in stumping him before he recovers his ground. Slow 
round-arm balls require to be delivered with the utmost care 
and precision ; and you must be very exact in your pitch, as 
the least mistake on the part of the bowler will be fatal to 
his chance of his getting a wicket by that ball. A catch is 
more easily put up from a slow round -arm than from a fast, 
especially from point. 

The slow round-arm is frequently bowled with a view 
rather to a catch than to a wicket, but you must avoid wides, 
as they are easily got at, and safely driven. Some batsmen 



139 



CRICKET. 



take great liberties with slows. I remember seeing Mr. E. M. 
Grace make a long score off the fast bowling of Jackson, and 
succumb, in the first over, to the slows of Tinley, the famous 
Nottingham bowler. In the same match, Tinley took three 
wickets in as many overs, and showed, by unmistakable 
evidence, the value of well-delivered slows. 

Underhand Bowling. — This may be either fast or slow ; 
but if equally good it is generally dead on the wicket. The 
underhand ball should be delivered from below the waist, 
with the arms a little bent, but not too close to the side. 
Balls that steal along the ground, or " sneaks," are often 
very effective, when the batsmen are well in ; for by playing 
high at them, they miss them, and down goes their timber, 
or, if they pick them up sharply, they frequently offer a catch 
at mid-wicket or long-on. I have seen many a catch from 
underhand bowling that would never have been had from 
the break-backs and shooters of • Willsher, Caffyn, or Jackson. 
But, after all, the style of bowling must be adapted to the 
style of the batsman. In the match at the Oval, the Surrey 
Eleven against the Fourteen Free Foresters, in 1863, a left- 
handed fast bowler, D. Buchanan, Esq., and T. Ratcliffe, 
Esq., a slow underhand, put all the Surrey Eleven out in 
their first innings for 34. This shows the advantage of 
having two bowlers on at the same time whose styles differ. 
But I must add, in justice to the County, that as soon as they 
got used to the bowling they played the very havoc with it, 
for in their second innings my friend Mortlock played a fine 
innings of over 60, and the others also made good scores. 
But they could not save the match, and their adversaries had 
the satisfaction of claiming the victory. 

In all bowling, whether fast or slow, alertness, activity, 
and attention to the theory as well as the practice of the 
game, are necessary to make a good player. But the bowler 
must not content himself with merely bowling. Many a catch 
from a forward drive may be secured by a watchful bowler, 
especially if his style be slow ; and plenty of opportunities 
will present themselves when his services will prove of 
great value to his side. Bat, on the other hand, it is to be 



140 



WICKET-KEEPING. 



remembered that the bowler's business is bowling, and not 
fielding, and that he need not fatigue himself by stepping 
out of his way for a ball, which should be properly landed in 
the hands of mid -wicket, or any other of the fielders. 

In one-day matches the bowler usually bowls six balls to 
each over ; but in two and three-day matches four balls 
commonly constitute an over. Twice in each innings the 
bowler may change ends; but all this you will find in the 
Bules for the game. 



IV.— WICKET-KEEPING. 

A thoroughly good, active, lively, and fearless wicket- 
keeper does more to win matches than almost any man on the 
field. And when with him there is united a first-rate bowler, 
the batsmen must lookout pretty sharply if they mean to score. 
All my readers know that the business of wicket-keeper is to 
stop any ball that passes the batsman, to stump him when he 
is off his ground, to catch any ball that may happen to come 
within his reach, to put down the wicket when the ball is 
returned to him while the batsmen are running, and to keep 
the field in good order. The wicket-keeper is generally 
captain, and his office is one of great responsibility, for the 
nearest cases of run-out are generally at his wicket. Should 
he miss the ball when thrown in, the wicket is generally 
saved; a clever, active player is therefore indispensable 
behind the stumps. By a motion of his hand, or a turn of 
his head, he should be able to direct any fieldsman to his 
proper position. Of course, you will understand that the 
positions of the fielders must vary according to the style of 
the batsman — one striker requiring a wide field, and another 
a close one. He should have his eye on the field, and when 
the ball is bowled he should be ready to catch it with either 
hand, or with both when necessary. When a long hit is 
made, the wicket-keeper should stand on the side of the 
wicket opposite to that taken by the ball ; and the instant he 
receives the ball he must either stump the player, or throw 



141 



CRICKET. 



in the ball to the bowler. If he has simply to throw in the 
ball, he need only toss it to the bowler, or send it easily along 
the ground. He has no need to exert himself unnecessarily, 
for he will find plenty to do in the course of a long match. 
In stumping a batsman he need not knock the stumps down, 




THE WICKET-KEEPER. 

as that only wastes the time of the umpire, and the players 
in setting them up again. It is quite sufficient if he tip off 
the bails, when the striker is out of his ground. He should 
invariably hold the ball in his hand while stumping, but he 
must be careful to keep out of his batsman's way, especially 
when he is batting to leg. But if the wicket-keeper takes 
more than a common share of glory, he has also more than 
a common share of risk, for, since fast bowling has become 
the rule rather than the exception, his post is often one of no 



142 



WICKET-KEEPING. 



little danger. He should always be provided with good pads 
and gloves. Pads cost from 9s. to 15s. a pair, and wicket- 
keeping gloves about 10s. In the best made gloves the 
padding is so placed as to incommode the wearer as little as 
possible, and at the same time to protect his hands and 
wrists from the shock of the ball. These gloves or gauntlets 
should be made of good soft leather, and be well ventilated 
in the palm and back. I should advise no amateur to 
attempt keeping wicket without these necessaries. 

The wicket-keeper should stand in a good wide easy posi- 
tion, with his left leg well forward, and the hands pretty 
close together, ready to seize the ball the moment it has 
passed the stumps. 

When the ball passes him, he should turn round and face 
the long-stop, so as to lose no time in catching it and return- 
ing it to the bowler. Want of care in this respect may 
cause a run to be got from an overthrow. 

A day at the Oval, when there is a good match on, will, 
however, tell you more about wicket-keeping than a volume 
of written descriptions. A few hints are all very well, but 
practice is the only thing that can teach wicket-keeping, and, 
indeed, Cricket generally. The wicket-keeper, if he be clever, 
can sometimes put a ball which he is unable to secure himself 
into the hands of "point," or any other fielder. This he 
does by patting up a ball that is beyond his reach, and so 
giving a catch. For although the ball must not touch the 
ground to entitle the player to a fair catch, it may go through 
several hands, and still be caught at last. I was witness to 
a very curious catch last season. The ball, a tremendously 
sharp one, glanced off the wicket-keeper's glove on to 
" point's" head, knocked off his cap, and ultimately found a 
safe resting-place in cover-point's hands. 

Pooley is considered the best wicket-keeper in the 
world to slow bowling, and it is worth a visit to the famous 
ground to see him in his favourite position behind the 
stumps. There are also others with whom it would be 
difficult to find a fault: Biddulph, of Nottingham; Pinder, 
of Yorkshire ; Plumb, of Bucks ; and H. Phillips, of Sussex. 



143 



CRICKET. 



V„— FIKLDING. 

Every man in the field should play as though the fortune 
of the day depended upon his individual exertions. A single 
careless fieldsman often loses a match r or at least impairs the 
chance of his side winning. It is important, therefore, that 
every man should be inhis place, and do his best to be active 
and willing when there. He must implicitly obey the direc- 
tions of his captain, and be careful that no chance be allowed 
to pass him. In stopping a ball, use your hands and not 
your feet, and run in front of the ball, and not after it, when- 
ever that is possible. Practise as long-stop as often as you 
can, for nothing improves your fielding so much. Run in to 
the ball rather than wait for it, and when you get it in hand 
send it back immediately with an arrow-like throw. Mr. 
Pycrof t, who, if not a good player, is not a bad writer on 
Cricket, says that a good exercise in stopping is to run in to 
the ball without missing it. But this is a feat which requires 
considerable practice, for to catch a ball when running, and 
throw it in directly, is the very perfection of fielding. All 
players should learn to run in to the ball, and send it back 
with the force derived from the run. But fielding, after all, 
must depend on circumstances ; and where do circumstances 
so much vary as in the Cricket-field ? But I again quote Mr. 
Py croft: — " There is another exercise in stopping — namely, 
to run full speed right or left, and, crossing the ball, to take 
it in your run. Yon must run with hands low, and take great 
pains to follow the ball with your eye." Judging distances 
is almost as important to a cricketer as to a rifleman, and 
the young player will do well to practice throwing, a ball and 
judging the length of his throw. J \ 

In throwing, use no unnecessary action. "Up and in" is 
the plan. Throw with one simple action, and learn to throw 
without retaining the ball an instant in your hand. A step 
or two forward is all that is necessary in throwing, even from 
long-field or long-leg. Make it your unvarying practice to 
throw in to the wicket-keeper with one good, direct throw, 



144 



FIELDING, 



so that the ball may reach him without hopping along the 
ground, or touching it more than once. Mr. W. G. Grace, 
R. Daft, J. Smith, H. Jupp, R.Humphrey, Selby, Ullathorne,: 
and many others are famous throwers at long-field. The 
best plan is to throw the ball at such a height as that 
it shall reach the hands and not the feet of the wicket- 
keeper. 

In catching, make sure to hold the ball when you get it! 
This you do by bringing the hands back, and closing them 
well round the ball. The easiest catches are often missed by 
neglect in bringing the hands back. The ball comes straight 
to your hands, and bounces out of them, and "Butter- 
fingers !" greets you from the by-standers. One-handed 
catches are generally applauded, but as a rule they are un- 
safe, except in catching " off legs," that is when it is neces- 
sary to jump up to the ball. Suppose you are standing 
" cover-point/' and the ball is cut hard, you must jump up 
to it if you wish to catch it, or it passes over your head, and 
gives you " a journey." The young cricketer should prac- 
tise all manner of catches — right-hand, left-hand, and both 
hands. There is a catch that often succeeds, and is very 
pretty to witness : I mean that which is called the " pat-up." 
A ball falls low, say at mid-on or long-slip, and you cannot 
catch it before it reaches the ground. You pat it up about 
six or eight feet, and catch it as it descends. This requires 
great practice, as, if you do not pat up straight, you lose the 
ball altogether, and perhaps give a run to the in-side, spite of 
all your trouble. * 

With regard to position in the field. The old fashion was 
to stand with the hands on the knees, and the body bent for- 
ward. This plan was adopted in whatever place in the field 
you stood. Now, however, all those constrained and absolute 
rules for position in the field are abandoned. Stand easily, 
and watch the game, but do not put your hands in your 
pockets, as I have seen some gentlemen players do. 

I now come to the different positions of the players in the 
field. I have already described the duties of the bowler and 
wicket-keeper. In the frontispiece the proper places of the 



145 K 



CRICKET. 



players are shown ; but these are subject to many variations, 
according to the style and pace of the bowling and the pecu- 
liarities of the batsman. 

Long-stop. — This player stands in a direct line behind 
the wicket-keeper, at a longer or shorter distance, according 
to the pace, and for this reason his position is not shown in 
the frontispiece. His principal business is to stop the ball 
that passes the wicket-keeper, in order to prevent " byes." 
He is also useful in backing-up slip, and saving runs on the 
leg side. He should return the ball gently to the wicket- 
keeper, and throw it an easy catch into his hands. Long- 
stop's proper position is heels together, but he should always 
stop with his hands, if possible. 

Point should stand about square with the popping-crease 
on the "off" or right side of the wicket-keeper. The 
faster the bowling, the wider he should stand, and vice versa, 
and he may often catch a sharp cut by shifting his position 
a trifle. But this I do not recommend to young players, 
though it is often practised by adepts. 

Short-slip stands between the wicket-keeper and point, 
a little behind the wicket. It is his business to back- 
up the wicket-keeper, catch and stop all balls that come in 
his direction, and take the wicket should the wicket-keeper 
field a ball. As there is very litfcle running to do for this 
fieldsman, this place is generally assigned to the bowler when 
it is not his " over." 

Long-slip stands some eight or ten yards (for medium 
bowling) behind short-slip. For fast bowling he stands 
farther and squarer. He should be careful in backing-up, 
and quick in all his movements. 

Cover-point stands about ten yards behind point, and 
has similar duties to perform towards point as long-slip has 
towards short-slip. 

Long-off stands on the off side, to the left, behind the 
bowler. 

Long-on occupies the corresponding position to the last- 
named fieldsman on the on side. Both the long-on and 
long-off should be good runners and throwers. They can 



I46 



FIELDING. 



either of them assist the mid-wicket, and back him up when 
necessary. 

Mid-wicket — on or o-FF — stands between the wickets, 
abont half-way from long-field, to the right or left, as the 
hitting dictates. His principal business is to look for short 
catches, and he should be very good at running in and 
catching. 

Leg should stand rather square or very sharp. In 
many cases, where there is much leg hitting, mid-wicket 
takes his place as " long-leg," so as to assist this player. 

To these players may be added — 

Long-straight-on, sometimes called " extra long-on." 
This fielder is only employed when slows are on, when the 
long-stop generally takes this place. He should stand about 
twenty or thirty yards behind the bowler. The Third-man- 
up stands between point and short-slip, when the bowling 
is very fast, at about fifteen yards from the wicket. Long- 
on generally takes this position. Short-leg is useful in 
stopping hits which do not go far enough for more than one 
run. Long-slip often takes this position. These extra places 
in the field are taken when the hitting is in those directions ; 
and of course the man least wanted in any other part of the 
field is put in the spot where he may be useful. I need not 
give directions for more than eleven, as I do not approve of 
matches against odds. But where such matches do take 
place, the extra fieldsmen are put in such positions as the 
captain may think best. 

A diagram or two will, however, better explain the posi- 
tions of the several players in the field. 

Positions in the Field for Slow Underhand 

Bowling. 

1. The Bowler; 2. Wicket-keeper; 3. Long-straight-on; 
4. Point; 5. Short-slip; 6. Long-slip; 7. Cover-point; 8. 
Long-off; 9. Long-on; 10. Mid-on; 11. Leg. ss, Strikers; 
u u, Umpires. Long-straight-on should be farther behind 
the bowler than in the diagram on the next page. 



147 



CRICKET. 



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148 



FIELDING. 



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The Field for Medium Round~arm Bowling. ( 

1. The Bowler; 2. Wicket-keeper; 3. Long-stop; 
: 4. Point ; 5. Short-slip ; 6. Long-slip ; 7. Cover-point ; 



149 



CRICKET. 



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8. Long-off; 9. Long-on; 10. Long-leg; 11. Square-leg 
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It will be seen by this that Mid-wicket takes Long-leg. 



ISO 



FIELDING. 



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7 The wickets; * * The Umpires; S. S. The 

strikers; A. The bowler; B. Wicket-keeper; C. Short 
slip; D. Third man: E. Point; F. Cover point; 
G. Cover point (forward); H. Mid off; I. Long off- 
J. Mid on ; K. fenort leg. 



151 




152 



FIELDING. 



The Field for Fast Round-arm Bowling. 

1. The Bowler; 2. Wicket-keeper; 3. Long-stop; 4. 
Point ; 5. Short-slip ; 6. Long»slip ; 7. Cover-point ; 8. Long- 
off; 9. Third-man-up; 10. Mid-on; 11. Leg. s s, Strikers; 
u w, Umpires. 

It will be seen by the above diagram that Long-off is 
brought nearer to the wickets, and that Long-on is made 
Third-man-up. 



VI.— THE DUTIES OF THE CAPTAIN. 

The post of Captain is one of the greatest importance, for 
upon his judgment and discretion depends very much of the 
success of the players. If he places his fieldsmen properly, 
and selects good bowlers, he does much towards winning the 
match. He should always see that his Eleven practise to- 
gether in harmony, and that he has one or two good change 
bowlers beyond his regular standard bowlers. Now suppose 
you, reader, to be Captain of your club for the season — and 
let me tell you that it is always best for a club to elect a 
Captain for the season — what ought you first to do when 
you have arranged a match ? 

Let your men practise together in the positions you in- 
tend them to occupy on the eventful day when they are 
to meet their opponents. Let several of your men take 
a turn at bowling, wicket-keeping, and long-stopping, so 
that in case of an accident you may not be at a loss. It 
is desirable to have one good man besides your regular 
and best wicket-keeper; and it is well to thoroughly ar- 
range your plan of action before entering the field. A good 
general does not wait for accidents, but provides for them in 
anticipation. 

Arrived on the field, to which you will bring your Eleven 
punctually at the time appointed, get your men together, 
and, if you win the toss, go in first. This, as a general rule, 
is worth attending to ; but if you are ignorant of the style 



153 



CRICKET. 



of your opponents, it is good occasionally to let them first 
take the bat. 

It is generally best to put in two safe bats first, to make a 
good start, keep np the wickets, and take the raw edge off 
the bowling. Bnt if the bowling get at all loose, send in a 
strong hard hitter, who can slog away at the balls without 
fear, even if he possess no great science. After a good 
stand has been made, and one of the " stickers " is out, 
then put in another good bat immediately, so that the sur- 
viving batsman may take courage with his new partner, and 
make runs whenever he can. You must not, however, put in 
all your best bats together, or go to the opposite extreme, and 
leave three or four good batsmen for the last wicket. But 
if you have a certain number of runs to make to win on 
entering on your second innings, then you must husband 
your strength, and let your less efficient bats get as many as 
they can as early as possible. 

If you have to field first, begin with two good standard 
bowlers, and let them keep on for a dozen overs or so ; but 
if you find that your opponents are scoring fast, then put on 
a bowler of a different style. It is hardly advisable to make 
"slows" the first change; but if fast and medium are 
entirely hit off, then you may put on a slow and arrange the 
field accordingly, as shown in the foregoing diagram. 

The Captain has often to arrange rules for the guidance of 
his club. I know of no better rules than those furnished 
by the late Fred. Lillywhite, which are as follows: — 

VII.— RULES FOR THE FORMATION OF 
A CRICKET CLUB. 



1. That the Club be called 

2. That it be managed by a Committee of members, 

to be a quorum, and also by a Secretary and Treasurer, 



ex officio members of the Committee, to be elected (and 
eligible for re-election) at an annual meeting. 
, 3. That an annual meeting be called, with one week's 
notice, by circular, in the month of , for electing 



154 



RULES FOB A CLUB. 



the officers of the Club and auditing the account and general 
business. 

4. That the Secretary be the Executive or Agent of the 
Committee, with full powers to act and order, as regards the 
game, refreshments, the care of the ground, and all other 
matters within the province of the Committee; and that 
whenever he anticipates the consent of the Committee, he do 
apply as early as possible for that consent. [The comfort of 
a Club depends on there being one man enjoying the confi- 
dence of all, and not afraid of responsibility, to act without 
the slow formality of Committee meetings.] 

5. That the subscription be if paid not later than 

, and if paid after. 

6. That all matches being made by the Committee, the 
Eleven be chosen thus : — That the Committee name two 
Bowlers and the Captain also (if not a bowler), and leave 
them to choose their own field and supporters. [Thus only 
can an Eleven work well together. If men enter a Club with 
this understanding, it is as fair for one as for another.] 

7. That the first twenty -two names (entered on a slate 
recommended for the purpose) bear the preference on prac- 
tising days. When less than twenty-two, that each side 
be entitled to claim fieldsmen from the other side. 

8. That the days of the Club be . 

9. That, as a means of getting rid of an obnoxious member, 
the Committee, on receiving a complaint in writing from 
[five] members, and having consulted and decided [unani- 
mously or by a majority of votes] that the conduct of any 
member is inconsistent with the character or interests of the 
Club, do propose the expulsion of the said member at a 
general meeting, called with no less than one week's notice 
by circular, and that the majority do decide ; also that any ex- 
pelled member do forfeit all right to the property of the Club. 

10. That honorary members be admissible on the following 
terms : — [a less or no subscription, according to distance.] 

11. That every member do regard obedience to the Captain 
in the game a duty to the Club, and that each side name 
their own Captain at the beginning of each game. 



155 



CRICKET. 



12. That candidates be proposed and seconded at one 
meeting, and balloted for at the next, and that one black 

ball in do exclude that a party once excluded be not 

eligible the same season, nor at all unless unanimously 
elected ; and that the party proposing be answerable for the 
first year's subscription of his nominee. 

13. That every new member be informed of his election 
by receiving two copies of the Eules, and that he be not 
deemed finally a member till he has returned to the Secre- 
tary one of the said copies, and clearly subscribed as " read 
and agreed to, more especially as regards Rules 6, 9, and 11." 

14. That the Eleven appointed to play in a match appear 
in white flannel trousers, and that the recognised colour and 
costume of the Club be 



VIII.— LAWS OF DOUBLK WICKKT. 

(As Revised by the Marylebone Cricket Club.) 

1. The Ball must weigh not less than five ounces and a 
half, nor more than five ounces and three quarters. It must 
measure not less than nine inches, nor more than nine inches 
and one quarter in circumference. At the beginning of each 
innings, either party may call for a new ball. 

[This calling for a new ball of course refers to cases when the ground 
is wet, or the ball indifferently made. In ordinary matches such 
a call would not probably be made.] 

2. The Bat must not exceed four inches and one quarter 
in the widest part j it must not be more than thirty-eight 
inches in length. 

[But a player may use a bat as much smaller as he chooses.] 

3. The Stumps must be three in number, twenty-seven 
inches out of the ground ; the Bails eight inches in length ; 
the Stumps of equal and of sufficient thickness to prevent the 
ball from passing through. 

[The meaning of this is that the whole "wicket,*' consisting of 
stumps and bails, must not be more than the twenty-seven inches 



156 



LAWS OF DOUBLE WICKET. 



by eight. The bails must only be thick in proportion to the 
stumps, and in pitching the stumps the width of the bails will 
determine the distance from each other.] 

4. The Bowling Crease must be in a line with the 
Stamps, six feet eight inches in length ; the Stumps in the 
centre ; with a return crease at each end towards the Bowler 
at right angles. 

[Thus 

' ' bowling crease, with 

return creases. 

'■ popping- crease.} 



[The popping crease is generally made the same length as the 
bowling crease. The batsman may be as wide from his wicket as 
he chooses, provided his bat or person is between the two crease3.J 

5. The Popping Crease must be four feet from the 
wicket, and parallel to it; unlimited in length, but not 
shorter than the Bowling Crease. 

6. The Wickets must be pitched opposite to each other by 

the Umpires, at the distance of twenty -two yards. 

[This refers to matches where Umpires are present. They always 
pitch the wickets, and re-erect them when they fall, for which 
purpose a couple of mallets are generally among the cricketing 
requisites of a Club.] 

7. It shall not be lawful for either party during a match, 
without the consent of the other, to alter the ground by 
rolling, watering, covering, mowing, or beating, except at 
the commencement of each innings, when the ground shall 
be swept and rolled, unless the side next going in object to 
it. This rule is not meant to prevent the striker from 
beating the ground with his bat near to the spot where he 
stands during the innings, nor to prevent the bowler from 
filling up holes with sawdust, &c, when the ground shall be 
wet. 

[This rolling and breaking of course refers to great matches.] 

8. After rain the Wickets may be changed with the con- 
sent of both parties. 

9. The Bowler shall deliver the ball with one foot on 
the ground behind the bowling crease, and within the return 
crease, and shall bowl one over before he change Wickets, 
which he shall be permitted to do twice in the same innings ; 
and no bowler shall bowl more than two overs in succession. 



iS7 



CRICKET. 



[Within the return crease means between the return crease and the 
wicket. In one-day matches six balls are generally allowed for an 
over.] 

10. The ball must be bowled. If thrown or jerked, the 

Umpire shall call " No Ball." 

[This modification of the 10th Law does awar with all restrictions as 
to the height of the bowling — an important alteration for fast 
bowlero.] 

11. He may require the Striker at the wicket from which 
he is bowling to stand on that side of it which he may- 
direct. 

[This refers to any changes in the side of the wicket preferred by the 
bowler.] 

12. If the Bowler shall toss the ball over the Striker's 

head, or bowl it so wide that in the opinion of the Umpire 

it shall not be fairly within the reach of the Batsman, he 

shall adjudge one run to the party receiving the innings, 

either with or without an appeal, which shall be put down to 

the score of Wide Balls ; such ball shall not be reckoned as 

one of the four balls ; but if the Batsman shall by any means 

bring himself within reach of the ball, the run shall not be 

adjudged. 

[This refers to balls beyond the reach of the batsman. If he strike 
them, they cannot be considered wide; and he may be caught off a 
ball so hit. When the Umpire calls •■* Wide " the run should be 
scored as a wide, unless actually hit.] 

13. If the Bowler deliver a "No Ball" or a "Wide Ball," 

the Striker shall be allowed as many runs as he can get, and 

he shall not be put out except by running out. In the event 

of no run being obtained by any other means, then one run 

shall be added to the score of " No Balls," or " Wide Balls," 

as the case may be. All runs obtained for "Wide Balls" to 

be scored to "Wide Balls." The names of the Bowlers who 

bowl "Wide Balls" or "No Balls" in future to be placed 

on the score, to show the parties by whom either score is 

made. If the ball shall first touch any part of the Striker's 

dress or person (except his hands), the Umpire shall call 

"Leg Bye." 

[It is a foolish practice among young players to run a single bye, 
often a wide, or no ball.] 

14. At the beginning of each innings the Umpire shall 



158 



LAWS OF DOUBLE WICKET. 



call "Play;" from that time to the end of each innings no 
trial ball shall be allowed to any Bowler. 

[This is the general plan, and of course refers to matches, but among 
friends it is usual to allow a new bowler a trial] 

15. The Striker is Out if either of the bails be bowled 
off, or if a stump be bowled out of the ground; 

16. Or if the ball, from the stroke of the bat, or hand, but 
not the wrist, be held before it touch the ground, although it 
be hugged to the body of the catcher ; 

17. Or if in striking, or at any other time while the ball 

shall be in play, both his feet shall be over the popping 

crease, and his wicket put down, except his bat be grounded 

within it ; 

[It is understood by this that the bat must be in the hand of the 
player, and not simply thrown inside the popping crease.] 

18. Or if, in striking at the ball, he hit down his wicket; 

19. Or if, under pretence of running, or otherwise, either 

of the Strikers prevent a ball from being caught, the Striker 

of the ball is out ; 

[The Umpire must decide in a case of this sort. In a case where a 
catch has been prevented by the Striker, the Umpire must decide 
as to the wilfulness of the act.] 

20. Or if the ball be struck, and he wilfully strike it 

again ; 

[Many a young player on tipping or blocking a ball is tempted to 
strike it again. Let him beware.] 

21. Or if, in running, the wicket be struck down by a 
throw, or by the hand or arm (with ball in hand), before his 
bat (in hand) or some part of his person be grounded over 
the popping crease. But if both the bails be off, a stump 
must be struck out of the ground ; 

[Thus, if by a " Thrown-in " the wicket be knocked down while the 
Striker is in his ground, and he should run, the wicket must be 
re-erected before he could be stumped.] 

22. Or if any part of the Striker's dress knock down the 
wicket ; 

23. Or if the Striker touch or take up the ball while in 
play, unless at the request of the opposite party ; 

24. Or if, with any part of his person, he stop the ball, 



159 



CRICKET. 



which in the opinion of the Umpire at the Bowler's wicket 
shall have been pitched in a straight line from it to the 
; Striker's wicket, and would have hit it. 

On this law R. C. Thorpe says, "A man has been fairly given out 
when hit on the arm, and when hit on the mouth (as a short man 
stooping might be) by a ball, which had been pitched ' in a 
straight line from wicket to wicket' — not from Bowler's hand to 
wicket— and ' would have hit it.' The Umpire should look keenly 
for the working away of the ball, and consider whether pitched 
short or well up ; if short pitched, there is more time to work away 
from the wicket."] 

25. If the players have crossed each other, he that runs 

for the wicket which is put down is out. 

[This is important to remember, as if they have not crossed the other 
man is out.] 

26. A ball being caught, no runs shall be reckoned; 

27. A Striker being run out, that run which he and his 
partner were attempting shall not be reckoned. 

[All runs previous to the last are to be scored.] 

28. If a lost ball be called, the Striker shall be allowed six 
runs ; but if more than six shall have been run before "Lost 
ball " shall have been called, then the Striker shall have all 
which have been run. 

29. After the ball shall have been finally settled in the 

Wicket-keeper's or Bowler's hand, it shall be considered 

dead ; but when the Bowler is about to deliver the ball, if 

the Striker at his wicket go outside the popping crease 

before such actual delivery, the said Bowler may put him 

out, unless (with reference to the 21st Law) his bat in hand, 

or some part of his person, be within the popping crease. 

[The "final settlement" of the ball -is a point for the Umpire to 
determine. But when " finally settled " the ball is considered dead 
till the bowler stands to deliver his next ball,] 

30. The Striker shall not retire from his wicket and 

return to it to complete his innings after another has been 

in, without the consent of the opposite party. 

[In case of hurt or illness, permission to retire from an innings and 
return is almost invariably given.] 

31. No substitute shall in any case be allowed to standout 
or run between wickets for another person without the con- 
sent of the opposite party ; and in case any person shall be 



i6d 



LAWS OF DOUBLE WICKET. 



allowed to run for another, the Striker shall be out if either 

he or his substitute be off the ground in manner mentioned 

in Laws 17 and 21, while the ball is in play. 

[If the principal should forget that he has a substitute and run, and a 
wicket be put down, he would be out ; but if the run be made 
under such circumstances, it cannot count.] 

32. In all cases where a substitute shall be allowed, the 
consent of the opposite party shall also be obtained as to the 
person to act as substitute, and the place in the field which 
he shall take. 

33. If any Fieldsman stop the ball with his hat, the ball 
shall be considered dead, and the opposite party shall add 
five runs to their score j if any be run, they shall have five 
in all. 

[This law is almost obsolete, as cricketers seldom attempt to stop a 
ball with anything but their hands or feet nowadays.] 

34. The ball having been hit, the Striker may guard his 
wicket with his bat, or with any part of his body except his 
hands, that the 23rd Law may not be disobeyed. 

35. The Wicket-keeper shall not take the ball for the pur- 
pose of stumping until it has passed the wicket ; he shall 
not move until the ball be out of the Bowler's hand ; he 
shall not by any noise incommode the Striker ; and if any 
part of his person be over or before the wicket, although 
the ball hit it, the Striker shall not be out. 

36. The Umpires are the sole judges of fair or unfair 
play j and all disputes shall be determined by them, each at 
his own wicket ; but in case of a catch which the Umpire at 
the wicket bowled from cannot see sufficiently to decide 
upon, he may apply to the other Umpire, whose opinion shall 
be conclusive. 

37. The Umpires in all matches shall pitch fair wickets j 
and the parties shall toss up for choice of innings. The 
Umpires shall change wickets after each party has had one 
innings. 

38. They shall allow two minutes for each Striker to 
come in, and ten minutes between each innings. When the 
Umpires shall call " Play," the party refusing to play shall 
lose the match. 



161 



CRICKET. 



[This means two minutes at most. To prevent twenty minutes being 
lost in a match, the Captain should have his next man ready to 
go in.] 

39. They are not to order a Striker out unless appealed to 

by the adversaries. 

[This refers more especially to cases of leg before wicket and stumping, 
when his bowler or wicket-keeper cries " How's that, Umpire? " or 
words to that effect.] 

40. But if one of the Bowlers' feet be not on the ground 
behind the bowling crease and within the return crease when 
he shall deliver the ball, the Umpire at his wicket, unasked, 
must call " No Ball." 

[This is a nice part of the Umpire's duty, and should be judiciously and 
impartially performed.] 

41. If either of the Strikers run a short run, the Umpire 
must call " One Short." 

[The short run is not added to the score.] 

42. No Umpire shall be allowed to bet. 

[This is important. But there is not much betting on cricketing now- 
adays.] 

43. No Umpire is to be changed during a match, unless 
with the consent of both parties, except in case of violation 
of the 42nd Law ; then either party may dismiss the trans- 
gressor. 

44. After the delivery of four balls the Umpire must call 
" Over," but not until the ball be finally settled in the 
Wicket-keeper's or Bowler's hand; the ball shall then be 
considered dead ; nevertheless, if an idea be entertained 
that either of the Strikers is out, a question may be put pre- 
viously to, but not after, the delivery of the next ball. 

45. The Umpire must take especial care to call "No Ball" 
instantly upon delivery ; " Wide Ball " as soon as it shall 
pass the Striker. 

46. The players who go in second shall follow their 
innings, if they have obtained eighty runs less than their 
antagonists, except in matches limited to only one day's 
play, when the number shall be limited to sixty instead of 
eighty. 

47. When one of the Strikers shall have been put out, the 



l62 



LAWS OF SINGLE WICKET. 



use of the bat shall not be allowed to any person until the 
next Striker shall come in. 

NOTE. — The Committee of the MaryleboneClnb think it 
desirable that, previously to the commencement of a match, 
one of each side should be declared the Manager or Captain 
of it ; and that the laws with respect to substitutes may be 
carried out in a spirit of fairness and mutual concession ; it is 
their wish that such substitutes be allowed in all reasonable* 
cases, and that the Umpire should inquire if it is done with 
the consent of the Manager of the opposite side. 

Complaints having been made that it is the practice of 
some players when at the wicket to make holes in the ground 
for a footing, the Committee are of opinion that the Umpires 
should be empowered to prevent it. 

One-day matches are generally decided by the first innings, 
if not played out ; but there is no positive rule to this effect. 
In such a case the attention of the Umpire should be called 
to time, in order to prevent any attempt at delay. 

The players challenged have generally the option given 
them of playing on their own ground; but in " out-and- 
home matches " these matters are to be settled by the 
Captain. 

IX.— LAWS OF SINGLE WICKET. 

1. When there shall be less than five players on a side, 
Bounds shall be placed twenty-two yards each in a line from 
the off and leg stump. 

2. The ball must be hit before the Bounds to entitle the 
Striker to a run, which run cannot be obtained unless he 
touch the bowling stump or crease, in a line with his bat, 
or some part of his person, or go beyond them, returning 
to the popping crease as at Double Wicket, according to the 
21st Law. 

3. When the Striker shall hit the ball, one of his feet 
must be on the ground, and behind the popping crease, 
otherwise the Umpire shall call " No hit." 

4. When there shall be less than five players on a side, 



l63 



" 



CRICKET. 



neither Byes nor Overthrows shall be allowed, nor shall 
the Striker be caught out beyond the wicket, nor stumped 
out. 

5. The Fieldsman must return the ball so that it shall 
cross the play between the wicket and the bowling stump, 
or between the bowling stump and the bounds ; the Striker 
may run till the ball be so returned. 

[■The Striker may run till the ball be so returned. How returned ? By 
custom it need only be so returned that the ball shall be taken by 
the Fieldsman in front of and not behind, the wicket. But this never 
was the intention of the rule. No rule would ever have been passed 
for anything so trifling. The old custom was that the Fieldsman 
must run in front of the bound before he could duly return the ball.] 

6. After the Striker shall have made one run, if he start 
again he must .touch the bowling stump, and turn before the 
ball cross the play, to entitle him to another. 

7. The Striker shall be entitled to three runs for lost ball, 
and the same number for ball stopped with hat, with refer- 
ence to the 28th and 33rd Laws of Double Wicket. 

8. When there shall be more than four players on a side, 
there shall be no bounds. All Hits, Byes, and Overthrows 
shall then be allowed. 

* 9. The Bowler is subject to the same laws as at Double 
Wicket. 

10. No more than one minute shall be allowed between 
each ball. 



X.— BKTS. 



1. No bet upon any match is payable unless it be played 
out or given up. 

2. If the runs of one player be betted against those of 
another, the bet depends on the first innings, unless other- 
wise specified. 

3. If the bet be made on both innings, and one party beat 
the other in one innings, the runs of the first innings shall 
determine it. 

4. If the other party go in a second time, then the bet 
must be determined by the number on the score. 



164 



PROFESSIONAL TALENT. 



THE PROFESSIONAL TALENT OF THE 

COUNTRY. 

FOR four centuries Cricket, under one form or another, has 
existed in England, and it bids fair to nourish for centuries 
yet to come. It is a game thoroughly manly, and therefore 
essentially English. It is impossible to conceive its decay, 
unless the national character should degenerate and popular 
sports cease to be attractive. It is already so venerable as 
to claim a place among the most cherished and time-worn of 
our institutions. Although not so old as Magna Charta, it 
secures quite as much reverence on the part of the majority 
of those who love the traditions of their fathers. But respect 
for its antiquity has not prevented its undergoing a steady 
improvement. Like the British Constitution itself, it has 
been modified by the laws which experience and the altered 
circumstances of the times have rendered necessary ; and as 
long as it retains this flexibility, and the grave and youthful 
seigniors who administer its affairs exhibit the wisdom which 
is begotten of prudence, so long will it continue to thrive, 
like the great system by whose example it has benefited. 
The principles of the game have remained the same for a 
long succession of years, but, after serious and weighty 
deliberations, new laws have from time to time been pro- 
mulgated; and these laws have been as loyally obeyed as 
any statute of the realm. More than this — like our political 
fabric, the institution of Cricket has found its way into other 
lands. It was a long time before it got into France. The 
gay and versatile Frenchman does not quite see the fun 
of hitting, running after, or trying to catch a ball all day 
long, with the thermometer at 100 degrees ; least of all does 
he care to stand with his hands in his pockets for six or seven 
hours, while others are broiling under the combined influence 



165 



CRICKET. 



great players are always fed from ten thousand village clubs. 
During the summer months the green fields of every hamlet 
are dotted with cricketers, and once or twice at least in every 
season rival villages try their mettle in hard-fought conflicts, 
and endeavour to pluck, the one from the other, the laurels 
which the victorious alone can wear. Nor are the great 
towns behind the rural districts. Manchester, Sheffield, and 
Nottingham make up County and All-England matches, 
which are every whit as successful as those which attract 
thousands to the regions of St. John's Wood and Kennington 
Park. What wonder, then, that wherever England establishes 
a colony, Cricket is the pastime of the earliest settlers, and 
prospers with their prosperity ? Australia and New Zealand 
have twice demanded " a team" of picked players of the 
mother country; and, after giving ample proofs of their 
prowess in every colony, some of them have remained behind 
to teach the young idea, not how to shoot, but how to bat. 
On antipodean prairies and meadows games are lost and won ; 
and the scenes and associations of the old country are one 
by one revived on a continent which, less than thirty 
years ago, was a desert. Long may Cricket flourish there 
and here, giving Anglo-Saxon youth legitimate recreation 
and hardy exercise, and training them for those sterner 
battles of life which require all their courage and powers of 
endurance ! 



NOTED PROFESSIONAL PLAYERS. 

SURREY. 

W. G. Carter. A good change bowler, useful cricketer, 
and able field. 

G. Clifford. A hard working useful cricketer, good at 
bat, bowling, and hitting. 

Albert Freeman. A good all-rounder change bowler and 
excellent field — smart and active. 



1 66 



NOTED PROFESSIONAL PLAYERS. 

Richard Humphrey is undoubtedly the rising batsman of 
the Southern County, possessing great freedom of style with 
excellent defence, and has played for Surrey two years 
with great success. In the field he cannot be surpassed, 
wherever he may be placed. 

Thomas Humphrey, once the leading batsman in the South, 
is an elder brother of Richard. His specialty was cutting, 
but the last year or two that brilliancy for which he was 
once distinguished has not been so marked. At one time, 
when he and Jupp were in together, it was considered one 
of the greatest treats to be witnessed at the Oval and else- 
where. He was also a brilliant field and a sure catch, and 
on one or two occasions in 1871 he displayed his old form. 

Henry Jupp, for a long time the leading scorer of his 
county, is generally sent in first to break the bowling, and 
is justly considered to have as good, if not better, defence 
than any batsman in England. During the season of 1872 
he was more free in his style, with great advantage to his 
side. In addition to being an accomplished batsman, he is 
a splendid long-field, but he generally undertakes the duties 
of long-stop, and very few balls get past him when ho 
occupies that position. He sometimes acts as wicket- 
keeper. 

Thomas William Palmer. A good batsman, safe field, 
and good tutor to a club. 

Edward Pooley is the prince of wicket-keepers, in addition 
to which he is a splendid bat against any description of 
bowling, notwithstanding that his hands are greatly 
punished with the great amount of work he does behind 
the stumps during the season. In 1871, owing to the bad 
state of his hands, towards the close he was compelled on 
one or two occasions to take another position in the field. 

James Southerton. The best slow round-arm bowler of 
the day. Good bat for runs. Clever with ball. One of 
the Australian twelve. 

James Street. A straight bowler and sometimes difficult. 

James Swann. Good field, safe long stop. Played well 
for Surrey in 1874, 



167 



CRICKET. 

YORKSHIRE. 

Thomas Armitage. Straight round -arm medium bowler ; 
"lobs" well. Good bat and fielcf. Has been engaged at 
Keighley five years in succession. 

Alfred Brown. A promising and rising cricketer. Fast 
right-round bowler. 

Robert Clayton is another acquisition to the bowling 
strength of Yorks hire, and has shown great power against 
the best batsmen of the day. In batting he has rather a 
tendency to "slog," and, like most hard hitters, displays 
very little defence. 

Thomas Emmets another fast bowler (left-hand), is most 
destructive, but at times very erratic. 

Luke Greenwood, Andrew Greenwood, Ullathorne, and West 
are generally included in the county eleven, and they are 
all excellent exponents of the game. 

Louis Hall. Fine field. Good bat. Slow round bowler. 
A promising cricketer. 

Allen Hill made his first appearance for his county in 
1871, as a bowler, with great success, and is generally 
acknowledged as the coming man. He can likewise use the 
bat, and will be a great acquisition to the County Eleven. 

Roger Iddison is a fine all-round and enthusiastic cricketer, 
an excellent judge of the game, and one of the best points 
of the day. He is invariably the captain of the Yorkshire 
Eleven, and whenever he takes a bat in hand he is sure to 
add to the score. 

Ephraim Lockwood at the present day stands at the top of 
the tree in the county of broad acres, and as a batsman has 
very few superiors in the North of England. He cuts very 
smartly, and has great defence. Lockwood is an excellent 
and safe field. 

George Pinder, the wicket-keeper of the North, has few 
equals, especially against fast bowling, of which all the 
bowling in the North consists. As a batsman he is excellent, 
and at times has no difficulty in running up a good score. 

Joseph Rowbotham. Fast reliable bowler. Hits well. 
Best long stop of the day, and a valuable cricketer. 



168 



NOTED PROFESSIONAL PLAYERS. 

A. F. Smith. Fast right-arm round bowler. Good field, 
bat, and hitter. 

G. Ulyett. Brilliant field, good bowler with high delivery. 
Improving bat. 

John West. Vide Greenwood. 

NOTTINGH AMS HIRE. 

Samual Biddulph is the Notts wicket-kee per, and is very 
sure to fast bowling. At times he astonishes the spectators 
by a fine display of batting. 

Thomas Bignall is another fine batsman, and is invariably 
sent in first when playing for his county. Fields well at 
long-stop. 

Daniel S. Campbell. Straight round-arm medium-pace 
bowler. Good bat, defence, and lob. Desirable tutor and 
ground keeper. 

Richard Daft, without doubt the most finished batsman in 
the world, and second only to Mr. W. G. Grace as an effective 
scorer, has for some time held the leading position in what 
is now the premier county. For brilliance of style and fine 
defence he is unequalled, and his cricket is pronounced by 
most judges to be perfection. He is the captain of the Notts 
Eleven, having taken the place of the renowned George 
Parr. As a field, he ranks A 1, his position generally being 
at long-leg or mid-off. He bowls "lobs" at times, with 
great effect. Of his other good qualities it is not our province 
to speak here : it will be sufficient to say that he has ever 
upheld the game in its integrity, and is one of its brightest 
ornaments. 

Frank Henry Farrands is an improving bat ; and in 1872 
he showed to very great advantage with the ball, at Lord's 
and elsewhere, against the best batting in England, as his 
fine analysis will prove. 

0. Leivers. Good bat and field. Fast right-handed 
bowler. Serviceable coach. 

Martin Mclntyre, who returned from America in 1872, is 
a very fine bat, and he is also a fast bowler and good field, 
and was very useful to his county. 



169 



CRICKET, 

Frederick Morley. Nearly the best fast bowler in England. 
Left-hand bat and bowler. Distinguished in the Marylebone 
Club in 1874. 

William Oscroft is a leading batsman against fast bowling; 
a good field, especially at point. 

Frank Pettener. A well qualified cricketer. Good me- 
dium pace bat and bowler. 

Walter Price, Good straight fast round bowler. 

George Seaton. Medium pace bowler, good bat, fair 
wicket-keeper. First-rate all round cricketer. 

John Selby has joined the County Team two seasons, after 
an excellent display in the Colts' Match in 1870, but until 
1872 he did not show to very great advantage in the 
batting department. In the field, however, he has greatly 
distinguished himself, and will always secure a place in the 
Eleven on that account. 

Alfred Shaw, a most effective medium-pace bowler, with 
a deal of head-work. He was not quite up to his usual 
mark in 1872, being unwell ; but during the two previous 
years he exhibited great bowling powers. Shaw can also 
field well, and is a pretty safe catch. 

Edmund Shurlock Shaw. Medium right-hand bowler. 
Good school coach. 

George Shaw. Good field, bat and bowler. 

James Coupe Shaw, the best fast left-hand bowler in 
England, was in splendid form nearly all the season of 1872, 
has great pace, and does a great deal of work during the 
Cricket campaign. 

William Shaw. Straight right-hand medium bowler. 
Good bat. 

Frederick Wyld. Good field, can take wicket and bowl 
fast. Fine batsman, bowls well all round, and is clever in 
cutting. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 
This county, as a matter of course, owing to the fact that 
it claims the celebrated Grace family, is sure to occupy a 
leading position ; but at the present time it is simply an 



170 



NOTED PROFESSIONAL PLAYERS. 



amateur county. In addition to the brothers, there are 
some very fine bats amongst the rest of their team. 

MIDDLESEX. 

James Harpour. Fast right-handed all round bowler. 
Bats well. 

Thomas Hearne is a native of Buckinghamshire, but plays 
for Middlesex, by residence; he has a peculiar but effective 
style of batting, and is a good bowler. During the earlier 
part of the season he acts as coach at Westminster School; 
and for some years he has been one of the "ground" at 
Lord's. 

George Howett. Dangerous on a bad wicket, very fast 
left-hand bowler. 

W. Lambert. A rising cricketer. Medium -pace bowler 
and fair bat. 

Thomas Allen Mantle also plays for Middlesex, on account 
of residence ; he is an excellent bowler and a good bat, and 
for years has been permanent tutor to Westminster School. 

The county is exceedingly strong in amateur talent. 

SUSSEX. 

Henry Charlwood stands at the top of the tree amongst 
the cricketers of Sussex, and is one of the most dashing 
batsmen of the South. He hits well at all points, and his 
season of 1872 was undoubtedly the best this accomplished 
player has yet seen. 

John George Davey. Good field. Bats freely, a useful 
all-round cricketer. 

Richard Fillery is a good all-round cricketer, a medium- 
pace bowler, bats in good style, and is an excellent field. 

Ernest Hammond. Good field and fair bat. No bowler. 
Has played for the county. 

George Thomas Humphreys. A good field who can take 
wicket, and bats with a neat cut. 

Walter A. Humphreys is a most promising professional 
batsman of Sussex, and shows rare defence. He is an 
excellent bowler, and can field well anywhere. 



171 



CRICKET. 

Harry Killich. Uncertain field. Change bowler. Good 
bat. 

George Knight. Useful in an Eleven, but not quite up to 
county form. 

James Lilly white is the only playing member of the once 
celebrated family of cricketers. He is a fine fast left-hand 
bowler, a good bat, and is almost sure to make runs. 

George Henry Lynn. Not first-class field, but bats and 
hits well. Medium bowler. 

Henry Philips, after some years practice as a wicket- 
keeper, has at length had his services recognized, and bids 
fair to be the leading wicket-keeper of the day. He bats 
well, and is very fast, covers a great deal of ground in the 
field, and is an undoubted acquisition to the county. 

James Philips. Brilliant field. Safe bat. One of the 
best professionals in the South. 

Albert A. Reed is a fine batsman, and now and then is 
successful in the trundling department. 

C. Howard. Useful county man. 

John Skinner. Medium-pace left-hand bowler. Good 
field. 

These are the professionals of Sussex ; but there are some 
very promising amateurs, and to this source the county 
must look for some time to come, if they wish to regain the 
proud position Sussex once held in the cricketing world. 

KENT. 

Henry Croxford is a very useful cricketer, bowls fast 
round-arm, and bats well. 

W. McCanlis. Fine bat, safe field, and good all-round 
cricketer. 

G. McCanlis. Smart field. Effective bowler. Dangerous 
at times. Useful to the county. 

H. Draper. Fast round-arm bowler, good bat. Useful 
coach. 

W. Draper. Medium bowler. Left-hand batsman. 

Edward Henty is the county wicket-keeper, which capacity 
he fills with great credit; he can also get runs, and is 
engaged at Prince's Ground. 



172 



NOTED PROFESSIONAL PLAYERS. 



H. L. Palser. Improving bat. Fast round-awn bowler, 
excellent for a school. 

Edgar Willsher is one of the best left-hand bowlers in the 
hop county, and, in fact, in England. In 1871 he had his 
benefit, but his engagement at Prince's Ground, Chelsea, 
prevented his playing in all the Kent matches. 

The amateur talent of Kent is very strong, but they 
seldom get their best men together, hence their great 
number of defeats. 

LANCASHIRE. 

This is a rising county, and they have a great many 
promising young players. Their most important batsmen 
at present are : — 

R. G. Barlow. Good left-hand medium-pace bowler. 
Capital field with strong defence. Did not play much in 
the County Eleven in 1874. 

William Burrows. Good bat, field, and bowler. 

F* Coward. Good field, makes long scores. Dangerous 
batsman. 

John Hilton Duckworth. Improving bat, fast bowler. 

William Mclntyre. Fair bat, field, and excellent fast 
round bowler. Has resided in Lancashire four years, and 
is included in the county players. 

James Taylor. Good bat, ball, and field player. Gives 
promise. 

James Unsworth. Safe field, fast right-hand bowler and 
good all-rounder. 

A. Watson has gained great distinction during the last 
three seasons. Good field, bat, wicket-keeper, and fast 
round-arm bowler. 

Thomas Whatmaugh. Fast short pitch bowler. Good 
bat and field. 

They are also very strong in amateur talent. 

DURHAM. 

Edward Barratt. A man of great promise. A good field 
and slow left-hand bowler. An improving bat. 



173 



CRICKET. 

DERBYSHIRE. 

Joseph Flint. A fine slow bowler. A good field, a good 
defence in batting, and a good hitter all-round. 

G. Frost. Excellent bat, and good field. 

T. Forster. Good bat. Capital field. 

George Hay. A good break, excellent fast bowler, a neat 
bat and excellent field. 

W. Hichton. A good bat and fast bowler. 

William Mycroft. An excellent field, and brilliant left- 
hand fast round-arm bowler. 

J. Prates. A good bat, a very hard hitter, a capital field, 
and a fast and straight bowler. 

William Rig ley. A promising player, who is a very good 
bat and field, and a very fair bowler. 

ESSEX. 
John Ballard. Slow round-arm bowler. Good field and 
bat. Good umpire. 

Ledger Dowsett. Fast bowler and rising bat. 

HAMPSHIRE. 

John George Galpin. Good field, bat, and fast right-hand 
bowler. Useful school coach. 

Henry Holmes. Steady bat and bowler. 

LEICESTER. 
F Randon. Fast bowler, who distinguished himself at 
Lord's for Leicester v. M.C.C. 

LINCOLNSHIRE. 

A. Rylott. Fast bowler. Shown good service at Lord's, 

HERTFORDSHIRE. 

Edwin Goodyear. Capital bat, wicket-keeper and field. 
Useful coach. 
F. SilcocJc. Good bat, reliable bowler. 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

Thomas Plumb. Good bat, reliable umpire. Distinguished 
himself as wicket-keeper of the United North Eleven. 



174 



NOTED PROFESSIONAL PLAYERS. 



Most of the professional men play in the various Elevens 
—such as the "All England," the "United All England," &c. 
— which undertake to play against odds in different parts of 
the country. Against loose bowling they of course get long 
scores ; but matches at odds are not true tests of cricketing 
talent. 



*** The Editor of "The Cricketers' Guide" will be happy 
to receive any information that may be forwarded him 
respecting professional or amateur cricketers, for a future 
edition. Communications to be addressed to him, at Messrs. 
Dean & Son's, 160a, Fleet street, E.C. 




HALF-VOLLEY. 



175 



CRICKET. 



THE GENTLEMEN OP ENGLAND. 

Of the gentlemen players of England at the present day, 
Mr. W. G. Grace is facile princeps. His batting is as near 
perfection as possible, his fielding magnificent. He is 
likewise a first-class bowler. His younger brother, G. F. 
Grace, is only second to him ; and the " Doctor," who was 
the first to make the name of Grace a " household word " 
amongst cricketers, still retains his old form, and is one of 
the best amateur points. It would perhaps be invidious to 
dwell on the achievements of any other gentlemen players 
specially ; but we may be allowed to mention the names of 
those who follow in the order of merit, and who play in 
first-class matches, — Messrs. V. E. and I. D. Walker, W. 
Yardley, A. Appleby, J. G. Beevor, R. Bissett, C. J. Brune, 
A. J. Bush, C. R. Filgate, J. C. Gregory, W. H. Hadow, Lord 
G. Harris, A. N. Hornby, J. F. Leese, R. Lipscomb, J. M. 
Mare, C.J. Ottaway, E. B. Rowley, G. Strachan, R. Tolley, 
E. F. S. Tylecote, and E. A. White. 

The renown of these gentlemen is well known to most 
cricketers; and many are the fields on which they have won 
their well-earned fame. It would be easy to particularize 
instances in which they have distinguished themselves as 
batsmen, bowlers, and fieldsmen. But it is with the bat that 
the gentlemen players are more especially familiar. Bowling 
and fielding are slow and uninteresting compared with bat- 
ting, hence it is that the bat has invariably the ascendency 
over the ball, and that long scores are made. A visit in 
the season to Lord's or The Oval will afford a good lesson 
to amateurs. It is worthwhile, too, to notice the different 
ways the gentlemen adopt in fielding ; some standing in the 
old-fashioned and once orthodox style, with the body half 
bent and hands on knees ; others placing their hands behind 
them, in comparative indifference to the game, but with 
eyes alert, and limbs active and ready, nevertheless ; while 
others, again, fold their arms. The amateur will learn from 
these, and the style of the professionals, what to imitate 
and what to avoid. Brilliant hitting will not avail against 
careful and correct bowling, though when the latter is loose 
the former is generally free. First-class play requires all 
the players to be on the alert ; and though it is not given 
to every lover of the game to become a Grace, a Daft, or a 
Carpenter, he may at least endeavour so to play as to make 
a good average score, and become a valuable member of his 
club. 



176 



GENTLEMEN OF ENGLAND. 



Gentlemen of England, Alphabetical List. 



Absolom, C. A. 
Appleby, A. 
Akroyd, S. H. 
Beevor, J. G. 
Bird, G. 
Birley, F. H. 
Bousfield, E. J. 
Brune, J. A. 
Buller, C. F, 
Burls, C. W. 
Chandler. 
Cotterill, Kev. G. 
Cotterill, J. M. 
Crawford, F. A. 
Crooke, F. J. 
Curgensen, W. E. 
Dewhurt, R. 
Fellows, J. 
Filgate, C. R. 
Foarde, W. 
Ford, E. C. B. 
Gilbert, W. G. 
Gordan, C. A. 
Gore, S. W. 
Grace, E. W. 
Grace, G. F. 
Grace, W. G. 
Green, C. E. 
Greenfield, F. J. 
Hadow, P. D. 
Halford, G. 
Hardcastle, W. 
Harris. Lord. / 
Hill, Kirk J. 
Hoare, C. T. 
Hobgen, A. 
Hornby, A. W. 
Howell, S. S. 
Humble, W. J. 
Jackson, E. 
Jeffery G. E. 
Kennedy, CM. 
Kingsford, R. K. 
Knapp, E. M. 



Lang, T. 0. 
Leese, G. F. 
Lipscomb, R. 
Lucas, A. C. 
Makinson, J. 
Mare, G. M. 
Mathews, T. G. 
Miles, R. F. 
Monkland, F. G. 
Ottaway. C. J . 
Parr, H. B. 
Penn, W. 

Pickering, F. P. V. 
Potter, W. 
Raven, J. E. 
Renny, Tailfour H. A, 
Riddell, E. M. H. 
Ridley, A. A. 
Richardson, S. 
Roberts, R. 
Rowley, A. B. 
Rowley, E. B. 
Royle, Y. 
Rutter, E. 
Sharp, C. 
Shuter, A. 
Smith, A. 
Smith, C. N. 
Smith, R. P. 
Strachan, A. 
Stokes, F. 
Stubbs, R. 
Tabor, A. S. 
Tellard, C. 
Tolley, R. 
Townsend. F. 
Turner, M. 
Walker, J. D. 
Walker, R. D. 
Walker, V. D. 
Wilkinson, A. J. 
White, A. E. 
Wright, T. 
Yardley, W. 



177 



M 



CRICKET. 



PRINCIPAL CRICKET GROUNDS IN 
ENGLAND. 

1. Lord's Cricket Ground, St. John's Wood, London. 

2. Surrey County Ground, Kennington Oval, London. 

3. Prince's Ground, Hans Place, Chelsea. 

4. Lillie Bridge Ground, West Brompton. 

5. Tufnell Park Ground, Holloway. 

6. Eosemary Branch, Peckhaui. 

7. Battersea Park Ground, Battersea. 

8. Victoria Park Ground, Victoria Park, London. 

9. Notts County Ground, Trent Bridge, Nottingham. 

10. Yorkshire County Ground, Brammall Lane, Sheffield. 

11. Saville Ground, Dewsbury. 

12. Kent County Ground, St. Lawrence Ground, Canterbury. 

13. Gloucestershire County Ground, Clifton. 

14. Mid Kent Ground, " Bat and Ball," Gravesend. 

15. East Kent Ground, Mailing. 

16. Sussex County Ground, Brighton. 

17. Mr. John Walker's Ground, Southgate. 

18. Oxford University Ground, Cowley Marsh. 

19. Cambridge University Ground. 

20. Eton Ground, Eton College. 

21. Harrow Ground, Harrow School. 

22. Winchester Ground, Winchester School. 

23. Warwick Ground, Racecourse, Warwick. 

24. Plymouth Ground, The Hoe, Plymouth. 

25. The Hants County Ground, Southampton. 

26. Lancashire County Ground, Old Trafford. 

27. Broughton Ground, Manchester. 

28. Beeston Ground, near Nottingham. 

29. Eastbourne. 

And the Club Grounds at Hastings, Cranbrook, Bristol, 
Scarborough, Salisbury, Newcastle-upon-Tynne, Harrogate, 
Leamington, Leicester, &c, &c. 



i 7 8 



LAWS OF COUNTY WICKET. 
LAWS OF COUNTY CRICKET. 

The following were established the laws of qualification, 
at a meeting held in the Surrey County Pavilion, Kennington 
Oval, on June 9, 1872. 

I. That no cricketer, whether amateur or professional, 
shall play for more than one- county during the same season. 

II. Every cricketer born in one county and residing in 
another shall be free to choose at the commencement of 
each season for which of those counties he will play, and 
shall, during that season, play for that county only. 

III. A cricketer shall be qualified to play for any county 
in which he is residing and has resided for the two previous 
years ; or a cricketer may elect to play for the county in 
which his family home is, so long as it remains open to him 
as an occasional residence. 

IV. That, should any question arise as to the residentatf 
qualifications the same should be left to the decision of the 
Committee of the Marylebone Club. 

CONCLUDING REMARKS. 

During the last few years Cricket has vastly increased in 
popularity. The players of the present generation are really 
scientific, and vastly superior to their predecessors. And now 
with regard to teaching Cricket by books. After all that has 
been written, allow me to say, in conclusion, that a single 
day's play will teach the tyro more than a month's reading. 
A volume of written description — though it is not to be 
despised — is inferior to the oral instruction to be derived 
from a good practical player. What the tyro has to do is to 
study the directions here given, and carry them into practice, 
bat and ball in hand. If he does this, he need not despair 
of becoming a good average gentleman player ; but it is only 
by long and severe trials day after day and month after 
month that he can ever hope to rival the champions of the 
Cricket-field, or stand a chance beside the Graces, the Dafts, 
Carpenters, Humphreys, Lockwoods, Jupps, and Pooleys of 
the game. 



179 



FOOTBALL. 




As when a sort of lusty shepherds try 
Their force at Football; care of victory 
!Makes them salute so rudely, breast to breast, 
That their encounter seems too rough for jest. 

Edmund Waller, 



| ND I quite agree with the poet ; for, to an 
unsophisticated observer, a scrimmage at 
Football would appear more like a melee in 
a fight than anything else. But the rough- 
ness, at one time considered inseperable from 
the game is no longer in vogue, and " hacking, mauling, 
and tripping," are tabooed by the Association ; and before 
we go further, I will give you the Association Rules for 
playing the game. 

There are many different ways of playing Football; and 
if my reader should be a Rugby man, he would know how 
to play with Marlborough or Cheltenham men; but he 
would soon be fogged with Eton, Harrow, Winchester, or 
Uppingham players ; and their play differs on many points, 
and abounds with numerous slang terms, which are in- 
comprehensible to players in other districts, and of no 
help to the game. These terms are discarded by the 
Association ; and you will find that the words used in their 
Rules are generally self-evident, and therefore require no 
explanation. 



1 80 



FOOTBALL. 



THE ASSOCIATION RULES. 

1. — The maximum length of the ground shall be two 
hundred yards, the maximum breadth shall be one hundred 
yards. The length and breadth shall be marked off with 
flags ; and the goals shall be defined by two upright posts, 
eight yards apart, without any tape or bar across them. 

2. — The winner of the toss shall have the choice of 
goals ; the game shall be commenced by a place kick from 
the centre of the ground by the side losing the toss; the 
other side shall not approach within ten yards of the ball 
until it is kicked off. 

3. — After a goal is won, the losing side shall kick off, 
and the goals shall be changed. 

4. — A goal shall be won when the ball passes between 
the goal-posts, or over the space between the goal-posts 
(at whatever height), not being thrown, knocked on, or 
carried. 

5. — When the ball is in touchy the first player who 
touches it shall throw it from the point on the boundary 
line where it left the ground, in a direction at right angles 
with the boundary line, and it shall not be in play again 
until it has touched the ground. 

6. — When a player has kicked the ball, any one of the 
same side who is nearer to the opponent's goal-line, is out 
of play \ and may not touch the ball himself, or prevent 
any other player from doing so until the ball has been 
played; but no player is out of play when the ball is 
kicked off from behind the goal-line. 

7. — In case the ball goes behind the goal-line, if a 
player on the side to whom the goal belongs first touches 
the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a free kick from 
the goal-line at the point opposite the place where the 
ball shall be touched. If a player of the opposite side 
first touches the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a 
free kick, at the goal only from a point fifteen yards from 
the goal-line, opposite the place where the ball is touched ; 



181 



FOOTBALL. 



the opposite side shall stand behind the goal-line until he 
has had his kick. 

8. — If a player makes a, fair catch, he shall be entitled to 
a free kick, providing he claims it by making a mark with 
his heel at once ; and, in order to take such kick, he may 
go as far back as he pleases, and no player on the opposite 
side shall advance beyond his mark until he has kicked. 

9. — No player shall carry the ball. 

10. — Neither tripping nor hacking shall be allowed, and 
no player shall use his hands to hold or push his adversary. 

11. — A player shall not throw the ball or pass it to 
another with his hands. 

12. — No player shall take the ball from the ground with 
his hands under any pretence whatever while it is in play. 

13. — No player shall be allowed to wear projecting nails, 
iron plates, or gutta-percha, on the soles or heels of his 
boots. 



It is the opinion of players of high repute, both at the 
Universities and elsewhere, that these rules are very good, 
and as unobjectionable as those that regulate cricket ; but, 
nevertheless, they are nearly always qualified to some 
extent by local circumstances. Indeed, one of the principal 
causes which have tended to render Football less popular 
than it deserves to be, is the uncertainty that exists with 
regard to the right way of playing it; and as I have 
mentioned previously, the fact of one district, or players, 
having a set of laws differing from those of another district 
or school, has been found highly inconvenient; and the 
arrangement of matches between players belonging to dif- 
ferent parts of the country has, therefore, been practically 
impossible. 

At Rugby School the game of Football is played with 
great spirit ; but it is so encumbered with rules and 
regulations, providing for almost every possible chance, 
that to learn it according to the Rugby system requires a 
Sort of apprenticeship. 



l82 



FOOTBALL. 



I will now give you a short but comprehensive sefr of 
rules, which are well adapted for clubs, and any game in 
which there are more than the twenty-two players allowed 
by the Association. 

Any number of players are divided into two parties, who 
stand between two goals marked out in a field. The object 
of each set of players is to defend their own goal, and to 
kick the ball through the opposite goal. The goals are 
placed eighty or a hundred yards apart, and the players 
who first succeed in making two goals out of three, win 
the game.* 

That you may better understand the modus operandi, 
a diagram is given showing how the ground is generally 
marked out. (See opposite page.) 

The lines C D, at right angles with the goal-lines, A B, 
are what are called the touch lines ; and when the ball is 
kicked beyond these, it is said to be in touch, when a 
player may bring it to the line, and fling it to the players 
on his own side. A place-kick is the placing the ball on 
the ground, and kicking it from where it stands. Punting, 
or the drop-kick, as it is termed by some players, is the 
dropping the ball from the hands, and kicking it before it 
reaches the ground ; and a drop is the act of dropping the 
ball and kicking it the instant it touches the ground. 

The dimensions set down in the first of the Association 
Rules are the maximum; but a ground one hundred yards 
long and eighty yards broad, is quite large enough. 

Two sides having been chosen, consisting of an equal 
number of players on each side, say eleven, in accordance 
with the Association Regulations ; and each having a 
captain— let us call them Celer and Audax — and say 
Celer's goal is at the north end of the ground, and that of 
Audax at the south. Every man obeys his captain, and 



* At Rugby, so elaborate are the Rules, that one Rule especially 
provides that a match shall be drawn, if a goal has not been kicked in 
three days. 



183 





DIAGRAM OF GROUND. 




c 




C 


A 




Goal-keeper. • 
© 


TJ 




© 
15 yds. post 






© © 
Half-backs. 






© © 






'%sod -spX qx 

© 




A 




B 


1 1 

1 uadaa^-^ojc) > 


D 


I 


l> 



184 




these captains, if no umpires be appointed, will decide any 
disputed point in the game if such arise ; but it is better 
to have an umpire for each side stationed at the goals, 
and who, when a fifteen yards' kick for a try at the goal 
has been obtained, should come out and stand behind the 
player who is taking the kick, to see if the ball passes 
clearly between the goal-posts ; or, if it rise higher than 
the posts, to see that it passes through the space that would 
have been marked by the posts had they been higher. If 
it go exactly over either post it should not count. 

Flag-posts mark out the ground, there being one at each 
corner, and each side, and one at fifteen yards' distance 
from the goal-line, which should be taller than the others. 
A capital plan is to have a narrow strip of turf removed 
on all four sides, distinctly defining the ground ; so that the 
players can see at a glance when the ball is out of play. 
This plan is practised by the Etonians. 

The first thing is to toss for the choice of goals ; Celer 
having won the toss, elects to kick with the wind. This is 
an advantage, which, of course, will be reversed when one 
goal has been won. 

The duration of a match is sometimes fixed at one hour, 
at the expiration of which, time is called by the referee or 
one of the umpires ; and in whatever state the game may 
be, it ceases at once, — the side having won which has 
obtained the most goals ; or, if no goals have been kicked 
during the time, the most tries, touches in goal, or touches 
down win. To proceed, — Celer having had the choice of 
goals, Audax has the right to first kick. Before he does 
this, however, he sends one of his " best men " to the goal 
to stay there and defend it whenever it is in danger, and 
to meet the ball and prevent its crossing the goal-line ; or, 
if it should cross, to be the first to touch it. He also 
deputes two other good men to be what are called " half- 
backs," that is, to play midway between the goal-keeper 
and the foremost players. 



185 



FOOTBALL. 



Celer disposes of his men in a similar manner, and 
keeps, with the seven men remaining, about ten yards from 
the middle of the ground where the ball is placed by 
Audax, who, taking a run at it, kicks it as hard as he can 
towards the opponents* goal, and follows the ball up with 
all his up-players, his object being to drive it through 
Celer's goal at the north end, and prevent their driving it 
through his at the south end. Celer 's side just reverse 
this order, and directly Audax has kicked the ball off, 
Celer tries to catch or stop it, and kick it back again. A 
player having caught the ball before it touches the ground, 
he may not catch it again until a goal has been won ; nor 
must he catch it when kicked by one of his own side ; but 
having fairly caught it according to the rules, he makes 
a mark with his heels beyond which the players may 
not advance. Then he retires a little way to enjoy his 
•' free kick," which may be a place-kick, or a drop-kick. 
Having sent it, by this means, far into the opponents' 
country, he follows it, as do all his players. The other 
side get behind the ball, and it is thus environed with 
players, every one striving to get a kick at it. It is during 
this kind of struggle that the players, at Rugby and other 
schools, kick one another with their toes and heels as 
hard as they can. This is what is called a "scrimmage." 
A glance at the Rules will show that this is distinctly 
forbidden. Accidentally, a player may get a kick; but 
intentionally he never should. 

At last the ball gets out again* and away it goes, all the 
players following, each taking care to keep on his right 
side, between his own goal and the ball, and never tripping 
or pushing with his hands. Every now and again the ball 
is caught, a mark made, and a free kick taken ; the ball 
is kicked out at the side lines, brought back to the bounds, 
and thrown in from the point where it crossed the line, 
at right angles to the goals. The minute it touches the 
ground, toes are at it again, and the players in full chase. 



1 86 



FOOTBALL. 



Often it gets into the region of the «* half-backs," who in 
that case do their duty ; now and again it gets past them^ 
and the goal-keeper is ail activity, till he drives it away 
again. At last Celer is too much for Audax, and it crosses 
the goal-line, when a tremendous race to touch it ensues. 
The goal-keeper touches it first, brings it to the line, and 
kicks it as far as he can into the debateable land, and his 
side drive it on and on, until they get it beyond Celer's 
goal-line, and succeed in touching it first. 

A solemn pause ensues. The ball is brought straight 
into the ground, fifteen yards from the goal-line, and in a 
direct line with the flag-post. If it is very near the side 
line, it will be of no avail attempting to kick a goal; unless 
it be near the middle of the ground, when the best kicker 
will be deputed to make the attempt; all the opponents 
having to stand outside their goal in the meantime. It is 
not so very easy to kick a goal. Every player is anxious 
as the kicker takes his run, and there is a perfect ovation 
as the ball goes flying over the space marked out for it — 
an undisputed goal for Audax. 

Now they change goals, and Celer's side has the first 
kick, because it is the losing side. The game goes on very 
quickly, and without a touch down at all, beyond the goal 
being made ; a clever player on Celer's side sets a goal by 
kicking the ball over the goal-keeper's head, between the 
posts. Now they change again ; and so the game goes on, 
until the umpire calls time, and the play ceases. 

The above is how Football should be played according 
to the new Rules framed by the Association. Every one 
concerned, as a rule, feels all the better for it, and goes 
home in good humour, and with a keen appetite. 

The ball usually employed nowadays is made of India- 
rubber; but the old-fashioned ball, consisting of a bladder 
covered with leather, is still in vogue in this country, and 
is preferred even by some of the clubs to the rubber ball. 

The club costume for Football resembles very much 



187 



FOOTBALL. 



that used for rowing, and consists of a woollen jersey, a 
pair of flannel continuations, socks, boots, and a night- 
tap. This is how a man looks rigged out in the ap- 
proved style. 




Of course, this costume is not a sine qud non, and if your 
coat and vest are doffed, and trousers tucked into your 
socks, it will answer nearly as well. 

You may, perhaps, have noticed that in this treatise on 
Football, I have made no mention of a line to be stretched 
at a certain height between the goal-posts, over which the 
ball must be kicked to win a goal ; but this line, you will 
see by a glance at the Rules, is not required by the As- 
sociation, the provision being that the ball should be 
kicked off the ground, clear between the posts. 



1 88 




BASE BALL. 

HIS is the national game of America; and is 
really only an elaborate version of the old 
English game of Bounders. The principal 
feature of the game, which will immediately 
strike an Englishman on seeing it played, is the (excellent 
fielding. When the Boston and Athletic Clubs were over 
here in 1874, the fly-catches, catches in the air and on the 
first bound, made by these players were really amazing ; and 
I can confidently recommend a course of Base Ball to 
any one who wishes to become a good cricketer, as far as 
fielding is concerned. 

There are not many rules in Base Ball ; but any number 
of explanations are attached to them in the American 
Manual of the Game. I shall content myself with giving 
the Rules. 

1. — The ball must be pitched, that is, the hand must be 
swung forward without touching the body ; and it must be 
done with a straight arm. It must be a fair ball, that is, 
delivered fairly at the striker, within striking distance, and 
without touching the ground. 

2. — If the ball be struck outside either the first or third 
base, it is a foul ball, and nothing can be made of it. 

3.— If the ball be caught off the bat, or on the first 
bound, the striker is out; but if not, he must leave his 
home base when he has struck the ball. If there is a 
player on the first base he must leave it for the second, and 
so on with all the men on bases, till the man on the third 
base gets home, and counts one run. 

4. — Any player on base, touched by the ball whilst off a 
base, is out. 



189 



BASE BALL. 



5. — The bases are sanctuaries, and the game is not to 
leave the one on which you stand until there is a necessity 
(such as the player behind you making for your base), or a 
good chance to gain another. 



Catcher • 
Umpire . 

8 FEET 




2rrl\ 

BASE MA N\ 

Short * I 

Stop Iou,iT«t 

2nd Baseman . 
Right Field . . Left Field 

Centre Field 

Base Ball — Plan of the Field and Order of Play. 

6. — When the striker has missed two fair balls, the next 
fair ball is in play, whether he hit or miss it ; so that, if it be 
caught, the striker is out ; and if not caught by the catcher, 
the striker must try to make his first base, just as though 
he had struck the ball instead of missing it. 



190 



7. — The game shall consist of nine innings to each side. 
Three players caught out, makes their side out. There 
should be nine players on each side, and one umpire 
common to both sides. The side getting the greater number 
of runs shall be the winning side. 




The following is the disposition of the players on the side 
that is out : — The pitcher, three basemen, the catcher, and 
four fielders. One of the fielders is placed within the square 
of the bases, to the left front of the striker, who stands 
squarely in front of the pitcher. He is called the short 
stop, and his position will be seen on the diagram. 
The dimensions given in the diagram are those used in 
America in playing matches; but a distance of thirty feet 



191 



from base to base, instead of ninety feet, will be found 
amply sufficient to allow of good play. 

A ball and a bat are the only paraphernalia required in 
the game. The bat must be of wood, and round in shape, 
and not more than two and a half inches in diameter at its 
thickest part. 

This is the shape : 



The ball is made of rubber covered with yarn and leather ; 
it weighs five and a quarter ounces, and is about the size of 
a tennis ball. 

The players being placed as directed by the diagram, each 
base with a field attached to it, it is the duty of the fields to 
watch their bases and be ready, in case of the batter's run- 
ning, to catch the ball and put the base down; if the man 
has got his foot off it, the fielder can put him out by touching 
him with the ball in his hand. The players are allowed to 
overrun the first base, but none of the others. 

The pitcher, or bowler, is obliged to pitch either a high or 
a low ball as the striker requires. The umpire, who stands 
behind the striker, calls out " Strike," when it is what he 
considers a fair ball, and if the striker fail to hit it in three 
trials, he is put out, if the catcher can catch the ball from 
the pitcher ; if not, he must try to make his base, according 
to rule 6. The striker can be put out when he hits a ball 
inside the foul posts, and one of the fielders catches it in the 
air, on the fly, or on the first bound. The pitcher has to be 
very quick in his delivery, and also to look out for squalls, 
as a ball hit straight back to him, goes like lightning, and 
hits hard when it touches. In like manner the catcher not 
unfrequently gets a bat flying out of the striker's hand, in 
uncomfortable proximity to his head. The captain of the 
side places his men in the field according to the peculiarities 
of the strikers, and the umpire is the sole judge of any 



192 



ROUNDERS. 



disputed point in the game. Though the play is for the 
most runs in nine games, still the fewer the runs obtained 
the better the play is considered. This sounds an anomaly, 
but the finest match played for a long time in the United 
States, was one in which the score was 2 to 0, while in one 
of the worst, the tally was 130 odd. 



ROUNDERS. 

YOU will now see the difference between the old 
English game and the new American game. 
The rules of Bounders are few and simple ; a 
bat and a ball only are required. The bat is 
simply a round club, tapering up towards the hands ; the ball 
is usually a hard one, and covered with white sheepskin. The 
ground is a square, with four bases. As at Base Ball, there 
are the home base, where the striker stands ; the first base 
to the right front of the striker, as he stands in front of 
the feeder ; the second base to the front and left, so as to 
bring it in a line with the feeder, and the third base to the 
left front of the striker. 

The feeder's position for the delivery of the ball is in 
front of the home base, where the striker stands. The 
"out" side take the field as scouts to stop or catch the ball, 
and return it to the pitcher or the base keepers, as may seem 
most advisable. The ball is pitched by the feeder. 

The striker may decline to strike at three balls, but at the 
fourth he is obliged to strike. If the ball is caught off the 
bat, the striker is out ; or if the striker knock the ball so 
that it goes behind him, he is out ; if he miss it altogether, 
he is out ; and if he is touched with it before he has reached 
the first base, or while between any two bases, he is out. 



193 



N 



LA CROSSE. 



As soon as the striker has made his first stroke, he throws 
v down his bat, and makes for the first base ; or, if it is a good 
hit, runs on to the second base. If the ball is struck far 
away, he may try for a run all round. There is an out 
player at each base, whose business it is to receive the ball 
from the fielders, or the feeder, and try to put the strikers 
out whenever they attempt to run a base. 

In Rounders a run is scored for every base, whereas in 
Base Ball it is necessary to make all the bases, to score a 
run. 

There is also this rule in Rounders, which is not to be 
found in Base Ball : — the last player has a chance of 
securing another innings for his side. He calls for " three 
fair balls for the rounders." He may refuse the first two, 
and, even if he hit 'the ball, decline to run, but the third 
fair ball he must take. If at either trial he hit the ball 
away, and run the complete distance, his side goes in again. 
If he fail to run from home to home at one of his three 
fair balls, without being touched by the ball, his side is out. 




LA CROSSE. 

HE interest in this game having been lately revived 
by the recent visit of the Canadian and Indian 
teams of players, a few words on the mode of 
playing the game will no doubt prove acceptable. 
La Crosse, which has been played in Canada from time 
immemorial, was publicly introduced in England in 1867, 
by the Iroquois teams, who appeared here first at the 
Crystal Palace ; and, as a form of athletic exercise, La 
Crosse can be excelled by few other gymnastic sports. 



194 



LA CROSSE. 



Goals are fixed upon, as in Football, about one hundred 
and fifty or two hundred yards apart. There are twelve 
players on each side, who are stationed in various parts of 
the field as goal-keepers. The object of the game is to get 
a ball, about as large as a billiard ball, through the 




opponents' goal. Each player is provided with a crosse, the 
shape of which is shown in the above illustration. It is 
made on the same principle and of the same material as a 
tennis bat, with the exception of the netting having wood 
on one side only. 

The ball is thrown from the centre of the field, and must 
be " scooped " off the ground, and carried on the crosse at 



195 



HURLING. 



full speed towards the opponents' goal. The adversary- 
strikes the ball from the crosse, and tries to get it further 
up the field, and, if he gets a chance to do so, throws the 
ball off his crosse towards the goal. 

The network of the crosse is quite flat, nevertheless the 
ball has to be kept on it, whilst the player is running for 
the goal at full speed. Indeed, much practice is required 
in this game, as a great amount of activity and address 
is demanded in playing it. 

On the whole, the fine exercise which the game affords, 
its tendency to develop and strengthen the muscles, and 
the grace of figure and attitude it frequently calls forth, all 
combine to ensure general favour in rendering La Crosse 
one of our most popular out-door games. 




HURLING, 

S an out-door game, is popular in Cornwall. It 
consists in the throwing of a rather heavy ball 
into the air, and the catcher carrying or throwing 
it beyond a goal set up in the field or playground. 
The players are divided into sides or parties. Each side then 
joins hands, and the players take their places at either goal. 
A captain, previously chosen, throws up the ball, and all try 
to catch it as it falls. Whoever catches it either throws it 
again into the air, or endeavours to carry it in his hands 
through the goal. But the players on the other side 
endeavour to obtain possession of the ball by any fair 
means at hand. In Cornwall, these means are sometimes 
of the roughest. They either catch the ball before it 
touches the ground beyond the goal, or try to take it from 
the player's hands and throw it through the opposite goal. 
The game is somewhat similar to Football, except that the 
ball is thrown, jerked, or hurled, — not kicked. 



I96 



TRAP-BALL. 




STRIKE UP AND LAY DOWN. 

HERE is a ball game known as "Strike Up 
and Lay Down," which is very amusing, and is 
supposed to be a good preparation for Cricket. 
The players, whatever be their number, are 
divided into ins and outs. One player acts as feeder — that 
is to say, he throws the ball towards another player, who 
is provided with a light bat, for the purpose of striking 
off the ball. If he is fed three times, and fails to hit 
the ball, he is out ; if he strike the ball, the fielders pick 
it up, the finder bowling it towards the batsman. The 
batsman lays down his bat before the ball is bowled. 
Should the ball be stopped by the bat or hop over it, the 
batsman is out. Every successful hit counts one, and those 
who count most hits in a given number of feedings win the 
game. 



TRAP-BALL. 

TRAP-BALL is played in a manner very similar to the 
above, but the duties of ^he feeder are performed by 
a "trap" — a wooden instrument, shaped like a shoe, which, 
on being touched by the bat, hurls the ball into the air. 




With regard to the trap, there is no necessity for an ex- 
pensive affair. A thoroughly good one may be bought for 
a shilling; and where a trap cannot be procured, a hole in 
the ground, with a flat piece of wood set slantingly in it, 
will do instead. 



197 



SKITTLES. 



The players, unlimited in number on either side, divide 
into two parties. It having been settled who shall have 
first innings, the first player strikes away his ball from the 
bat, and it is the business of the fielders to catch or stop 
the ball, and throw it in towards the trap. The batsman is 
put out of his game either by the ball being caught by one 
of the adversaries before reaching the ground; or if the 
ball, when thrown in from the field, strikes the trap ; or if 
the batsman miss striking the ball aimed at. If none of 
these mischances happen, every stroke tells for one point 
towards the batsman's game, or for that of his side. The 
side which, after all the players have had their turn, makes 
the greatest number of points in one or two innings, as 
may be agreed on at starting, wins the game. 




SKITTLES. 

KITTLES are good-sized wooden pins set up on 
one end, and bowled at with a tolerably good- 
sized bowl. There are several ways of playing 
the game : the most common is that of nine- 
pins. 
The pins must be set up in the annexed form. They 











must be so placed that a sufficient distance be allowed 
between each to prevent one falling skittle knocking down 
another. The players stand at a fixed distance frcm the 
pins. The number of points is forty or fifty — generally 



198 



AMERICAN SKITTLES. 



fifty — and the fall of one skittle counts one point. Each 
player has, in succession, three bowlings. The pins are 
not set up again until the whole have been struck down. 
Additional interest is given to the game towards its close by 
the rule that every pin knocked down beyond the number 
required to make up the score counts off. Thus, a player 
having scored forty-eight, may knock down five skittles, and 
he reduces his own score in proportion. 

In the game of " Dutch Pins " there are eight common 
pins and a king pin, and the fall of the king pin settles the 
game. It is distinguished from the rest by a round knob 
on the apex. 



AMERICAN SKITTLES. 

Io o o o 
N playing American Skittles the skittles 
are arranged in the form shown in the 
accompanying diagram. O O 

The alley is made with a rise of one foot in 
fifteen, and is composed of long strips of polished wood 
(pine being generally used). These are joined exactly; 
the alley when complete is about twenty feet long and 
three feet wide. The game is for a hundred points. The 
skittles having been placed, each player can have three 
bowls at them. If all are knocked down at the first bowl 
it counts twenty ; if not, the number of pins knocked down 
in the three bowls, are scored to the player. The only way 
in which the whole of the skittles can be knocked over at 
one blow, is by sending the ball just between the front pin 
and the one next to it on the right hand side of the player. 

The ball must not be allowed to drop on the alley in 
bowling, as the alley would soon be spoilt by the friction ; 
but it must be bowled up the whole distance, and not 
pitched. 



199 



BOWLS. 



The game is greatly in vogue in America, though there 
are a few bowling alleys in London, and other large towns. 
It is as good an exercise as any for developing the biceps. 
I will now proceed to the English game of bowls. 



BOWLS. 

" ' What sport shall we devise best in this garden 
To drive away the heavy thoughts of care ? * 
'Madam, we'll play at bowles.' " 




HE game of Bowls is played as follows : — The 

players, two or more, meet in a bowling green 

or open space, of about forty yards long. A 

piece of tape, or a straight stick, called the 

hob, is placed on the spot where you bowl 

from, and the bowler has to place one foot on one side of 

the hob and one foot on the other to deliver his bowl. The 

bowl must be delivered off the hand. 

If more than two play, divide into sides, and settle who 
shall begin, which being done, commence by throwing the 
jack (usually smaller and or of a lighter colour than the 
bowls, so that it can be seen) to some distance on the 
green ; then follow up with your bowl, placing it as near 
the jack as possible. One of the opposite side follows 
with his ball, and so on until all have played. Then march 
to the place where jack lies, to see position of balls ; as 
those on the side nearest jack only count : thus, — if the 
partners of the first player have one close to jack, and the 
other side all their bowls in, yet, the side which has only the 
nearest one in counts; but should the winning side have 
other balls nearer than their opponents' ball, these count 
also. The jack then is thrown back by he whose ball counts 
first, to the other side of the green, and the game goes on as 
before, the side gaining eleven being considered the winners; 



200 



but this number may be varied according to the number 
playing. 

Bowls are not perfectly round, but turned so as to give 
them a bias, and the art of the game is to throw or cast the 
bowl according to the nature of the ground ; thus, instead of 
aiming at jack, deliver the ball a little wide, so that when it 
begins to slacken, according to its bias, it may carry to the 
right or left as desired, if possible just behind the jack ; 
then cannot be knocked away from a good position by the 
opposite side. 

A '« Wide Bowl " is that which rolls out of the bowling 
green. " Bowled Over " is that ball which is at least three 
yards beyond jack. A " Dead Length " is the bowl which 
just reaches jack. The winning of five before your adver- 
saries win one is called the " lurch." 

Bowls delivered otherwise than off the hand, that is, 
flung or overhand, count one to the opposite side ; as also 
do bowls that are not bowled two-thirds of the way towards 
jack. " Ties," that is, when two balls of opposing sides lie 
exactly the same distance from jack, can either be played 
over again or not counted, as agreed to beforehand. 

If jack be knocked from the place where first thrown to, 
the bowls only count from where it then lies. This is often 
done by one of the last players, if his side is not in good 
position. 1 n some counties, striking j ack by bias play counts 
as two points. 



NORTHUMBERLAND BOWLS. 

3) HIS game may be played as follows: — The players, 
two or more, meet in a level field or open green, 
and agree upon the distance to be bowled in the 
match. The leader begins, and the players bowl alter- 
nately : he who reaches the goal in the smallest number of 



201 



RACQUET. 



bowls is the winner. A piece of tape, or a straight stick, 
called a trig, is placed on the spot where the bowl rests, and 
at each fresh bowl the bowler has to place one foot on one 
side of the trig, and one foot on the other. This is very 
awkward where the bowl has fallen into a gutter or ditch, 
but the opponent may insist upon the stride. The ball 
must be bowled underhand. The place at which the ball 
stops is that from which the second throw must be made. 
Balls made of india-rubber and cocoa-nut fibre are the best, 
but cricket balls or croquet balls may be used. 



RACQUET. 




play this game in the manner approved of by 
proficients, a regular court is required, the area 
of which should be about eighty feet by forty 
feet: the front wall should be thirty feet in 
height, the back wall twelve feet, and if the court be covered 
in, the roof must be well supplied with skylights. The wall 
should be made of brick, covered with plaster, and should 
be perfectly even. They must have a good coat of black 
paint. The entrance to the court should be through the 
back wall, and the door should be flush with the wall. A 
gallery for spectators may be placed over the back wall, but 
it should not project into the court. The back wall, to the 
height of twenty-six inches from the ground, should be 
covered with wood, painted black, like the rest of the wall. 
The wood is required for the purpose of indicating, by the 
sound, where the ball strikes upon it. On the front wall, 
at a height of seven feet nine inches from the floor, there 
is a white line, called the cut line, above which the ball 
must be struck when the player first goes m. At each of 



202 



RACQUET. 



the side walls, about the middle of the court, two spaces, 
eight feet by six feet in dimension, are marked on the floor. 
These are called the service spaces. The back part of the 
floor of the court must also be subdivided into two equal 
oblong spaces, into one of which the ball must be served, 
according to the court in which the man in is serving from. 
The implements for the game are the Racquet bat, and 
the ball. The bat consists of an oval frame, of a certain 
regulation size, and to which there is a long handle. The 
oval portion of the bat, by which the ball is struck, is 
crossed by thick catgut, very tightly strung, so as to render 
it highly elastic. The ball is made very hard and covered 
with white leather. 



THE RULES. 

1. — The game is fifteen up. At thirteen all the game 
may be set to five, and at fourteen, all to three ; provided 
this be done before another ball is struck. 

2. — The going in first is to be decided by lot. 

3. — The ball is to be served right or left, at the option of 
the player. 

4. — In serving, the server must have one foot in the space 
marked for that purpose. 

5. — The ball must be made to strike the front wall above 
the cut line, and it must strike the floor within the lines 
enclosing the court on the side opposite to that in which the 
server stands. 

6. — A ball served below the cut line, is a fault; but it may 
be taken ; in which case, the ace must be played out. 

7. — In serving, the ball must not strike anywhere before 
it hits the front wall ; if it does so, it is a hand out. 

8. — In serving, if a ball touch the server or his partner 
before it has bounded twice, it is a hand out. 

9. — It is considered a hand out if any of the following 
things occur ; viz., — If the server be not in his right place ; 
if the ball be not served over the line ; if the ball do not 



203 



GOLF. 



fall in the proper court; if the ball touch the roof; if the 
ball touch the gallery netting, posts, or cushions. 

10. — Two faults in succession put a hand out. 

11. — An out player may not take a ball served to his 
partner. 

12. — The out-players may change their courts only once 
in each game. 

13. — If a ball hit the striker's adversary upon or above 
the knee, it is a let; if below the knee, or if it hit the 
striker himself, or his partner, it counts against the striker. 

14. — If a player purposely stop a ball before the second 
bound, it counts against him. 

15. — Till a ball has been touched, or has bounded twice, 
the player and his partner may strike it as often as they 
please. 

16. — Every player should get out of the way of the ball 
as much as possible. 

17. — After the service, if the ball goes out of the court, 
or hits the roof, it is an ace ; if it hit the gallery netting, 
posts, or cushions, in returning from the front wall, it is a 
let ; if it hit the roof before striking the front wall, it counts 
against the striker. 

18. — The marker's decision to be final; but if he cannot 
decide, the ace must be played over again. 



GOLF. 



OLF is one of the most ancient of English games. 
S It is generally played on a large, open space, or 
k| on a common of sandy soil, such as is frequently 
found near the sea-shore, and having the surface 
not level, but broken into hillocks and undulations. 




204 



GOLF. 



Blackheath, for instance, is a favourite place for Londoners. 
The course is either rectilinear, or a figure having a number 
of sides. 

Holes, about four inches in diameter, are made in the 
ground, about a quarter of a mile apart, and the game is to 
strike a ball from one hole into the next with as few strokes 
as possible, using for this purpose a Golf club. 

This club is about four feet in length, an inch in diameter 
at the handles, tapering downwards with an elastic shaft, 
and terminating with a foot, placed at an angle of about 
forty-five degrees with the shaft. The foot is loaded with 
lead, and protected by a piece of horn at the points where 
it strikes the ball. Several kinds of clubs, however, are 
necessary for the proper playing of the game ; the ordinary 
club, already described, which is employed when the ball 
lies fair on the ground ; the spoon, used when the ball lies 
in a hollow ; the iron, when it is among sand or gravel, and 
the putter, when it is near the hole. 

The ball used formerly to be made of leather, stuffed very 
hard with feathers, and was extremely elastic; but since 
the introduction of gutta-percha and vulcanite -rubber, the 
ball has been made of those substances, which, is found 
better adapted to the purpose. It is about an inch and 
three quarters in diameter, and weighs, as nearly as possible, 
thirty drachms avoirdupois. It is painted white, that it 
may the more easily be seen. 

There are two or more players, generally four in a match. 
Each side has a ball. The player is entitled to place his 
ball on a little sand or earth at the first stroke, for the 
greater facility of striking it ; but after the first stroke, the 
ball must be struck from wherever it may chance to lie ; and 
the ball which lies at the greatest distance from the hole 
towards which the players are proceeding must always be 
played till it gets before the others. In order to facilitate 
playing, those strokes only are counted by which one party 
exceeds the other. This rule may be easily explained. 

Suppose the first two strokes have been given, the player 



20 q 



SKATING. 



whose ball lies farthest from the hole must play again. 
This is called playing One more, or the odds. If, however, 
he has not succeeded in getting his ball beyond his op- 
ponent's, he must play again, which is called Two more, and 
if this stroke has not placed his ball nearer the hole than 
the other, he must play yet again, which counts three more. 
Then, when the other player plays, he is said to play one 
of three, and if he play a second time to get his ball ahead, 
he is said to play one off two ; if for the same purpose he 
plays a third time, it is one off one, or the like. He who plays 
first again plays the odds. The same rules for counting are 
observed if there are four players, the partners, however, 
striking alternately. If the ball be struck into the hole by 
what is called the like, that is to say, by an equal number of 
strokes on both sides, the hole is then said to be halved, 
and goes for nothing. 




SKATING. 

HERE are various kinds of skates. The edges of the 
iron should not be too sharp, and so made that only 
a few inches of their surface touch the ice at the 
same time. The wood should fit the foot, and the 
iron should only just come over the toe, and not 
curl up, as in old-fashioned skates. To avoid shifting, they 
should be screwed well into the heels of your boots, and 
strapped closely, but not too tightly. A heel and instep 
strap, and a toe strap, will be sufficient- The acme skates 
are considered the best, which do not require straps, but 
are expensive. 

Having fastened your skates on, supposing it to be your 
first essay, get boldly up and stand for an instant. Do not 
use a stick. A stick, once adopted, is very difficult to 
abandon — it is like corks to a swimmer. 



206 



SKATING. 



The great art of skating is to keep your head well over 
the centre of your stride. Thus, in the beginning, bend 
your head forward a little, and strike out with your right 
foot sideways and onward ; then repeat the movement with 
the left foot, and so on alternately. Do not spread your 
feet too wide apart, nor be in too much of a hurry, but re- 
peat your first simple stroke a dozen or more times, till you 
feel confident in your power to stand on your skates. If 

the edge of the breadth of 
the iron of the skate on the 
right foot scrape on the ice, 
turn the toe inward; if you 
do not, your legs will spread 
wider and wider till you fall. 
Do not lift your feet too 
high from the ice, but rather 
push forward, going first on 
one foot and then upon the 
other, as long as you feel 
your feet steady. 

The easiest plan of skating 
is what is called forward 
skating. It is done with an 
easy and imperceptible motion of the body, the weight of 
which is thrown first to the right and then to the left, and 
so on continuously. By this pleasant, winding, progressive 
plan, a good deal of space may be got over, and great speed 
attained ; besides, it is soon acquired. 

The following hints to skaters will be found of great 
value : — 

" Do not be flurried, and lose your presence of mind, in 
the apprehension of an impending collision. If you cannot 
avoid it entirely, you may always greatly lessen the force of 
such a disaster by a judicious turn to the right or left. 

" Proceed gradually from one exercise to another. Some 
of the evolutions which are performed, apparently with the 
greatest case, by skilled skaters, are highly dangerous 




207 



SKATING. 



when undertaken without a knowledge of the preliminary 
exercise ; and a very heavy fall, particularly on the back of 
the head, may result in permanent injury. 

•* If you find yourself on a bit of rotten ice, try to glide 
over it rapidly, with both skates on the ice, so that your 
weight may be divided. If it is very bad, throw yourself 
on your hands and knees, ana you may shuffle off, igno- 
miniously, perhaps, but in safety. 

•« Should you break through the ice, and the hole into 
which you fall be not a wide one, spread out your arms 
horizontally over the surface rather than grasp the edge, 
which may break off, or cut your hands. Tread water with 
your feet, and remain quiet till assistance comes. It seems 
almost like satire to advise you to keep cool, when all your 
teeth will be chattering in your head. When you are ex- 
tricated from your perilous position, run home, if you 
possibly can. If you can't go alone, let two companions 
hold you up under the arms, and run you along. A warm 
bath, a warm bed, some hot brandy-and water, and a good 
sound sleep, and you will be ready for another skate next 
day." 




208 




TENNIS: 



FOR THE FIELD OR LAWN 





ALL games are of very ancient origin, the hand- 
ball, according to Homer, having been invented 
about the time of the destruction of Troy. It is 
not recorded when the ball was first introduced 
into this country; but if it was known at the period of 
the downfall of Troy, it may, likely enough, have been 
brought hither by Brute, or rather his wife, Imogen, 
daughter of the king of Phceacia, when, with a band of 
fugitives from Troy, she accompanied him to Britain. 



209 



O 



TENNIS. 



The first historical mention we have of ball games in 
England is in a manuscript, written in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, of the life of St. Cuthbert, who is described as playing 
at ball in his childhood. 

A contemporary writer claims the honours of antiquity 
for Tennis, and ascribes a knowledge of it to the Greeks, 
under the name of a-^atpKrriK'fi ; and subsequently to the 
Romans, under the name of Pita. But they played it with 
the hands, as we do Fives, and not with rackets or bats, 
which were not invented until after the time of Charles the 
Fifth of France. The latter name was not Pila only, but 
Pila palmaria^ synonymous with Jeu de Paume, or Palm 
play, as it was called in France. The game was originally 
played with the bare hand ; but after a time a glove was 
introduced ; and by and by, this was worn lined. Mention 
is made of a French girl, named Margot, who in 1424 
played at Hand Tennis, both with the palm or ball of her 
hand bare, and with the best double glove, better than any 
man. 

The next innovation in the game was to bind cords or 
tendons round the hand, to make the ball rebound better ; 
and this finally suggested the racket. 

Hand Tennis was exceedingly fashionable in Charles the 
Fifth's reign in France, and was made the medium of a 
great deal of gambling. Noblemen would even pledge a 
part of the valuable clothing they wore at the time to 
continue betting. 

In the sixteenth century, Tennis was established as the 
royal game in England, and almost every nobleman had 
a Tennis-court built. These Tennis courts, according to old 
authority, were divided in the middle by a rope, and the 
players stood on either side, ready with their rackets to 
keep up the ball ; the game being to send the ball backwards 
and forwards over the line without letting it drop ; hence 
originated the proverb : "Thou hast stricken thy ball under 
the line," descriptive of any one failing in their purpose. 
Henry the Seventh and Henry the Eighth were both in- 



210 



TENNIS. 



veterate Tennis players, wearing complete costumes, in- 
cluding shoes, appropriate for the game. It is recorded 
of Bluff King Hal, that, in the thirteenth year of his reign, 
he played at Tennis with the Emperor Maximilian for 
his partner, against the Prince of Orange and the Marquis 
of Brandenboro'. The Earl of Devonshire " stopped," i.e. 
scored, on the Prince's side and Lord Edmond on the other. 
It was a drawn game ; for " they departed even handed 
after eleven games (or, as we should say, rounds) fully 
played/' Henry the Eighth, according to Stowe, built a 
Tennis-court at Whitehall. 

James the First recommended Tennis to his son as a 
game becoming a prince. Charles the Second also was 
partial to the game ; and it is mentioned as late as 1739 as 
a pastime in general practice throughout England. 

The reviver of Lawn Tennis wished to arrogate to him- 
self the invention of adapting it to out-door recreation and 
simple appliances, assigning the expense of erecting courts 
as an occasion of its decline. But a writer of the period 
tells us that when the Earl of Hertford entertained Queen 
Elizabeth at Elveham, in Hampshire, in 1591, ''after dinner, 
about three o'clock, ten of his lordship's servants, all 
Somersetshire men, in a square green before her Majesty's 
window, did hangup lines, squaring out the form of a Tennis- 
court, and making a cross line in the middle ; in this square, 
they (being stripped of their doublets) played five to five 
with hand-ball, a borde and corde as they terme it, to the 
great liking of her Highness." Nevertheless, we are equally 
indebted to the reviver of the game, and to those who have 
recently brought before the public the requisite adjuncts, 
arranged in a portable manner. 

The necessary appliances for Lawn Tennis are fitted in a 
box, four or more bats and balls, a racket press, artificial 
holes for fixing the net, the net itself, and sufficient pegs, 
cord, &c. Only one ball is used at a time ; but extra balls 
are necessary to supply the place of those that go beyond 
bounds, which, if not wanted, are not gathered up till after 



211 



TENNIS. 



the game is over ; and for supplying any which may burst 
in action, as sometimes occurs. 

The balls ought to be, according to the Club Rules, of 
india-rubber, and should be two and a quarter inches in 
diameter, and one and a half ounce in weight. Balls can 
be covered either with leather, cloth, or wool-work; but 
those covered with wash-leather are the best. 

The bats must be placed in the press whenever not in 
use, and firmly screwed down to prevent their warping and 
becoming useless. 

Lawn Tennis possesses a great advantage over Bad- 
minton, to which it is not dissimilar, because it can be 
played without reference to windy weather; whereas, if 
there is much wind, a game with shuttlecocks is not 
possible. 

Lawn Tennis can be played by any number of players, 
though the best game is made by either two or four 
persons. When more than two, sides are formed. 

Level turf, or asphalte is the best for the formation of 
the courts, but in families the lawn is used. 

The space required for the game itself, is seventy-eight 
feet by thirty feet to the extremities. In the exact centre 
of the space two poles, to which the net is attached, are 
driven into the ground twenty-four feet apart. The net 
sold with the Club Set is five feet high at the posts, four 
feet in the centre, and twenty-four feet in length; thus 
bringing the Tennis-court to an hour-glass shape, as de- 
scribed in the diagram. Guy ropes from the top of the 
poles to the ground keep them in an upright position, and 
also keep the net from flapping about in the wind. On 
each side two iron pegs are driven into the ground, at equal 
distances, to attach the guy-ropes to. 

At a distance of seventy-eight feet, end to end, make 
your outer base line, giving thirty-nine feet from net 
at either side ; your service-lines thirteen feet from base- 
line, parallel with same at either end, leaving twenty-six 
feet between the net and service-line at either end; and 



212 



TENNIS. 



your side-lines being marked, the seventy-eight feet as per 
diagram, from end to end. Having now marked the size 
of your ground, run a line down the centre from base-lino 
to base-line, to divide the courts into eight divisions ; to 
make right and left hand courts, or, as in playing it is 
sometimes called, upper and lower, or off-base and in- 
base. 



30 Feet 




CO 

111 

Q. 

o 

cc 

>- 

o 



IS Feet 15 Fee b 

The best method of marking the courts is, if your Tennis- 
court be of asphalte, with lime or white-wash ; but if on 
turf we should not recommend lime, as it burns the grass 
and looks very unsighty. The best method for grass is to 



213 



TENNIS. 



have lengths of white tape, with rings at about a foot 
and a-half apart from each other, which are pegged into the 
ground with small staples, which you can purchase at any 
ironmonger's. The ease with which these can be placed 
and removed, to say nothing of their greater cleanliness, 
make them very necessary appurtenances for the gentle- 
man's lawn. Not only is the tape cleaner, but when you 
find that the grass is getting worn it can be moved to 
another part ; and when not wanted at, all the tape can be 
taken up and wound over two boards, ready for another 
day's play, or put by during the winter. 

To commence the game, the ground having been divided 
into the several courts, &c, the players toss, or, as the ladies 
like it best, draw for choice of courts, or the right serve to 
first. The one who wins, takes his place on whichever side 
of the net he selects, and standing in the centre at the top 
of the court, with one foot outside the base-line, and the 
other foot inside, on either side of the line down the centre, 
tosses the ball in the air, and strikes it into his opponent's 
court, who on its rebound strikes the ball back again over 
the net ; and so on until one of the players on either side 
miss it, or strike it so that it falls outside his opponent's 
court. The one who is feeding, or serving, is called the 
hand-in, his antagonist being hand-out. 

Hand-in when feeding, as stated above, must stand in 
the centre of the base-line, with the inside foot on one 
side of the line which runs down the centre. On which- 
ever side of the line he has his foot he must feed across it ; 
viz., if he stands with his foot on the right-hand side of 
the line, he must feed into the left-hand court, and if on 
the left, vice versa. Hand-in, when feeding, must hit the 
ball into whichever court of his opponent he designates ; if 
he fails to do so, he becomes hand-out. When feeding, the 
general rule is to feed to the right and left court alternately. 

Only one side scores at a time, viz., the one who is 
serving or feeding, and he loses the feeding and scoring 
on failing to strike the ball back again, when his opponent 



214 



TENNIS. 



returns it into his court, or when in so doing he sends the 
ball without the bounds, and, as above mentioned, if in the 
first instance, he does not succeed to feed it into his oppo- 
nent's court : for any of these he becomes hand-out. 

The greatest attention must be given to the scoring, 
as with beginners this is the difficulty of the game. Re- 
collect only one side scores at a time, and that is hand- 
in, and he only when his opponent makes any of the faults 
mentioned above. Be careful to bear in mind that should 
hand-in make a fault, the opposite side, or his opponent, 
does not score ; but it puts hand-in, out, who loses his feed, 
which the opposite side takes up. 

It is usual for hand-in, when feeding, to cry out, or 
point with his bat to the base at which he intends to place 
the ball ; but should he intend to send it into the right-hand 
base, and it falls into the left-hand base, or vice versd^ hand- 
out has his choice whether to take it or not ; if he does not 
take it, hand -in has another try, and if at the second trial he 
fails to send it into the base he named, he becomes hand- 
out. 

The internal divisions affect the first ball only. The 
service ball is considered in play, so long as it falls any- 
where within the exterior boundaries of the court. The 
game is won by the player who first reaches fifteen aces. 
When both players stand at fourteen, one of them must 
make two consecutive aces before he can score game. 
Thus, if hand-in makes one, and then becomes hand-out, 
it is as good as if he had made none at all, as he remains at 
fourteen until one on either side makes two consecutively. 
The winner has the first service of the next game ; and if 
the players wish, to change bases. 

The player should grasp the bat firmly with the right 
hand, and be ready for any sudden change of position 
that may become necessary. Of course, success will depend 
on a ready or quick eye, and the skilful player will soon 
discover many ways by which he can increase his score; 
such as having the power of placing the ball in any part of 



215 



the opponent's court at will ; or if the opponent is at the 
offend of the court, to just drop the ball over the net ; or 
giving the ball the "screw," t.e., a rotary motion when 
struck, to cause the same effect as the screw at billiards. 
And in many other ways which practice will suggest to 
the player. 

When four or more are playing, that is, two on each 
side, it is general for one to take the right-hand base, and 
the other the left-hand ; or, as some prefer it, one to play 
front and the other back. In serving the ball, either the 
two on one side can serve after one another, or alternately 
either side ; viz., A and B are playing against C and D. 
A has won the toss and becomes hand-in ; he serves to 
C. C returns it, and A and B's side fail to do so ; either 
B can become hand-in, or C or D on the other side ; this 
can be arranged before the game commences. 

MATCH EULES. 

1. — The courts shall be divided according to former 
description and diagram. 

2. — The players must be divided into two equal numbers, 
with one to score, and an umpire. The players are to 
occupy the courts on either side of the net. The one who 
delivers the first stroke is hand-in, and is the only one 
who can score ; if he misses the ball he becomes hand-out, 
and his opponent becomes hand-in and serves. . 

3. — When applying any of the following rules, in strict 
match scoring, always bear in mind hand-in is the only one 
who can score, and when any rule is in favour of hand-out, 
he becomes hand-in. 

4. — The ball shall be served by the hand-in, who shall 
stand so that one foot shall be without the base-line of the 
court. He shall serve from the right and left courts 
alternately, so that the ball shall drop between the net and 
the service-line of the court diagonally, opposite to that 
from which it was delivered. 



2l6 




5. — If hand-out shall, at any time, attempt to take a 
faultily delivered ball it shall be considered as good. 

6. — The service or first feed ball must not be volleyed, 
that is, struck back over the net before it has touched the 
ground. Infraction of this rule by the hand-out scores 
one to the hand-in. 

7. — It counts one to the opponent when a receiver or 
player omits to strike back the ball, either on its first 
bound, or by a volley, that is, striking the ball back before 
it reaches the ground. (If opponent be hand-in, he counts 
one; but if the opponent be hand-out, then he has put 
hand-in out, and becomes hand-in himself, and commences 
to feed accordingly). 

8. — If the ball be struck more than once, it counts one 
to the opposite side. (See rule 3, and mem. end of rule 7). 

9. — If a player should strike at the ball, or pretend to 
strike and miss it, and the ball ultimately falls beyond the 
boundary, the stroke counts an ace to his opponent. Also, 
should a ball fall in the boundary, and be struck at, it 
counts an ace to opponent. (See rule 3, and mem. end of 
rule 7). 

10. — If the ball touch the clothes, or any part of the 
body before touching the ground, or after the first bound, 
and is then hit, it scores one to the opposite side ; and even 
if not hit after touching the clothes it counts the same. (See 
rule 3, and mem. end of rule 7). 

11. — If hand-in does not clear the net, or if the ball falls 
out of bounds, he is out, and his opponents feed. 

12. — Hand-in 'scores one if hand-out fails to return the 
ball after being delivered to him by hand-in. Hand-in 
scores one if hand-out, in returning the ball, strikes it in 
such a manner as it shall drop out of the court or volley 
the service. 

13. — Hand-in shall not serve until hand-out shall be 
prepared ; but if hand-out takes or attempts to return the 
service, it shall be treated as good. 

14. — Hand-in shall be hand- out if he sends the service 



217 



TENNIS. 



or first ball beyond the service-line, unless the same be 
taken by hand-out. 

15. — When any one on the receiver's side lets a ball fall, 
makes a false hit, or hits beyond bounds, an ace is scored 
against him. (See rule 3, and mem. end of rule 7). 

16. — If a ball drops on any line, it shall be considered to 
have dropped into the court marked by that line. 

17. — As regards Double Matches, the above rules shall 
also apply to the four-handed game, with the following 
additions : — 

18 — At the commencement of the game, one partner 
only of the side, that is, hand-in, shall serve ; when he or 
his partner shall have lost a stroke the other side shall be 
hand-in. 

19. — If the service be delivered into the wrong court, it 
is optional whether it be taken. 

20. — An ace scored against any one on the receiver's 
side, is scored against the whole party on that side. 

21. — The one who scores fifteen first, wins the game (see 
rule as regards gaining fourteen). 

22. — A player may give his opponent points, and the 
privilege of being hand -in two or more times. 

23. — The balls shall be hollow and made of india- 
rubber ; they shall be two inches and a quarter in diameter, 
and one ounce and a half in weight. 




218 



BADMHTTOIT. 





ADMINTON is a shuttlecock game which closely 
resembles Tennis, and was introduced to England 
from India. The origin of battledores and shut- 
tlecocks does not appear to be so ancient as the 
game of Tennis; which, as we have named in our in- 
troduction to Garden Tennis, dates nearly as far back as the 
fall of Troy. Rackets were not invented till about the end 
of the fifteenth or commencement of the sixteenth century. 
Battledore and shuttlecock, however, was a pastime in the 
fourteenth century ; an old manuscript of that period 
contains a drawing representing two boys playing at it, the 
bats made of plain wood, and shaped like the cheap bats of 
the present day. 

In the reign of James the First, shuttlecock was the 
fashionable court game, rivalling, although it did not 
supersede, Tennis. It is related of Prince Henry, the son 
of James, that happening to be playing with a friend much 
taller than himself, and hitting him on the forehead, by 



219 



BADMINTON. 



chance, with the shuttlecock: "This" quoth he, "is the 
encounter of David with Goliath." 

Badminton is simply an adaption of Rackets, and a very 
charming game for ladies to play on the lawn or indoors* 
First of all, a Badminton ground is marked out, and a 
piece of netting placed across it between two poles. The 
i object of the players is to toss a shuttlecock backwards and 
forwards over the netting without letting it drop on either 
side, and subject to certain restrictions. The rope at the 
top is the real boundary over which the shuttlecock is 
thrown ; the netting being added that the rope may be 
seen the better, and no mistakes made as to whether the 
shuttlecock passes over or under the rope. Reference to 
the illustration will at once show the reader the method 
of playing. Decidedly the best game is that which is 
restricted to four players, and the ground small, something 
like ten feet by twenty, which allows a square of ten feet 
on either side of the netting. Therefore, we shall describe 
that first, and speak of the double game afterwards. 

There is this difference between Badminton and Garden 
Tennis, as well as the substitution of lighter missiles — 
shuttlecocks for balls — the net, instead of being stretched 
entirely across the ground, is only a narrow strip, fixed a 
foot or so higher, and the court is of equal width the whole 
length of the 'ground, the net rope supported by guy ropes 
fixed to poles. 

PREPARING THE GROUND. 
The necessary properties for playing at Badminton can be 
purchased in a box complete; which contains pegs, netting, 
poles, cords, and battledores and shuttlecocks : take four of 
the pegs, measure the ground in an exact oblong, the size 
required, ^nd fix a cord round from peg to peg. Then erec: 
the two poles in the manner shown in the illustration, and 
connect them by the two ropes across. Fix three other 
ropes to each of the poles, and attach them to pegs which 
must be fixed in the ground, in the way shown in the picture, 



220 



BADMINTON. 



like tent cords : their use is to keep the cord and netting 
between the poles at the due tention ; otherwise it would 
dip in the centre. The netting should be fixed across 
before pulling the outer ropes tight, which will allow 
of its bein<r better strained. Next mark the boundaries 
by strings and pegs. The four spaces whereOn the 
four players stand are called courts. The ground is 
thus divided in three equal portions, — a third to each two 
courts, and a third as neutral ground, in the centre of 
which stand the poles and netting. It is not desirable to 
allow the string to remain that marks the boundaries of the 
courts, as it is likely to trip up the players who are in 
chase of the winged missile. Some lumps of white chalk, 
gathered from the shore or from chalk pits, or large lumps of 
whiting purchased at the oilshop, may be buried in the turf 
at intervals ; or if the ground is gravel, some moderate- 
sized stones of a different colour. A writer in The Field 
suggests an excellent method of making a permanent 
Badminton ground on a lawn : Having fixed the ropes, he 
recommends a miniature trench to be made all round it. 
For this purpose a straight piece of wood ten feet long and 
not very wide, is to be placed close to the boundary rope and 
driven down into the ground two or three inches, and kept 
there whilst the other side of the trench is dug out. When 
the trench is ready, it is to be filled with whitewash. This 
effectually marks the line and prevents all disputes. The 
entrenchment should, of course, be made before the poles 
are erected. 

The best height for the net is from five feet to five and a 
half, and the ground for four players twenty feet by ten. 
There is no strict rule either for the height of the net or 
the dimensions of the ground, which are optional, and may 
be arranged to suit the convenience of the players. 

THE GAME. 

The four players must choose their partners and then take 
the chances of which shall commence. This may be done as 



221 



BADMINTON. 



well by the childish method of "Which hand will you have 9 " 
as by any other. Each player is provided with a battledore, 
but only one shuttlecock is required to be in use at a time. 
The one who is to throw, or the server, takes the court 1, 
and his partner court 2 ; the other two players take re- 
spectively 3 and 4. The server, standing with both feet well 
within the boundary throws up the shuttlecock and hits it 
with the battledore, right to No. 4, who stands in the centre 
of her court. She should receive it on her battledore, but 
she m ust not leave her court to do so. If she fails to receive 
it and to strike it right back over the netting, 1 or an ace is 
scored against her. If the shuttlecock falls, and falls any- 
where except in court 4, or strikes against anything, the 
server is out, and cannot play again that round. When his 
partner is out also, a fresh round must be commenced. The 
shuttlecock being thrown back to the server, either he or his 
partner are at liberty to catch and throw it back again over 
the netting, when either 4, or her partner 3, are equally at 
liberty to return it. 

The object of the players is to keep up the shuttlecock 
in this manner as long as possible. 

After the first throw the boundaries of the courts are not 
kept on either side, 1 and 2 being at liberty to run about 
wherever they can best catch the shuttlecock, in either court 
or on neutral ground as far as the network, without however 
on any account passing the limits marked in the diagram 
by a line from M to N, 3 and 4 having the same privilege on 
the side B. But if the shuttlecock does not go clean over the 
net, or if it strikes anything, or falls, on the side of the 
server or his partner, the one throwing it is out. If the 
opposing party does not throw it over the net, lets it strike 
any part of the frame, &c, go out of bounds, or fall, an ace 
is scored against her. When the server and his partner are 
both out, a fresh round is commenced ; if the side A is out, 
and one has been the server, the side B commences the next 
round, and 4 is the server. The game may consist of any 
number of rounds the players like to agree upon, ai;d 



222 



BADMINTON. 



should be regulated by the time likely to be occupied in 
each round, which must depend upon the skill of the parties 
in keeping up the shuttlecock. Five, for a short game, or 
ten for a long one, are very good numbers of rounds to fix on. 



Co 



M 



I . G 



K 



■PD 



N 



H 



B 

Diagram 1. 

Diagram 1 shows the ground laid out. A and B mark 
the respective sides, each with two courts, 1, 2, 3, and 4. C* 
D, E, and F, are the four pegs fixed in the ground to mark 
the oblong for enclosing the players, which is done, as already 
explained, by carrying a string from peg to peg. From G 



223 



BADMINTON. 



to H the netting is secured. The upright poles must be 
fixed by guy ropes to pegs at a little distance, marked in the 
diagram I and J. 





Diagram 2. 

Diagram 2 shows how the netting is stretched across from 
G to H, in diagram 1. 

There, is a certain amount of skill required to make a 
good player, besides ability to keep up the shuttlecock. 
Some players make it their object to throw it over the net 
in such a way that the opponent cannot possibly succeed in 
hitting it back. It is much better play, however, to throw 
it over in such a way that the opponent can hit, but must 
give a return very easy to meet. When gentlemen play 
with ladies, they should refrain from serving such throws 
as it is impossible for the lady opposing them to receive ; as 
it is taking an unfair advantage of a superiority of strength 
and skill which may have been acquired in the pursuit. 



RULES FOR BADMINTON. 

1 — Throwing the shuttlecock. The shuttlecock is 
thrown diagonally. When the round is begun from the side 
marked A in the diagram, it must be thrown from 2 to 3. 
When the side marked B begins, the ball is thrown from 
4 to 1. The one who throws first in any round is called " the 
server." 



224 



2 — The first throw must be made as described in rule 
3, all parties standing in the centre of their respective 
courts. 

3 — Hand out. If in the first throw the shuttlecock does 
not go clean over the net-work ; or if it does not reach the 
right court; if it goes into the wrong court or lines, or falls 
on any of the boundary lines or against any part of the 
*rame, or if the shuttlecock goes under the net. After the 
first throw, if the shuttlecock does not go clean over the net, 
and either be returned or fall clear of any of the boundary 
lines, the person throwing it is out : that is, cannot con- 
tinue playing till a fresh round is commenced. 

4 — After the first throw the shuttlecock may be 
thrown promiscuously, provided it is always sent over the 
net, and may be returned by whoever can catch it. After 
the first throw, the boundary lines and neutral ground are 
not kept; the players moving about at will on their re- 
spective sides of the net. 

5 — Scoring. If the shuttlecock, by reason of a false 
hit on the server's side, falls, the player is out. If it falls 
beyond the boundary line without being hit, it counts 
nothing ; but if a hit has been made at it, the player goes 
out. 1^ a false hit is made on the opponent's side, or if the 
shuttlecock goes on or beyond the boundary line, an ace is 
scored against that side. Hitting the net, posts, <&c, is 
reckoned as a false hit. 

6 — Players on the same sides are partners, and scores 
against them are added together. 

7 — Side out. When both hands are out on one side a 
fresh round must be commenced by the opposite side. 

8 — Serving. The first throw of a round is called serving. 
The server is allowed to make three attempts at serving* 
provided he does not touch the shuttlecock with the bat- 
tledore till the last time. But if the server make three 
attempts without hitting it at last, he is out. If, on the 
other hand, he touches the shuttlecock without throwing it 
and then throws it by a fresh stroke, although it falls clean 



225 




into the right court, he is out ; because that is counted unfair 
playing, and against the rules of the game. 

9 — Taking the Serve. If the wrong partner take the 
serve it scores an ace against her. The throw is to be 
diagonal, from 1 to 4, or 3 to 2. Thus : if 1 threw the 
shuttlecock, and instead of 4 hitting it, 3 hit it, that would 
be an ace against 3. This applies only to the first throw or 
"serve." 

10 — If the hand is used to strike, the player is out; the 
battledore only must be used to strike - 

11 — If the shuttlecock touch the partner's dress 
or battledore, an ace is scored against the player. 

12 — The game consists of five or ten rounds; and is won 
by the side which has scored fewest aces. 

DOUBLE BADMINTON. 

Double Badminton is played with two throwers, each 
sending a shuttlecock diagonally across the net. When a 
larger number than four play, the ground should be larger, 
and the parties need not be restricted to particular courts, 
but stationed according to their ability. The throwers 
occupy the centre of their ground, the rest of their party 
remaining neutral until after the first throw, when the 
action becomes general. 

Skilful players, where there are many, may increase the 
number of shuttlecocks used at discretion. A reserve 
supply always accompanies each box, and should be at hand 
to make up for losses ; for if a shuttlecock loses a feather, 
which often occurs, it is hors de combat. 

When the ground is larger, the network must not be 
erected quite so high as for the small ground, to facilitate 
making a longer hit. 



226 



THE GAME OF CROQUET 



HISTORY OF THE GAME. 

IT has been stated by some writers, who claim to be 
authorities, that the game of Croquet is of very modern 
origin; indeed, one writer on the subject goes so far as 
to assert, that the game, as such, was " quietly introduced 
some few years ago." That Croquet was re-introduced into 
England about that time, we are free to admit ; but that the 
game itself is a modern one, we deny; and we have ample 
evidence to the contrary, for we find that, under another 
appellation, centuries ago, the game of the "Mallet and 
the Bali" gave the name to one of the most fashionable 
quarters of London, viz., Pall Mall ; and such was, in fact, 
the name by which this game was then known in England, 
when Charles the Second was king. 

Sir Robert Dallington, in his " Method for Travel," 1598, 
tells us, that in his tour through France, he found the game 
commonly played there ; and hence we infer it must have 
been very shortly afterwards introduced here. 

In the year 1621, in a book entitled "The French 
Garden for English Ladies," we find the following mention 
of Pall Mall :— 

" A Paille-Mall is a wooden hammer set to the end of a 
long stafie to strike a boale with, at which game noblemen 
and gentlemen in France doe play much." 

And again, in " Blount's Glossographia," 1670, as also 
from a paper contributed by Mr. Albert Way to the 
" Archaeological Journal," we not only find a confirmation 
of the introduction of the game into England about this 
time, but also accurate drawings of the implements used 



227 



CROQUET. 



in the playing of it, facsimiles of which are here given, 
and which will be found to be almost identical with those 
now in use. 



The Mallet and Ball formerly 
used in the game of Pall-Mali. 
From originals in the possession 
of the late Mr. Benjamin L. 
Vulliamy, and now in the British 
Museum, 

Length of the Mall, 3 feet 
8 inches ; diameter of the Ball, 
24 inches i 







The ends are cut obliquely and hooped with iron. 



228 



HISTORY OF THE GAME. 



44 Paille-Maille is a game wherein a round bowle is, with 
a mallet, struck through a high arch of iron (standing at 
either end of the alley), which he that can do with fewest 
blows, or the number agreed on, wins. This game was 
heretofore used in a long alley near St. James's, and vul- 
garly called Pell-Mell." 

Pepys, in his Diary, under date April 2, 1661, says, 
" Went to St. James's Park, where I saw the Duke of York 
playing at Pelemele, the first time that I ever saw the 
sport." 

Croquet is now one of the most attractive and recreative 
pastimes of the day; it had no sooner made its way into 
aristocratic circles than it was warmly welcomed on the 
lawns of our country clergy, and simultaneously became 
the favourite recreation of our metropolitan merchants, 
whose suburban residences afforded ample scope for its 
performance ; so popular, indeed, did it become in a short 
time, that, immediately after its introduction, several sets 
of Croquet were seen in vigorous play every day in several 
of the enclosures and squares of London. 

Croquet is emphatically a game in which considerable 
and healthy exercise is given to the intellectual faculties, 
and one which, under proper direction, is calculated to 
produce much good, seeing that both sexes may join in it; 
and thus the refining influence of woman must, happily, by 
its means, exert a salutary influence on the minds and 
habits of the sterner sex. 




THE VARIOUS SHAPED MALLETS IN GENERAL USE. 



229 



CROQUET. 



TURNING R PIN 




n 



SLNiv 




STARTING PIN. 



The arrangement of the above diagram is a very simple 
one, and is best adapted for those who are not proficient in 
the game. If the lawn be of sufficient magnitude, the hoops 
should be placed some six feet from each other, and the 
posts at same distance from the first and last hoops. The 
line of direction for the ball is duly marked on the plan. 

This diagram can easily be altered and made more diffi- 
cult by placing the middle side hoops either further out or 
in, thus breaking the line of the hoops. 



230 



CROQUET. 



THE GAMS, AND HOW TO PLAT IT. 

As in all contests there must of necessity be two parties, 
so in the game of Croquet, " sides " are chosen before the 
contest begins; and this may be done by choice, casting lots, 
or in any other way to be determined on by the players. 
In any case of dispute as to the selection of balls or 
mallets, this may be easily decided by the captains of each 
side placing the clips in a basket, and allowing each player, 
blindfolded, to select his own colour. Eight persons, or 
indeed more, may play ; but too many are apt to render 
the game tedious : six, four, or two persons, may play it ; 
and when two contest for victory, the interest of the game 
is very much enhanced by each one using two balls, and 
playing them alternately. Should the number of players 
be three, five, or seven, each must play against the other. 

Now, presuming that " sides " have been chosen, that 
the Croquet ground is in apple-pie order, the grass turf 
closely cut, swept, and well rolled, and that the hoops have 
been carefully put down according to the diagram just 
given, — or, indeed, any other in use, — and each player 
being armed with a mallet, and ready for the pleasing 
fray, which is to drive home with all mathematical pre- 
cision possible the balls through the arches in the direction 
marked on the diagram ; and then not to fail in hitting 
the turning point; proceeding cleverly to do the same 
on arriving at the starting point, bearing in mind that the 
side which first accomplishes the task claims the merry 
victory. 

Before proceeding further, it will be as well here that we 
should explain the meaning of certain terms, the use of 
which must of necessity be continually occurring during 
the progress of the game: these terms the young player 
should seek thoroughly to comprehend previous to the 
commencement of his playing, as a knowledge of them will 
necessarily add to the pleasure of participating in the game. 



231 



. CROQUET. 



TERMS USED IN THE GAME. 

Roquet. The term roquet means hitting another player's 
ball with your own. 

Croquet. (This term is now but seldom used) . You are 
said to croquet when your ball is placed in close contact 
with the ball you had roqueed, which is done by placing 
the foot upon your own ball, and striking it with a 
mallet : if it be an opponent's ball, of course sending it in 
an opposite direction to that which he or she wishes it to 
take ; but should the ball belong to your partner, you will 
use your best skill and pleasure to put it in the exact place 
wished for in the interest of your partner. 

If the ball slip from under the foot, the stroke following 
the croquet is lost. 

A loose croquet is made by striking your opponent's ball 
without putting your foot on your own ball. In taking 
' two off ' it is, however, necessary that the ball should be 
seen to move. 

In Order. You are said to be In Order when you have 
skilfully driven your ball through the arch which the player 
has next to make. 

Arched, or Wired, is to get your ball in such a position 
(during the process of reaching the goal) that the arch or 
peg prevents your making the stroke. 

The term Point is going through a hoop or tunnel, or 
hitting a stick or pin. 

Stick or Pin. Terms applied to the Starting-pin or 
Turning-pin. 

Dead. Your ball is said to be Dead when, after passing 
through all the hoops, you have struck the starting-post. 

Rover. You become a Rover when you have completed 
the hoops from point to point, being careful to avoid hitting 
the starting-pin ; and then, instead of retiring (as you may 
do) , you prefer to strike your ball to any part of the ground 
you may fancy, croquing friends or foes. There are other 
terms used in the game, which you will find explained in 
the Rules and Laws. 



232 



. CROQUET. 



Should you be the holder of the ball having the first 
colour on the starting pin, you begin by placing it from 
twelve to eighteen inches from the starting pin, and try to 
drive it with the mallet through the first arch, and then 
through the second, third, and so on ; in the progress of 
the game, you must not forget the fact, that for driving 
your ball through the arch, or croquing another ball, you 
have the right of a second stroke. The other players 
follow in the order in which the colours are marked on the 
starting pin, unless you are playing sides, in which case 
you follow an opponent ; but should you be so unfortunate 
as not to strike your ball through the first arch, you will 
not be allowed to have another stroke, even should you hit 
another player's ball. As the game progresses, you will 
soon see the great advantages which the skilful player 
derives from croquing. It often happens, when several 
balls are grouped together, that the player who has been 
croqued a distance off, will, by skill or accident, strike one 
of them ; in this event, such an one is allowed to put his 
ball by the side of the one so struck ; and after croquing 
it, he will manage to place his ball so thai he can do the 
same to the others, which now, by carefully striking, are 
placed in close proximity to his own. 

Having fortunately reached the turning pin, then com- 
mences the return journey. And here it is really that the 
great interest of the game begins; for, on returning, he 
is sure to meet his opponents on the way; and if he 
be a skilful player, it will be his policy to impede their 
progress by croquing right and left, while at the same 
time he assists his less skilful or less fortunate partners 
in the contest. 

Having now probably become a Rover by avoiding the 
starting pin, and as player after player reaches it, the game 
proceeds until, perhaps, only two players are left; and, 
should they be at all proficient, considerable excitement 
and amusement is now afforded to the lookers on, until the 
one reaches " the Goal," when, amid warm congratulations, 



233 



CROQUET. 



the victory is gained, and the victor is crowned with the 
success he merits. 

When eight persons are desirous of playing, it is much 
better to open the game at each end, with four to a side, 
thu3 making two games going on at the same time ; taking 
from the game much of its tediousness when that number 
play, and having but one set of Croquets in use. 

THE NEW LAWS OP CROQUET 

As agreed to by the Conference of Croqu4t Players. 

1. — There shall be no restriction as to the number, 
weight, size, shape, or material of the mallets : nor as to 
the attitude or position of the striker. 

2. — The players shall toss for choice of lead and of balls : 
and in a succession of games shall take the lead alternately, 
and keep the same balls. 

3. — In commencing, each ball shall be placed at one foot 
from the first hoop in a direct line between the pegs ; and a 
ball having been struck is at once in play, and croquetable 
whether it shall have made the first hoop or not. 

4. — A stroke is considered to have been taken if a ball is 
moved perceptibly; but should the player have struck it 
accidentally, and the umpire be satisfied that the stroke was 
accidental, the ball is replaced and the stroke taken again. 

5. — It' a player makes a foul stroke he loses his turn and 
all points made therein, and the balls remain where they 
lie, at the option of the adversary. The following are con- 
sidered foul strokes : — 

(a) To strike with the mallet another ball instead of, or 
besides, one's own in making the stroke, (b) To spoon, 
that is, to push a ball without an audible knock, (c) To 
strike a ball twice in the same stroke, (d) To stop a ball 
with the foot in taking a loose croqu&t. (e) To allow a 
ball to touch the mallet in rebounding from the turning peg. 
(/) To fail to stir the passive ball in taking croquet, (g) 
If a player, in striking at a ball which lies against a peg or 



234 



CROQUET. 



wire, should move it from its position by striking a peg 
or wire, the ball must be replaced, and the stroke taken 
again. 

6.— A player continues to play so long as he makes a 
point or hits a ball. A point consists in making a hoop or 
hitting the turning peg in order. 

7. — A ball has made its hoop when, having passed 
through from the playing side and ceased to roll, it cannot 




CHOP. 



be touched by a straight-edge played across the wires on 
the side from which it was played. 

8. — A player who hits a ball must take croquet ; that is, 
must strike his own ball while in contact with the other, so 
as perceptibly to stir both. In doing this he is not allowed 
to place his foot on his own ball. A player, when his turn 
comes round, may hit and croquet each ball in succession, 
and can do this again after each point made, but between 
the points can only take croquet once off each ball 

9. — A playing ball which hits another after making a 



235 



CROQUET. 



point is in hand, and the striker can score no point till he 
has taken croquet. After hitting another, a ball may be 
stopped by any player; but should it, in rolling, displace 
any of the other balls, such balls must remain where they 
are driven. 

10. — When, at the commencement of a turn, two balls 
are found touching, croquet must be taken at once, without 
repeatinix the hit. 

11. — When a player, in his stroke, hits one or more 
balls, he must take croquet off the ball that is struck first ; 
but if he has hit two simultaneously, he may choose from 
which of them he will take it, and in both cases a second 
hit is required before he can take it from the other ball. 

12. — Should the ball in making its hoop strike another 
that lies beyond the hoop and then pass through it, the 
hoop and the hit both count ; but, should any part of the 
ball that is hit have been lying beneath the hoop, the cro- 
quet must be taken, but the hoop does not count. 

13. — A rover which strikes or is driven by another ball 
against the winning peg is out of the game, and must be 
removed from the ground. 

14. — A player who pegs out a rover by a first hit cannot 
take croquet from it, as the ball is out of the game ; but he 
is not entitled to another stroke. 

15. — Should a player play out of his turn, or with a 
wrong bail, and this be discovered by his antagonist before 
a second stroke in error has been made, the turn is lost, 
and all points made after the mistake ; and the balls shall 
remain as they lay at the time the mistake was discovered, 
or be replaced to the satisfaction of the antagonist. But if 
he has made a second stroke before the error is discovered, 
he continues his break, and the next player follows with the 
ball that is next in rotation to the one with which he has 
played, and is liable to lose his turn, and all points made 
therein, if he plays with that which would have been the 
right ball if no mistake had been made. 

16. — Should a player make the wrong hoop by mistake, 



236 



or croquet a ball that he is not entitled to croquet, and the 
mistake be discovered before he has made a second stroke, 
he loses his turn, and any point so made in error ; but if 
he has made a second stroke before the discovery, he shall 
be allowed to continue his break. 

17. — In order to prevent the occurrence of the errors 
noticed in the above rules (Nos. 15 and 16), a player upon 
being appealed to, is bound to declare truly what is his 
next hoop or point in order, and is entitled to demand of 
his antagonist what he has played last, and to insist upon 
his clips being properly placed. 

18. — When clips are used they should be moved by the 
umpire, or with his cognisance, at the end of each turn, 
and their position shall be conclusive as to the position of 
the balls in the game. 

19. — Should a ball in play be accidentally stopped by the 
umpire, he places it where he considers that it would have 
rolled to. Should it be stopped by a player, it will rest 
with the side opposed to that player to say whether the ball 
shall remain where it stopped, or be placed by the umpire, 
or the stroke be taken again. 

20. — If a ball lies within a mallet's length of the boun- 
dary, and is not th© playing ball, it must at once be put out 
three feet at right angles from the boundary ; but if it is 
the playing ball, it may, at the discretion of the player, 
either be put out or played from where it lies. 

21. — If it is found that the height of the boundary inter- 
feres with the stroke, the player may, at the umpire's dis- 
cretion, bring out the balls so far as to allow of the free 
swing of the mallet, and in taking a croquet, both the balls. 

22. — Should a player, in trying to make a hoop, knock a 
wire out of the ground with his ball or mallet, the stroke 
shall be taken again. 

23. — Any player may set upright a peg or hoop except 
the one next in order ; and that, however loose, awry, or 
slanting it may be, must not be altered except by the umpire. 

24. — No ball must be moved because of its lying in a 



237 



CROQUET. 

hole or on bad ground, except by the umpire or with his 
permission. \ 

25. — Where there is no umpire present, permission to 
move a ball, or to set up a hoop or peg, or other indulgence 
for which an umpire would have been appealed to, must be 
asked of the other side. 

26. — The decision of the umpire shall in all cases be 




CLIP. 

final. His duties are : (a) To move the clips, or see that 
they are properly moved ; (b) to decide on the application 
of the laws ; (c) to satisfy any player as to the point that 
is next to be made, or the right ball to play ; (d) to keep 
the score. But he shall not give his opinion, or notice any 
error that may be made, unless appealed to by one of the 
players . 

It was also decided, that the mallet shall not be held 
within twelve inches of the head. 



238 



CROQUET. 



The following Rules were added from the Draft 
Club Laws of Croqu4t : 

If a ball be driven partly through the hoop from the 
non-playing side, and remain so that a straight-edge placed 
in contact with the hoop on the non -playing side touches 
the ball, the ball cannot run its hoop at its next stroke. 

If in taking croquet the striker's ball go off the ground, 
the striker loses the remainder of his turn ; but if by the 
same stroke the striker make a point or a croquet, he con- 
tinues his turn. 

If, after a croquet, the striker's ball, while rolling, be 
touched by the striker or his partner, the stroke is foul. 




DIAGRAM. 



sy <■> 



39 



ROWING AND SCULLING, 




I. Introductory. 

• 

OWING is essentially an English pastime. 
Englishmen intuitively love the water; 
they take to it, in the first place, as one of 
the necessities of life, for, go where they 
will, they cannot travel far without coining to water. 
East and west, and south and north — all around us, 
in fact — is a vast sea ; and all through the country 
run rivers and streams, which men first learned to 
navigate for their ease and comfort, and upon which 
they now row and sail for their pleasure, taking an 
honest pride in the mastery they have obtained 
oVer one of the great elements of creation. We 
look almost with adulation upon the eight men who 
yearly leave the classic halls on the banks of the 
Isis and the Cam to come down to the Thames and 
contend for victory in the art of Rowing. It makes 
the talk of England for many days. Will Oxford 
beat Cambridge ? or will the Light Blues once more 
assert their supremacy ? becomes the all-absorbing 
question of the day, regularly as the Ides of March 
come round ; and there can be no doubt that to 
this great annual contest between the two Universi- 
ties is due in no small measure the present high 



240 



ROWING AND SCULLING. 



popularity of Rowing as a sport, and this, by a 
natural process of reaction, has tended to stimulate 
and encourage the cultivation of that finished style 
of oarsmanship for which the rival schools of 
Oxford and Cambridge stand pre-eminent. We 
employ the word "style" in the singular number 
advisedly ; for, be it understood, there is only one 
style of good Rowing. Nothing, however, is more 
common than to hear ignorant persons speak of the 
" different styles " of rowing in vogue at Oxford, 
Cambridge, and on the Thames, as though each of 
the three styles were radically distinct, and yet each 
equally good in its way. Now this is a contradic- 
tion in terms. Good Rowing is good Rowing, and 
there cannot be two varieties of it. If the Oxford 
style differs from the Cambridge, and the Cam- 
bridge- style from the London,, it is quite con- 
ceivable that all these styles may be bad or indif- 
ferent ; but it is impossible for all three to be good. 
This truth is capitally expressed by the authors of 
" Principles of Rowing and Steering :" — " The laws 
of Rowing are ascertainable and definite; we ac- 
knowledge but one standard, and form the learner 
upon one ideal." 

We shall enlarge upon this text in a subsequent 
chapter ; but first it will be necessary to say a few 
words on the subject of 

II. Boats and their Fittings. 

Boats may be divided broadly into two classes ; 
viz., boats built for speed, arid boats built for plea- 
sure. Boats built for speed — in other words, racing- 
boats — may be sub-divided into eight-oared, four- 
oared, pair-oared, and sculling, or wager-boats — all 
of which are conventionally termed " outriggers," 



241 



BOATS AND THEIR FITTINGS. 

from the fact of the rowlocks being supplied by an 
iron framework, " rigged " or fitted outside the gun- 
wale, instead of being fixed on it according to the 
old fashion. Before proceeding, however, to describe 
the different kinds of racing craft, we will briefly 
enumerate the principal technical terms employed 
to designate the various parts and fittings of a boat. 
We take for our model an ordinary in-rigged gig or 
skiff. 




We begin at a, that is, the bows, or forward part of 
the boat, which, when in motion, meets the water. 
That part of it which rises above the water is called 
the " stem." It is simply a continuation of the keel, 
which is a" piece of wood running the whole length 
of the boat and forming the extreme bottom, bbb 
are the midships. All that part of a boat which is 
not the "bows" or the "stern" comes under this, 
denomination, c is the stern ; d the rudder, affixed 
to the stern-post. The " rowlocks " are marked e. 
That part against which the oar rests while pulling 
is called the " thowl," and the opposite, or after- 
tho'wl, is termed the "stopper." The pieces marked 
f are "thwarts" — an abbreviation of "athwart" — 
because they go from side to side across the boat. 
The sternmost is that occupied by the "coxswain," 
or steerer of the boat ; the next to it is called the 
"stroke" thwart, the stroke being the timekeeper, as it 
were, for all the rest, for each one sits behind him. 
Stroke is, in an eight-oared boat, No. 8, the nume- 
ration commencing at the bows with No. i, and 
proceeding toward the stern. The pieces of wood 



242 



ROWING AND SCULLING. 



of which the sides of the boat are composed are 
called "strakes." In the inside of the boat there 
are, besides the thwarts, the " stretchers," against 
which the feet of the oarsmen rest in rowing. 

The "oars" and " sculls" are made of the best 
white pine, and vary in length, according to the 
description of the boat for which they are intended. 
For example, the oars used in a modern racing eight 
will average between 12 feet 2 and 12 feet 6 ; those 
used in a racing four will be an inch or two shorter; 
while 12 feet is about the maximum for a racing 
pair. Wager-boat sculls are usually from 10 feet 
to 10 feet 4 in length. The oar or scull consists 
of three parts ; viz., the " blade," the " loom," and 
the " handle." Formerly both oars and sculls were 
invariably square-loomed, and fitted with a square 
wooden button ; but now-a-days they are always 
made with round looms, and the button is a crescent- 
shaped piece of leather, which works far more 
easily, and with less friction, than the old-fashioned 
wooden button. 

Racing-boats are usually built to order, and 
their length and breadth of course vary accord- 
ing to the size and weight of the crews for which 
they are designed. The following dimensions, how- 
ever, will be found pretty near the mark : — 

Length. Breadth. J^ 

Eight-oar ... 56 to 57 feet * j \ *£ * 3 > to j 8 J to 9 in. 

Four-oar ... 40 to 43 feet 20 to 23 in. %\ to 9 in. 

Pair-oar ... 34 to 38 feet 17 to 20 in. 8 inches. 

Sculling-boat 30 to 34 feet 10 to 12 in. 7 inches. 

Sculling-boats are now constructed of wonderful 

* Eight-oars are now huilt considerably shorter than formerly. The 
boat used by the Oxford crew in 1871 was 58 feet long ; but this was 
constructed for an exceptionally heavy crew. 



243 



BOATS AND THEIR FITTINGS. 

lightness and finish. We recently saw one, built 
by W. Biffen, of Hammersmith, which weighed only 
20 lb., iron outriggers included, but this of course 
was intended for a light-weight sitter. 



III. Rowing. 



Care should be exercised in getting into a racing 
craft. The oarsman should step into the boat with 
his face to the coxswain, remembering always to 
place both feet in turn lengthways, on the " back- 
bone " of the boat, and then gently let himself 
down on his thwart, supporting himself while so 
doing by means of his hand, which should grasp- 
the " gunwale" firmly on either side. The feet 
should next be inserted underneath the strap, and 
placed firmly against the stretcher, which should 
be adjusted in the " rack," so as to accommodate 
the oarsman's length of leg. He should then take 
hold of the oar, which ought previously to. have 
been placed with the blade flat on the water or 
the bank, according to the side on which it happens 
to be, and draw the handle under the string into 
the rowlock until the button reaches its proper 
place. The oar should now be firmly grasped by 
the handle with both hands, which should not be 
more than two inches apart, both thumbs being 
underneath ; and especial care should be taken that 
the outside hand does not overlap, or "cap/' the 
end of the oar. The oarsman should sit fair and 
square in the boat, with back straight, head well up, 
chest out, stomach well in — as much as possible 
between the legs — arms perfectly straight, and eyes 
front. In this attitude you are ready for the stroke 



244 



ROWING AND SCULLING. 



which should be commenced by shooting the arms 
straight out from the body until the hands are well 
over the stretcher, and at the same moment raising 
the wrists, so as to bring the blade of the oar at 
right angles to the water directly the arms reach 
their farthest tension. At this moment — not an 
instant earlier or later — the' oar should be struck 
down into the water, so as to catch the surface at a 
right angle, or even at an acute angle, and covering 
the whole blade instantaneously. The moment the 
oar reaches the proper depth, the hands should be 
raised sharply, and the whole power of body, 
shoulders, and legs brought to bear simultaneously 
upon the beginning of the stroke. It is this 
simultaneous and uniform action which constitutes 
" catch at the beginning " — the great secret of good 
rowing. Immediately the first grip of the water is 
felt the arms should come into operation, and the 
elbows be brought back in a straight line to the 
sitter, so as to get a perfectly horizontal pull through 
the water, and finish the stroke with the knuckles 
right against the chest, just below the breast-bone, 
taking care at the same time not to get too far 
back, which is a fault fatal to a quick recovery. 
Directly the handle of the oar comes to the body 
the wrists should be dropped, and both body and 
arms again shot out without the slightest pause, 
so as to lose as little time in the air as possible. 
The movement of the body should be regular 
and uniform — a straight fore-and-aft swing 'from 
the hip-joint — without the slightest tendency to 
jerking or irregularity, otherwise the whole effect 
of the stroke is ruined. The whole movement is 
thus graphically described by Argonaut in " Rowing 
and Training :"— 

"Two or three points should particularly be 



245 



ROWING. 



borne in mind. First, that when the hands are 
raised at the commencement of the stroke, and the 
oar, ipso facto, struck down below the surface, the 
whole of the power should be brought to bear at 
the moment of the oar's contact with the water/so 
as to create the greatest effect in the first or vital 
part of the stroke — one of the most important and 
too often broken laws of Rowing ; secondly, that 
the pull home to the chest should be in a perfectly 
straight line, thus causing a horizontal stroke through 
the water, which is another law frequently dis- 
regarded ; thirdly, that the finish of the stroke 
should be as quiet and easy as it is possible to 
make it, but without lessening the force applied, 
which naturally diminishes, because at the first 
part of the stroke, before the rowlocks, the oar is at 
an acute angle to the boat, and after that at an 
obtuse angle. Here it is that one so often sees the 
stroke wind up with a jerk, as if to make use of 
some little strength remaining in the human frame ; 
the oar flirted out of the water, the elbows dug 
sharply back in an awkward and unsightly manner, 
and the body harshly and suddenly jolted forward." 
In describing the five qualifications of a perfect 
oarsman, the author of " Principles of Rowing and 
Steering" writes pretty much to the same effect, 
• only more concisely, e.g. : — 

1. Taking the whole reach forward, and falling back 
gradually a little past the perpendicular, preserving the 
shoulders throughout square, and the chest developed at the 
end. 

2. Catching the water and beginning the stroke with a full 
tension on the arms at the instant of contact. 

3. A horizontal and dashing pull through the water imme- 
diately the blade is covered, without deepening in the space 
subsequently covered. 

4. Rapid recovery, after feathering, by an elastic motion of 



246 



the body from the hips, the arms being thrown forward straight, 
perfectly simultaneously with the body, and the forward 
motion of each ceasing at the same time. 

5. Lastly, equability in all the action, preserving full 
strength without harsh, jerking, isolated, and uncompensated 
movements in any single part of the frame. 

According to the same eminent authorities, the 
above laws are sinned against when the rower — 

1. Does not straighten both arms before him. 

2. Keeps two convex wrists instead of the outside wrist 
bent. 

3. Contrives to put his hands forward by a subsequent 
motion, after the shoulders have attained their full reach, 
which is getting the body forward without the arms. 

4. Extends the arms without a corresponding bend on the 
part of the shoulders, which is getting the arms forward with- 
out the body. 

5. Catches the water with unstraight;ened arms or arm, and 
a slackened tension as the consequence ; thus time may be 
kept, but not stroke : keeping stroke always implies unifor- 
mity of work. 

6. Hangs before dipping downwards to begin the stroke. 

7. Does not cover the blade up to the shoulder. 

8. Rows round and deep in the middle, with hands high, 
and blades still sunken after the first contact. 

9. Curves his back forward or aft. 

10. Keeps one shoulder higher than another. 

11. Rocks. 

12. Doubles forward and bends over the oar at the feather, 
bringing the body up to the handle and not the handle up to 
the body. 

13. Strikes the water at an obtuse angle. 

14. Cuts short the end, prematurely slackening the arms. 

15. Shivers out the feather, commencing it too soon, and 
bringing the blade into a plane 'with the water while work 
may yet be done ; thus the oar may leave the water in perfect 
time, but stroke is not kept. This and No. 5 are the most 
subtle faults in rowing, and involve the science of shirking. 

16. Rolls backward with an inclination towards the inside 
of the boat. 

17. Turns his elbows at the feather instead of bringing them 
sharp past the flanks. 



247 



ROWING. 

1 8. Keeps the head depressed between the shoulders in- 
stead of erect. 

19. Looks out of the boat instead of straight before him : 
this almost inevitably rolls the boat. 

20. Throws up water instead of throwing it well aft at the 
lower angle of the blade. A wave thus created is extremely 
annoying to the oar farther aft ; there should be no wave 
travelling astern, but an eddy containing two small circling 
swirls. 

From the foregoing remarks it will be seen that 
the attainment of "good form" ought to be the 
great object of the young oarsman's ambition. Un- 
der proper tuition, or " coaching," the rudiments of 
good form are readily enough learned ; whereas a 
slovenly, faulty style, once acquired, is extremely 
difficult to eradicate. A self-taught oarsman, or one 
who has been brought up in a bad school, or, per- 
haps worse still, one who has learned to row on the 
sea, is the most difficult raw material a " coach " 
can have to work upon, and will, as a rule, cost him 
much more trouble than an absolute tyro who 
has never been in a boat. The reason of this is 
obvious. In the one case the coach before begin- 
ning to teach has to unteach the pupil, and, so to 
speak, has to prepare the ground beforehand, in 
order that it may be fitted to receive his instructions ; 
in the other case he has a tabula rasa to deal with, 
which readily not only receives, but permanently 
retains, the first impressions registered upon it : 

" adeo in teneris adsuescere multum est' 1 

Perhaps the most fertile causes of all the bad 
Rowing we have been accustomed to see of late 
years is the pernicious habit of putting beginners, 
who have never been properly taught how to handle 
an oar, into a light racing-craft, and leaving them 
to their own devices, as though oarsmanship were 



248 



ROWING AND SCULLING. 



an art to be acquired intuitively. As every ex- 
perienced coach knows, this is the surest possible 
means of inculcating a radically faulty, not to say 
vicious style, which scarcely any amount of after 
instruction will wholly remove. In Rowing, as in 
other things, the rudiments of the art must be 
learned thoroughly before the pupil can hope to 
attempt successfully any higher flight. The first 
essential is a good coach, gifted above all things 
with " a large measure of patience," without which 
important quality no oarsman, however experienced 
and skilful, will ever make a really successful mentor. 
The first lesson should be given in a heavy boat — 
an old-fashioned outrigged gig is as good as any- 
thing — in which the coach should occupy the cox- 
swain's seat, and* placing the pupil on the stroke 
thwart, should teach him, in the first instance, the 
proper method of holding the oar, sitting up square 
to his .work, with his feet firmly planted against the 
stretcher, &c. The next lesson should be the 
" stroke," special stress being laid by the coach upon 
the importance of getting a firm hold of the water 
with the oar at the beginning, and rowing it well 
through, keeping the blade throughout at a uniform 
distance below the surface, and finishing the stroke 
without jerk or flurry. When he has mastered, in 
some degree, these elementary lessons, in imparting 
which it is essential that the mentor should judi- 
ciously illustrate precept by practice — not only 
teaching, but showing how to do it — the pupil may 
be taught to feather, especial attention being paid 
to his dropping his hands and turning his wrists 
just as .the blade of the oar is leaving the water, 
and not a moment earlier, otherwise he will infallibly 
get into the pernicious habit of " feathering under 
water." At this stage of instruction the coach may 



249 



ROWING. 

advantageously take the bow-oar behind the pupil, 
in which position he will be able to watch the 
latter's actions more narrowly, and see that he rows 
with a straight back, swings well from the hips, 
brings his elbows right home to his side, &c. After 
this he should be shifted to the bow-thwart, in order 
that he may learn to row on both sides with equal 
facility — in which respect, by the way, the education 
of some of our best oarsmen has been strangely 
neglected; and when all these preliminaries have 
been thoroughly mastered, he may be transferred 
into a heavy outrigged four, with three other raw 
recruits, to finish his aquatic drill under the super- 
vision of an experienced coxswain, to whose tender 
mercies we will now leave him. 



IV. Steering. 

A good coxswain, who thoroughly understands 
his business, is a priceless acquisition to a crew. 
Many a closely contested race has been lost which, 
by the aid of a cooler head, or the exercise of a 
little more nerve at the critical moment, might have 
been won ; and, vice versa, many a hopeless race 
has been snatched out of the fire, when it seemed 
a thousand to one against it, by the good judgment 
and unerring eye of a skilful coxswain ! In a little 
manual like the present it scarcely falls within our 
province to dilate upon the duties and functions of 
a coxswain, a competent knowledge of which can 
alone be acquired by long practice and experience ; 
but, for the benefit of the tyro, we append a list 
of the principal words of command used by the. 
steersman : — 



250 



ROWING AND SCULLING. 



" Are you ready? Forward all." — The signal to 
get ready to start. 

" Paddle all."— Row lightly. 

" Row all."— Row hard. 

" Row easy." — The signal to diminish the pace, 
but not to cease rowing. 

" Easy all." — Cease rowing. 

" Stop her" and " Hold her up." — Signal to stop 
the boat suddenly, which is effected by depressing 
the oars suddenly below the surface with the blades 
in the position of feathering. 

" Back her." — The reverse of rowing, which is 
accomplished by turning the blade of the oar, and 
pushing instead of pulling. 

" Mind your oars." — A signal to avoid a collision 
on either side. The order is generally accompanied 
by the words " bow side," or " stroke side," to indi- 
cate the side. 

" Ship." — An order to get the oars on board ; but 
since the introduction of strings across the rowlocks 
it is almost impracticable, and, consequently, obso- 
lete in racing-boats. 



V. Sculling. 



Sculling, as has been already remarked, is a name 
given to the use of a pair of short oars, or sculls 
as they are technically termed, by a single sitter. 

The principles are precisely the 'same as those 
which regulate Rowing— a straight back, good for- 
ward reach, firm grip of the water, and long machine- 
like swing from the hips. The seat should of course 
be quite in the centre of the boat, and, generally 
speaking, the lower it is placed the better, to 
enable the sitter to preserve his balance. The 



251 



SCULLING. 



greatest power should be put into the first part of 
the stroke, whereby the boat, instead of being driven 
through, is lifted over the water ; and care should 
be taken not to get too far back beyond the per- 




pendicular at the finish of the stroke, as very little 
of the work done after the rowlocks goes to pace ; 
besides which a sculler who swings far back is almost 
invariably slow in the recovery. The secret of good 
Sculling is, to pull both hands steadily and evenly, 
so that, the sculls should be always at the same 
uniform depth beneath the surface from the begin- 
ning to the end of the stroke, without which it is 
impossible to keep the boat steadily on a straight 
course. This latter point is, generally speaking, 
the great stumbling-block with the beginner ; for the 
sculler is his own coxswain, and, at first, naturally 
feels embarrassed by this double duty. When 
practising on a tolerably straight reach of water, a 
careful observation of the different objects on the 
bank, such as trees, gates, or even large tufts of 
grass, will enable him to keep a fairly straight 
course, without continually turning his head to see 



252 




where he is going; but when compelled to look 
round, he should be careful never to turn either 
body or shoulders, but the head only, either to the 
right or left, as the case may require. In Sculling, 
•owing to the handles of the sculls overlapping 
each other, it is necessary to pass one hand over 
the other. Most waterrhen pass the left over the 
right, but this is really inconvenient, though it is 
best to adopt one uniform practice. In Sculling 
it is of course impossible to accomplish, or at 
any rate to keep up, the same number of strokes in 
a given time as in Rowing : from thirty to thirty-two 
strokes a minute is very good work ; and thirty-six 
may be considered about the maximum a first-class 
performer in a wager-boat can accomplish for any 
length of time ; indeed, there are very few who can 
do it and at the same time row the stroke fairly 
through. 

Good " watermanship " is even more important 
in Sculling than in Rowing. " It can never," writes 
Argonaut, " be taught theoretically : nothing but 
practice, and long solitary rows, will impart it." A 
sculling-boat may be stopped almost dead — in less 
time than it takes to relate it — by running the sculls 
down under water in the same manner as the oar 
(in holding water) ; and backing water is precisely 
similar, only with two sculls instead of one oar. 
To turn, one scull is backed and the other pulled. 
When starting a sculling-boat out from a boat-yard, 
the accepted rule is to put her sideways, not end 
on, into the water, with her head against the stream 
or tide ; the inside outrigger is then held by an 
attendant whilst the sculler embarks, taking his 
outside scull and placing the handle through the 
rowlocks from the outside, and drawing it inward 
until the button is within the thowl. The inside 



253 



scull is then shipped in the same way. The sculler 
being settled, and ready to go, the attendant takes 
the blade of the in-shore scull in his hand, and, 
keeping it down close to the level of the water, pushes 
it gradually out, and with it the sculler and out- 
rigger together. The boat's nose can also frequently 
be steered out sufficiently to get a pull with the 
inside scull, by backing or holding water with the 
outer one, when her head is up-stream or against 
the tide. In coming in at a landing-place the 
boat is easily brought up alongside, by holding 
water with the inside, and pulling the outside sctxll ; 
but if coming down with the stream the head must 
be previously turned round and put up against it as 
at starting. The sculls, when not in use, should 
invariably lie flat on the water, to balance the boat. 



VI. Sliding Seats. 

A vast amount of unprofitable controversy has 
been expended recently upon the merits and 
demerits of the now fashionable " sliding seat." 
The invention was first introduced in America 
several years ago, but its application to rowing- 
boats never attracted any general attention in 
England until the spring of 1872, when, as if by 
some preconcerted movement, the " slide " became 
all the rage, and the double victory of the London 
Rowing Club, who were one of the first to give the 
novelty a fair trial, in the Grand Challenge Cup 
and Steward's Challenge Cup, at Henly Regatta, in 
that year, had the effect of causing a general run 
upon the "sliding seat," and doubtless contri- 
buted in a great degree to the adoption of the new 
^principle by the two Universities in their match of 



254 



1 873. That the "slide," as applied to a sculling- 
boat, is a mechanical gain, is generally admitted by- 
all experienced scullers; but considerable difference 
of opinion appears to prevail amongst some of our 
best oarsmen as to whether the novelty is of any 
real assistance to a first-class crew in a racing eight- 
oared or four-oared boat. The advocates of the 
sliding seat maintain that it possesses two marked 
advantages over the old-fashioned fixed thwart; 
viz.) (1) it gives increased length to the stroke, 
and (2) enables a crew to do the same amount of 
work with less effort. The opponents of the 
novelty — and among them Mr. George Morrison, 
the well-known Oxford "coach" — argue, on the 
other hand, that (1) the longer stroke, in other 
words the greater forward reach, which is acquired 
by the use of the sliding seat is counterbalanced 
by loss of leverage ; and that (2) the alleged dimi- 
nution of effort, so far from being a gain, is really a 
loss of power, as it simply arises from the crew 
being physically incapable — in consequence of the 
loss of leverage — to put their full strength into each 
individual stroke. " Who shall decide when doctors 
disagree ?" The use of the sliding seat is at present 
only in its infancy, and we have yet much to learn 
as to its true value; in other words, whether it 
really contributes to " pace," which, after all — with 
every respect for the sticklers for " good form " — is 
the Alpha and Omega of the art of Rowing. 



VII. Training. 

Training is the art by which a man, when he lias? 
to row a race, to run one, of to endure any great 
amount of bodily fatigue, brings himself into that 



255 



TRAINING. 



condition which will best fit him for the work to be 
performed. At this stage it is very necessary that 
you should know something about it \ and it is all 
the more so since a belief is prevalent that training 
means the consumption of large quantities of beef 
in a semi-raw condition, and other equally unnatural 
things. Training may be said to include the work 
done in the boat, and, indeed, the entire occupa- 
tion of a certain number of days and nights prior 
to the eventful one upon which the great contest 
is to take place. 

The art of training is only just, beginning to be 
understood. Rightly, there should be no violation 
of hygienic laws, and the constitution and- physical 
condition of the trained, when in his normal state, 
ought to enter into any calculation ; and inasmuch 
as no two constitutions are precisely alike, it is 
quite impossible to lay down one law for all. If, 
however, we give you the general principles, and 
detail the course of action which has been generally 
found to best answer the purpose, you will be able 
to apply them for your own benefit. 

One of the most important rules to be observed 
in training is strict regularity in everything. The 
same hours each day must be devoted to exercise, 
the same to rest, to the bath, and to meals. In the 
beginning, the treatment, be it what it may, should 
be gentle. Of old, before a man went into training, 
it was the custom to reduce him greatly — to give 
him large doses of aperient medicine. This was 
unnatural, unnecessary, and, to a person originally in 
fair health, decidedly injurious. All this has been 
altered now, and the system is greatly improved. 
Still we ought to add that men or boys of delicate 
constitution,, and such as have the misfortune to be 
weak in the chest, or are troubled with palpitation 



256 



of the heart, ought never to attempt any strict 
training, as it may produce injurious results. Nay, 
many a blooming, promising young life has, ere this, 
been absolutely wrecked by training too severely for 
its natural condition. 

A man who keeps regular hours, goes to bed 
early, does not take more than a glass of strong 
beer to dinner, and perhaps one glass of wine aft'*r 
it, who plays cricket in the summer, and fo y.b^ll 
in the winter, will have a capital foundation to begin 
with; and though training can do much, there is no 
denying the advantage of a natural capacity to profit 
by it. 

On the contrary, one who has not had plenty of 
out-door exercise, and is not in a generally vigorous 
condition, has not this advantage. In such a case, 
the best process is to begin with a bath, taken early 
in the morning, for each of the first three days, with 
a good rubbing after each bath with horsehair gloves, 
and half an hour's walk to follow ; in the mean- 
time the less the person in training drinks, the better. 
Regularity on the part of all the functions of the body 
is of primary importance. This secured, the next thing 
is to build up health and strength ; make muscle 
and sinew as fast as you can, and as you make it 
educate it in the performance of the work for which 
you intend it. How is this to be done ? Surely 
not by promoting great perspiration, which, as every- 
body knows, tends rather to weaken than strengthen 
the body. This is the most ridiculous of suppo- 
sitions. The end is only to be achieved by the 
consumption of well-selected food, the avoidance 
of narcotics and stimulants, and the adoption of 
vigorous exercises. These exercises are of great 
importance. Early morning is a capital time for 
them, and in no case must they be taken immediately 



257 R 



TRAINING. 



after a meal. "After dinner rest awhile" is a capital 
law, either for every-day life or for training. Give 
£he digestive organs time to do their work properly. 
The exercise must be carefully graduated, so that 
though each day sees an increase, the increase is, 
from the greater powers of endurance that are at- 
tained, not felt, or felt but little, though, at the end 
of the week, the difference made in the programme 
is found to be really wonderful. Whether the exer- 
cise be walking or Rowing, this should be the case. 

Diet is all-important. And here let us suppose 
that you have entered on a course of training for 
a rowing-match — viz., a four-oared race. You go 
to bed at ten o'clock ; you rise, if it be summer, at 
half-past six ; if it be spring or autumn, half an 
hour later; winter, at half-past seven. Directly 
you are out of bed you take a cold bath, or, at 
least, sponge yourself rapidly with cold water, and 
afterwards vigorously rub yourself dry with rough 
towels. This is a useful and precautionary mea- 
sure out of training as in, and every man ought 
to adopt it who wishes to be strong and healthy 
and to live long. 

The crew should, when training becomes strict, 
be kept together, take their exercise in company 
— in fact, make a little band of brothers of them- 
selves. By doing this they avoid all sorts of dul- 
nesses, that are consequent upon the loss of their 
ordinary companions and the absence of books and 
other indulgences which must be foregone by every 
one who desires to train successfully. After the 
sponging, those who desire it may have a dry biscuit 
and a little thin gruel — only a little, observe^ By 
the time they have dressed and taken this it will be 
seven o'clock. The time between this and eight 
must be spent in walking or running, according to 



258 



ROWING AND SCULLING. 



the stage of training arrived at ; but this is not in 
any case to be such violent exercise as will produce 
any great fatigue. At eight breakfast is served. 
This should consist of the lean portion of a broiled 
chop or steak; the bread should be at least two 
days old ; all kinds of sauces, gravies, and the like, 
are to be avoided, and only one cup of tea should 
be taken. In the matter of eating, so long as the 
viands be of the right quality, the meat not fat or 
tough, and not overdone, there is no need to stint. 
About two hours and a half later, the intermediate 
time being spent in rest, the great event of the day 
has to take place — viz., the crew rows its very best 
over the whole course of the coming race — indeed, 
these trials should be in every sense as real and 
vigorous as if the opposing boat were actually rowing 
stroke for stroke by the side. In the very hot 
weather of midsummer it is often considered best 
to alter the programme of the day, and take the 
day's practice either in the morning or evening, 
allowing the arrangements of the meals to suit it, 
and in no case going out for vigorous work directly 
after a full meal. 

Dinner may be taken at five or six o'clock : a 
good joint of meat, a well-cooked mealy potato, dry 
bread, and a pint, at most, of honest ale, makes up 
the sum of it. By the way, a glass of ale is also 
allowable at lunch. Wine should generally be 
avoided. The bill of fare for dinner may be occa- 
sionally varied by the introduction of poultry ; but 
this is not so nutritive as beef or mutton, and must 
only be had when the former dishes fail. Lately, 
brocoli and other green vegetables have been 
allowed, but only by way of a change. The less 
liquids, of all kinds, the better. Condiments, pud- 
dings, pies, and pastry, are not to be thought of. 



259 



TRAINING. 



Supper, taken an hour before going to bed, should 
consist of dry stale bread, and a little porridge un- 
sweetened. 

Now this programme may look very formidable, 
but when put in practice it is absolutely pleasant : 
the strength and vigour, the elastic step, and the 
growing powers of endurance are delicious. Then, 
too, the monotony is broken in many ways. Some- 
times there is a stiff pull after dinner — not so far or 
so vigorous as that before, but still practice ; and 
during those hours which we have said should be de- 
voted to rest, that is, comparative rest, a book may 
be read, a quiet game of billiards played, or any 
other similar diversion adopted, with profit. 



VIII. The Laws of Boat-racing. 
The Old Laws. 

i. All boat-races shall be started in the following man- 
ner : — The starter, on being satisfied that the competitors are 
ready, shall give the signal to start. 

2. If the starter considers the start false, he shall at once 
recall the boats to their stations ; and any boat refusing to 
start again shall be distanced. 

3. No fouling whatever shall be allowed. 

4. It is the province of the umpire, when appealed to, but 
not before, to decide a foul ; and the boat decided by him to 
have fouled shall be distanced. 

5. In case of a foul the umpire, if appealed to during the 
race, shall direct the non-fouling boat to row on, which shall, 
in every case, row over the remainder of the course in order 
to claim the race. ■* 

6. It shall be considered a foul when, after the race has 
commenced, any competitor, by his oar, boat, or person, 
comes in contact with the oar, boat, or person of another 
competitor ; and nothing else shall be considered a foul. 

7. Any competitor who comes into contact with another 
competitor as defined in Rule 6 by crossing into his competitor's 
water commits a foul ; but when a boat has once fairly taken 



260 



ROWING AND SCULLING. 



another boat's water by a clear lead, it has a right to keep the 
water as taken. 

8. A boat shall be held to have a clear lead of another 
boat when its stern is clearly past the stem of that other boat. 

9. It shall be held that a boat's own water is the straight 
or true course from the station assigned to it at starting ; but 
if two boats are racing, and one fairly takes the other's water 
by a clear lead, it shall be entitled to keep the water so taken 
to the end of the course ; and if the two boats afterwards 
come into contact while the leading boat remains in the water 
so taken, the boat whose water has been so taken shall be 
deemed to have committed a foul ; but if they come into con- 
tact by the leading boat's departing from the water so taken, 
the leading boat shall be deemed to have committed a foul. 

10. The umpire shall be sole judge of a boat's straight or 
true course during every part of the race. 

11. If in any race in which more than two boats start a 
foul takes place, and the boat adjudged by the umpire to have 
been fouled reaches the winning-post first, the race shall be 
decided as the boat comes in ; but if the boat fouled does not 
come in first, or if the umpire is unable to decide which boat 
has committed the foul, the race shall be rowed over again, 
unless the umpire shall decide that the boat which came in 
first had a sufficient lead at the moment of the foul to 
warrant its having the race assigned to it. 

12. Whenever the umpire shall direct a race to be rowed over 
again, any boat refusing so to row again shall be distanced. 

13. Every boat shall stand by its accidents. 

The New Laws.* 

1. All boat-races shall be started in the following man- 
ner : — The starter, on being satisfied that the competitors are 
ready, shall give the signal to start. 

2. If the starter considers the start false, he shall at once 
recall the boats to their stations ; and any boat refusing to 
start again shall be disqualified. 

3. Any boat not at its post at the time specified shall be 
liable to be disqualified by the umpire. 

4. The umpire may act as starter, if he thinks fit : when 
he does not so act, the starter shall be subject to the control 
of the umpire. 

* These Laws were settled at a meeting of representatives of the two 
University Boat Clubs and the principal Thames Rowing Clubs, held at 
Putney, March 20, 1872. 



26l 



LAWS OF RACING. 



5. Each boat shall keep its own water throughout the 
race, and any boat departing from its own water will do so 
at its peril. 

6. A boat's own water is its straight course, parallel with 
those of the other competing boats, from the station assigned 
to it at starting to the finish. 

7. The umpire shall be sole judge of a boat's own water 
and proper course during a race. 

8. No fouling whatever shall be allowed : the boat com- 
mitting a foul shall be disqualified. 

9. It shall be considered a foul when, after the race has 
commenced, any competitor, by his oar, boat, or person, 
comes in contact with the oar, boat, or person of another 
competitor, unless in the opinion of the umpire such contact 
is so slight as not to influence the race. 

10. The umpire may, during the race, caution any com- 
petitor when in danger of committing a foul. 

11. The umpire, when appealed to, shall decide all ques- 
tions as to a foul. 

12. A claim of foul must be made to the judge or the 
umpire by the competitor himself before getting out of his 
boat. 

13. In case of a foul the umpire shall have the power — 

a. To place the boats, except the boat committing the 
foul, which shall be disqualified, in the order in 
which they came in. 

b. To order the boats engaged in the race, other than 
the boat committing the foul, to row over again on 
the same or another day. 

c. To re-start the qualified boats from the place where 
the foul was committed. 

14. Every boat shall abide by its accidents. 

15. No boat shall be allowed to accompany a competitor 
for the purpose of directing his course or affording him other 
assistance. The boat receiving such direction or assistance 
shall be disqualified at the discretion of the umpire. 

16. The jurisdiction of the umpire extends over the race 
and all matters connected with it, from the time the race 
is specified to start until its final termination, and his decision 
in all cases shall be final and without appeal. 

17. Any competitor refusing to abide by the decision or 
to follow the directions of the umpire shall be disqualified. 

18. The umpire, if he thinks proper, may reserve his 
decision, provided that in every case such decision be given 
on the day of the race. 



262 



CANOEING. 



CANOEING. 







GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

Canoeing has of late come so much into favour, 
and is so agreeable a pastime, that we think a few 
remarks on the subject will not be out of place here. 
Although we do not consider Canoeing an exercise 
so invigorating or conducive to such muscular de- 
velopment as rowing, yet, as an amusement, it may 
be pursued with much healthful enjoyment. The 
rowing triton may condemn it as a somewhat 
childish pastime, but we can conceive few things 
more pleasant than the "paddling of one's own 
canoe" in the delightful evenings of summer, when 
the heat of the day is still sufficiently felt to render 
rowing as a mere amusement, out of the question. 



263 



CANOEING. 



A great advantage in canoeing is that you face 
the direction you are going, and can better appreciate 
the beauties of the landscape as each change in its 
scenery opens to your view ; and in the canoe we 
can explore back waters and mount small tributary 
streams, and poke our noses into all sorts of odd 
corners where the row-boat cannot penetrate. 

Few rules are necessary for the management of 
the canoe. Above all things care must be exercised 
in getting into or leaving the canoe ; and here we 
may observe that it is incurring great risk to go 
a-canoeing without being able to swim. Should the 
canoe at any time upset, which is an event not 
altogether impossible even in the hands of the most 
skilled, no better life-buoy can be had than the 
paddle, held in the middle by both hands beneath 
the chin, with the blades flat on the surface of the 

water. 

On entering the canoe be careful to tread in the 

middle, face towards the bow, then steadying the 

body, bend the knees and gradually stoop so as to 

bring the hands simultaneously on either gunwale of 

the canoe ; then letting the arms take the weight of 

the body, slide the legs forward, lower and seat 

yourself. 

When seated in the canoe, the legs should be 

horizontal and the body almost perpendicular, so 

as to form as near as possible a right angle, thus J. 



264 



CANOEING. 



The manner of working the paddle, though 
somewhat a matter of taste, is best accomplished 
by holding it with the palm of the right hand 
turned upwards and the back of the left hand 
towards you, the hands about a foot apart, and an 
equal distance from the centre, the arms bent, and 
the paddle when held horizontally in a line below 
the pectoral muscles. In propelling the canoe the 
blades of the paddle should describe a circular 
motion, but the angle at which the paddle is held 
while taking the stroke should be about 30 , and 
never exceed 45°. As in rowing, it is a great 
mistake to dip the blade too deep. In turning 
round, take a stroke forward on the one side and a 
stroke back on the other, according to which way 
you intend turning; but for the mere guiding of 
the canoe, an extra stroke, or the dipping of the 
blade and holding water on the one side or the 
other, will be sufficient. 

In leaving the canoe, observe the same pre- 
cautions as on entering it, and on no account to 
lean more heavily on one side than the other. 

The observance of the above few and simple 
rules, together with moderate practice, will soon 
render proficient the merest tyro ; and in conclusion, 
we offer our best wishes for the success of all who 
desire to ,c paddle their own canoe." 



265 



The price of canoes varies from £7 to £17, according to 
the material, finish, and maker. A "Ringleader" canoe, 
built of cedar, by Messenger, of Teddington, costs £17 ; a 
*Rob Roy," made of oak, by Searle, of Lambeth, £15; a 
canoe of either pattern in pitch pine can be obtained of 
most boat builders for about £7 to £10. Jennings, of 
Liverpool, makes canoes of any pattern in teak. Canoes 
are built usually of cedar and oak for cruising purposes, 
and sometimes pine ; but of cedar and pine for racing craft. 
Teak and mahogany are also sometimes used. The decks 
of canoes are usually of cedar, and the paddles of pine- 
The average size of a canoe is 15 ft. 6 in. long, by 26 in. 
beam, and about 9 in. depth; but this varies, — those intended 
for salt water are generally 15 ft. long by 28 in. beam. 
The " Ringleader " pattern is 17 ft. long, by 24 in. beam, 
and 12 in. deep. The canoe which apgears to meet most 
favour is the " Rob Roy," by Mr. Magreggor ; this is 12 ft. 
6 in. by 26 in. For general usefulness and comfort, a 
canoe should be as short as possible and of great beam, so 
as to give a shallow draft, as usually speed is not required, 
but stability and comfort. 




266 



THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EIGHT-OARED RACING BOAT. 

The build of the boats for the inter-University races has 
very materially changed since the time of the first contests, 
which were rowed in oak cutters 52 feet long. In 1848, boats 
with outriggers were first used ; in 1 857, round-bottom boats 
without keels were adopted; and in the year 1873, sliding 
seats were introduced. A racing outrisged eight, such as is 
at present used, is from 56 to 58 feet long ; 24 to 26 inches 
broad at the widest part, and 12 to 13 inches deep. The 
dimensions vary according to the weight of the crew for 
which it is built. The bottom is generally of mahogany or 
cedar, and those who know nothing of boat-building may be 
surprised to hear that it does not exceed &th of an inch in 
thickness. A strong inside keel runs along the boat, and it 
is on to this that aoarsman steps while getting into his place; 
and his heels when he is seated are prevented from coming 
in contact with the bottom by a small length of stout 
planking. The boat is tapered towards the bow and towards 
the stern, and both ends beyond the part occupied by the 
crew are covered over with oiled canvas to keep water from 
splashing jn. Very frequently what are termed washboards 
are added to the sides of the boats, if there is an anticipation 
of rowing in rough water. The rowlocks (the fulcrum on 
which the oars work) are supported on metal outriggers, 
which project some 1 foot 4 or 5 inches beyond the side of 
the boat. The oars are generally made to reach 9 feet beyond 
the outrigger, and the width of the blade is 5 inches. The 
entire weight of such a boat is about 2801bs , and the eight 
oars together weigh about 681bs. The cost of building an 
outrigged eight-oar racing boat is generally reckoned at £1 
a foot ; so that the price without any alterations is rarely 
under £60. 

In the early days of racing, the boats used to be elaborately 
painted and picked out with gold ; but now paint is employed 
only for the outriggers and the blades of the oars, all the 
rest being protected by varnish. 

Although sliding seats are of so recent introduction, there 
are already severalmodifications of their arrangement. The 
essential points are, that for each seat there are two rails 
or runners made of glass, brass, or some other suitable 
material on which the seat slides to and fro in the direction 
of the length of the boat, the seat being prevented from 
leaving the runners by a groove at each side. The distance 



267 



UNIVERSITY WINNERS. 



of the slide is regulated by stops, and is varied from about 
8 to 10 inches, to suit the size of the oarsman. The seat 
itself is either roughened by grooves or covered by a rough 
.material to prevent the oarsman from slipping on it. 
Sliding seats were first introduced into England in No- 
vember, 1871, in a four-oared race between Winship and 
Chambers's crew. They were used at Henley in 1872. 



Table of Winners of the University Boat-race. 



Year. 


% Date. 


Winner. 


Course.* 


Won by. 


1829 


June 10 


Oxford 


Henley 


easily 


1836 


June 17 


Cambridge 


W to P 


1 min. 


1839 


April 3 


Cambridge 


W to P 


1 m. 45 s. 


1840 


April 15 


Cambridge 


W to P 


\ length 


1841 


April 14 


Cambridge 


W to P 


1 m. 4 s. 


1842 


June 11 


Oxford 


W to P 


13 sec. 


1845 


Mar. 15 


Cambridge 


P to M 


30 sec. 


1846 


April 3 


Cambridge 


M to P 


2 lengths! 


1849 


Mar. 29 


Cambridge 


P to M 


easily 


1849 


Dec. 15 


Oxford 


P to M 


foul 


1652 


April 3 


Oxford 


P to M 


27 sec. 


1854 


April 8 


Oxford 


P to M 


11 strokes 


1856 


Mar. 15 


Cambridge 


M to P 


\ length 


1857 


April 4 


Oxford 


P to M 


35 sect 


1858 


Mar. 27 


Cambridge 


P to M 


22 sec. 


1859 


April 15 


Oxford 


P to M 


Cam. sank 


1860 


Mar. 31 


Cambridge 


P to M 


1 length 


1861 


Mar. 23 


Oxford 


P to M 


48 sec. 


1862 


April 12 


Oxford 


P to M 


30 sec. 


1863 


Mar. 28 


Oxford 


M to P 


43 sec. 


1864 


Mar. 19 


Oxford 


P to M 


26 sec. 


1865 


April 8 


Oxford 


P to M 


4 lengths 


1666 


Mar. 24 


Oxford 


P to M 


15 sec. 


1867 


April 13 


Oxford 


P to M 


i a length 


1868 


April 4 


Oxford 


P to M 


6 lengths 


1669 


Mar. 17 


Oxford 


P to M 


3 lengths 


1870 


April 6 


Cambridge 


P to M 


H length 


1871 


April 1 


Cambridge 


P to M 


1 lensth 


1872 


Mar. 23 


Cambridge 


P to M 


2 lengths 


1873 


Mar. 29 


Cambridge 


P to M 


3 lengths 


1874 


Mar. 28 


Cambridge 


P to M 


3i lengths 


1875 


Mar. 20 


Oxford 


P to M 


26 sec. 



* The abbreviations are, W to P, Westminster to Putney; P to M, 
Putney to Mortlake ; M to P, Mortlake to Putney. 

t The first University race rowed in outriggers. 

t The first race in which either University rowed in the present 
style of eights without keel; also the first time either rowed with 
round oars. 



268 



YACHTING AND SAILING, 




I. The Yacht. 

ACHTS, whether intended for purposes 
of pleasure or racing, may be broadly 
divided into three classes; viz., cutters, 
schooners, and yawls. They are built of 
various sizes, and are rigged in various ways. But 
that you should make no mistake in the names of 
the vessels you see, we will briefly describe their 
several characteristics. 

A ship, properly so called, has three masts — the 
foremast, nearest the stem ; the mainmast, in the 
centre ; and the mizenmast, towards the stern. Each 
of these masts is furnished with yard-arms, to carry 
square sails ; and each mast is divided into three 
parts — the mast, the topmast, and the top-gallant- 
mast ; which parts, again, take the names of the 
particular mast to which they belong — as the fore- 
mast, the foretopmast, the foretop-gallantmast, the 
mainmast, the maintopmast, &c. The yard-arms, 
which stretch across the masts, are also named after 



269 



7 HE YACHT. 




PLAN OF THE DECK 
OF A CUTTER YACHT. 

1. The bowsprit. 

2. Bowsprit shrouds. 

3. The stem head. 

4. Bowsprit bitts. 

5. Fore-hatchway. 

6. Windlass and 

bitts. 

7. Foresheet horse. 

8. Masts. 

9. 9. Channels. 

10. Main hatchway. 

11. Companion and 

binnacle. 

12. Tiller. 

13. Cabin skylight. 

14. Rudder-head and 

case. 

15. TarTrail. 



the masts on which they are 
placed. The body of the ship 
is called the hull, the after-part 
of which is the stem, and the 
fore-part the stem. The bowsprit 
projects from the stem, and 
the rudder hangs on the stern. 
Every ship has one deck or more, 
according to its size ; a keel, 
which runs underneath the struc- 
ture from stem to stern ; an 
anchor, with chains attached ; a 
windlass, round which the cable 
is wound ; ladders, rigging, &c. 
The bowsprit is divided into 
several parts. The spar attached 
to it is the jibbooi?i; the two 
pieces hanging downwards are 
the martingale, which serves as 
a stay to the jibboom; and the 
little yard across it is called the 
spritsail-yard. The sails be- 
tween the bowsprit and the fore- 
mast are called jibs ; and the 
ropes by which the seamen go 
aloft are known as the standing 
rigging. They are named after 
the mast to which they are at- 
tached, as the fore-rigging, the 
main-rigging, and the mizen- 
rigging. The long flags which 
fly from the mast-heads are called 
pennants, and the wide flags 
ensigns. 

A bai'que is a three-masted 
vessel, with the mizen-mast 



270 



YACHTING AND SAILING. 



rigged schooner-fashion, with fore-and-aft topsail. 
A schooner is a two-masted vessel, with fore-and-aft 
sails. Sometimes she is rigged with a square sail 
and topgallantsail. A brig is a two-masted vessel, 
rigged with square sails. A brigantine is a sort of 
cross between a brig and a schooner. After 




CUTTER YACHT IN FULL SAIL (END VIEW). 

I. The gaff topsail. 2. The foresail. 3. The mainsail. 4. 
Tack tricing-line. 5. Peak-line, or signal halyards. 6, 7, 
8. First, second, and third reefs. 9, 9, 9. Reef earrings. 
10, 10, 10. Cringles. II. Balance reef. 12. Anchor 
stock. 13. Windlass. 14. Foresheet horse. 15. Main 
hatch. 16. Companion and binnacle. 



271 



this comes a large variety of smaller craft, known 
as the Dutch galliot, the billy-boy, the smack, &c. 

In order that the intending yachtsman should 
know something about the craft, we here give him 
the various parts of a cutter. The foregoing 
illustration shows a cutter yacht in full sail. 

The bowsprit shrouds are to strengthen the bow- 
sprit, and prevent it " buckling, " or bending ; and 
the foresheet horse is a chain, which runs or travels 
across an iron bar fixed in the sides of the vessel : 
its purpose is to allow the foresheet to move easily 
as the vessel tacks. 



II. Management. 

Now that you know of what parts the yacht 
consists, the next thing to learn is how to manage 
your vessel. This of course can really be acquired 
only by practice ; but a few hints will suffice as a 
beginning. 

Briefly, then, sailing is by no means so diffi- 
cult an art as some imagine. Remember that the 
mains heet is not a sail, but the rope by which the 
mainsail is controlled, after it is hoisted up and 
set. The mainsheet is that rope which is made 
fast at the outer end of the sail or of the boom. 
By it the sail may be hauled inboard, and set 
flat ; by easing off the mainsheet the sail is freed 
from control, and allowed to swell out to the 
breeze. 

The foresheet is the rope which is employed to 
control the foresail, after it is run and fairly set. 
The foresheet is fastened to the aft-clew of the 



272 



YACHTING AND SAILING. 



sail, and just as it is hauled taut (tight) or 
eased off (loosened), so the sail itself is managed. 

Every one who ventures on the water in an open 
sailing-boat, says a competent writer, should be 
given strictly to understand that the most important 
rope, and that on which the safety of the boat and 
its crew depends, is the mainsheet. Next in im- 
portance is the foresheet ; and if the vessel carries 
two head-sails, the jibsheets. 

Every rope belonging to the working of the sails 
should be laid in a separate coil, so as to be ready 
at the instant of emergency. But it is especially 
important that the mainsheet should never be made 
fast, except in the most slight and simple manner. 
Care must be taken that it never becomes entangled, 
or in any way hidden from view, covered, or ob- 
structed, whether the vessel is going before the 
wind, reaching, or tacking. In nine cases out often, 
the reason why boats are capsized is, that the man 
in charge of the mainsheet fails — from fright, con- 
fusion, or inattention — to slacken or tighten it at 
the right moment, or that the coil becomes entan- 
gled or twisted round something on deck. 

The steersman has the charge of the rudder, and 
to him and the man at the mainsheet the proper 
sailing of the boat is confided. In ordinary yacht- 
ing — such, we mean, as that in which you will take 
your first lessons — the boat keeps in sight of land, 
so that the steersman guides it by reference to the 
points on the land and various objects at sea. To 
steer by means of the mariner's compass is an art 
which needs fuller explanation than we can here 
afford to give, and actual teaching at the hands of 
a practical seaman. It involves, indeed, a know- 
ledge, more or less, of the art of navigation, which 
knowledge includes, among other things, the acqui- 



273 



sition of the science of mathematics, with loga- 
rithms, &c. Just now, however, we need not enlarge 
upon that branch of the yachtsman's duties. 

The steersman should be careful to keep the head 
of the boat to the point towards which he intends 
to go, and move the tiller to the right or the left, 
according to the state of the wind, always avoiding 
the error of putting the helm about too quickly, or 
bringing the boat too sharply round. The shifting 
of the boat's course should be made by a gradual, 
firm, and steady management of the tiller ; and by 
this means you will not lose ground, or cause the 
progress of the vessel to be impeded. 



III. Various Styles of Yacht. 

We now proceed to show you the rig of the 
several varieties of pleasure-boats in ordinary use 
on our coasts. 




SCHOONER-RIG, WITH SPRITSAILS. 

The Cutter Yacht is a single-masted yacht with 



274 



YACHTING AND SAILING. 



four sails — mainsail, main topsail, foresail, and jib. 
Small boats have sometimes large jibs and no fore- 
sail. The model yacht of our time has been copied 
from the celebrated America, which, a few years 
since, was sent from the United States to contend 
in the regatta against our best yachts. She won the 
race ; but our builders were not slow in discovering 
the peculiarities of her build and the causes of her 
swiftness, till nowadays our yachtsmen have various 
boats that can beat the America. 

The Dandy-rigged Cutter, with Jigger, is a favourite 
with most yachtsmen. It has no boom to the main- 
sail, which can therefore be brailed up to a rope 




DANDY-RIGGED CUTTER, WITH JIGGER. 



275 



VARIOUS STYLES OF YACHT. 

passing round it. The jigger is on a small mast at 
the stern, over which the sail projects. This is a 
safe style of rig, and a quick sailer. The sail is 
more quickly taken in by brailing it up than by 
lowering it down. 

The Spriisail and the LngsaiL — These are boats 
with each a single sail. They are fast and handy 




LUGSAIL. 

to use. The Lugsail has a portion of the sail before 
the mast, which causes it to come round quickly 
in tacking. The Spritsail has the canvas abaft, 
and is therefore less easy to pull round. Of the 
two the lugsail is to be preferred, as you have more 
power over the boat than with the spritsail, though 
the canvas in the latter is flat to the wind. 

The Schooner lias two masts with fore-and-aft 
sails, and sometimes a third sail, a jigger, raised on 
a spar at the stern. The engraving at the head of 
this section will show you the form of this vessel. 



2J6 



YACHTING AND SAILING. 




SPRITSAIL. 



Cutter-rigged, with Boom Mainsail. — A yacht with 
this form of rig is generally understood to be a good 




CUTTER, WITH BOOM MAINSAIL. 



277 



VARIOUS STYLES OF YACHT. 



sailer. It stands close to the wind, but it requires 
care in its management, or. the weight of the boom 
will be likely to cause a capsize. The safer and 
more pretty rig is the Dandy-rig, or Ketch, in which 
you have the advantage of the heavy boom without 
its risk. 

The Mainsail and Foresail. — This rig is particularly 
handy when the boat is tolerably large and broad 
on her beam. The advantages of the triangular 
mainsail and foresail rig are acknowledged by all 
yachtsmen. The foresail should be carried a foot 




MAINSAIL AND FORESAIL RIG. 

beyond the stem, by means of a short iron bow- 
sprit, made to ship and unship at pleasure. The 
mainsail has a spar reaching from the lower part of 
the mast to the upper corner of the canvas. A 
rope is fastened to the centre of this spar, and 
passes through a block on the mast, by which 
means the sail is hoisted. This is a safe rig, as the 
boat goes well to windward, and is easily brought 



278 



YACHTING AND SAILING. 



about. Should a squall catch you, all you have to 
do is to let fly the foresheet and put your helm a-lee, 
when your boat will right itself directly. 

The Balloon Foresail. — This style of rig is much 
used by boatmen, but for yachting purposes it is 
one to be avoided. The great foresail has a 
tendency to press the boat down in the water, and 




BALLOON FORESAIL. 

consequently you are nearly always wet. But the 
rig has great driving power, though for a pleasure- 
boat it is decidedly inferior to those already men- 
tioned. 

We now come to practical instructions for the 
management of the yacht. 



IV. Practical Advice. 



The first thing you have to do, when on bo^rd 
your pleasure-boat, is to get under way — that is, to 
sail from the harbour or starting-place. How are 



279 



PRACTICAL ADVICE. 



you to manage this ? The ordinary directions given, 
by yachtsmen and seamen would be something like 
this : — " Ship the tiller ; set the mainsail ; hoist the 
throat nearly close up, and half-hoist the peak. 
Bend and haul the jib out of the bowsprit end ; 
bowse the bobstay and bowsprit well taut. Hoist 
the jib, and bowse it well up. Get the topmast-stay, 
backstays, and rigging well taut. Hoist the foresail 
ready to cast her when her moorings are let go. 
Send a hand to the helm ; overhaul the mainsheet 
and the lee runner and tackle ; lower the throat 
and hoist the peak of the mainsailtaut up. Hoist 
the gaff-topsail, keeping the tack to windward of the 
peak halyards ; and haul the slack of the sheet out 
before you hoist the sail taut up. Set the tack and 
heave the sheet well taut." 

Now do you think you could follow these direc- 
tions? We fancy you would be somewhat non- 
plused to translate the various nautical terms into 
colloquial English. Therefore your best plan will 
be to make yourselves acquainted with the principal 
phrases in use on board a yacht. You will not find 
it necessary to master all the puzzling phraseology 
in which the Dick Fids and Tom TafFrails of naval 
novelists indulge; but there is quite enough to 
puzzle a landsman, unless he familiarizes himself 
with a few necessary peculiarities of the language of 
the sea. We will therefore give you a list of nautical 
terms which will render the after directions easy to 
comprehend. 



V. Nautical Terms. 

Aback. The position of the sails when the wind presses 
them towards the mast. 

Abaft or Aft. Behind, astern. Abaft the mainmast means 
behind the mainmast towards the stern. 



280 



YACHTING AND SAILING. 



Abeam. At right angles with the keel of the vessel. 

About. On the contrary tack ; going about or tacking. 

Abreast. Beside of, or alongside. 

Adrift. Let loose. To set adrift is to loosen a boat from 
its moorings. 

Ahead, Afloat, Apeak, Astern, Avast, and Athwart. These 
words explain themselves. Apeak is when the cable is made 
fast, so as to bring the boat nearly over the anchor. Avast 
is the seaman's word for Stop, Stay, or Take care. 

Backstays. The ropes that run from the top of the mast 
backwards to the sides of the vessel. 

Ballast. The heavy material, as stones, shot, &c, placed 
in the bottom of the vessel to keep her low enough in the 
water. 

Beacon, Buoy, &c. Lights or marks placed over shallow 
banks, &c., to show where a part is to be avoided. . 

Bearings. The bearings of an object are its position accord- 
ing to the compass. In ships the term also means the'r widest 
parts below the deck. 

Belay. To make fast a rope. Belay there means to hold 
on tight. 

Bend-to. Making fast a rope or sail to the yard, or a cable 
to the anchor. Bending a sail is fixing it to the mast and 
yard in its proper place. 

Berth. The vessel's place when at anchor ; also the sleeping- 
place on board. 

Bobstay. A rope or chain fixed at the end of the bowsprit 
and fastened about half-way down. 

Boomgay. The small tackle, one end of which is hooked on 
to the main-boom and the other forward, to prevent the boom 
from swinging. 

Bowline. The rope made fast to the foremast shroud and 
passed through in the after-part of the foresail, then round the 
shroud again, and round the sheet. 

Bowspi-it-bitts. The parts into which the bowsprit is fixed. 

Bulwaj-ks. The sides of the vessel above the deck ; the 
partition between the cabins. 

Bunting. The material of which the flags are made ; the 
flags. 

Capstan. A movable sort of wheel with which to hoist the 
cable, &c. 

Cast her. Placing the head of the vessel in the proper posi- 
sion when the rope is loosened which holds her to the shore. 

Cat-head. The projecting pieces of wood to which the anchor 
is hoisted and made fast. 



28l 



NAUTICAL TERMS. 



Channels. The parts on the side of the boat to which the 
shrouds are fastened. 

Cleats. Pieces of wood or iron, projecting, to which ropes 
are belayed, or made fast. 

Combings. The raised woodwork placed round the hatches 
to prevent water getting in. 

Companion. The ladder leading to the cabin. 

Cringles. Short loops of rope, each with a thimble inside, 
which are spliced to the lurch of the sails. 

Davits. The rods projecting from the sides, from which 
boats are hung. 

Draught. The depth of water requisite to float the vessel. 

Earring. A short rope used in reefing, one end of which 
is made fast to the boom at the same distance from the mast 
as the cringle to which it belongs. 

Tenders. Pieces of wood, rope, &c., hung over the sides, to 
protect them from chafing against anything with which they 
come in contact. 

Tore-and-aft. Lengthwise of the vessel. 

Foresheet Horse. The bar of iron which passes across the 
vessel, and to which the foresheet is fastened by means of a 
Traveller. It is only an inch or two above the deck. 

Turl. To gather up the sail. Unfurl. To loosen. 

Gaff. The spar to which the upper side of a fore-and-aft 
sail is bent. 

Gangway. The doorway in the side of the vessel through 
which people pass in and out ; any space which is to be kept 
clear is also so named. 

Gaskets. Flat plaited ropes used to fasten the sail to the 
yard when it is furled. 

Gunwale (pronounced gun'' el). The upper rail of the vessel. 

Halyards. Ropes for raising and lowering sails. 

Hatchways and Hatches. The hatchways are the openings to 
the hold of the vessel ; the hatches are the coverings of those 
openings. 

Haul. To pull. — Haul-aft. To pull astern. 

Hawser. A stout rope. 

Helm. The steering apparatus. To put her helm down is 
to put the helm to leeward ; to put her helm up is to bring it 
to windward. — Helm-a-lee, the direction to put down the 
helm hard in tacking. 

Jib. A triangular head -sail. 

yibboo?7i. A spar rigged out beyond the bowsprit. 

Lanyard. A small rope. 

Lee-runner and tacker. A substitute for a backstay. They 



282 



YACHTING AND SAILING. 



are used in cutters because they are easily removed when 
going before the wind. 

Leeward. The point to which the wind blows. — Wind- 
ward. The point from which the wind blows. 

Luff. To steer near the wind. 

Lui'ch. The sudden roll of the vessel. 

Marlinspike. An iron pin used in splicing or unfastening 
ropes. 

Ma7'tingale. The short, perpendicular spar under the end 
of the bowsprit. 

Midships. The centre of the vessel midway between its 
sides. 

Miss -stays. To fail in tacking or going about. 

Overhaul. When a rope is passed through two blocks, in 
order to make a tackle, the rope which is hauled on is the 
Fall; and if one of the blocks gets loose, the act of hauling to 
separate them is called overhauling. 

Painter. The rope that holds a boat to the vessel. 

Pennant. The narrow flag flying at the head of the mast. 

Port. To the left. 

Quarter. That part of the vessel between the stern and 
main chains. 

Ratlines (pronounced ratlins). The ropes fastened across 
the shrouds to form the ladders. 

Reef. Taking in a reef is tying up part of a sail. 

Sailing with the wind abaft the beam. Going with the head 
of the vessel more than eight points from the wind, but not 
sixteen. 

Sailing zuith the wind before the beam is when the head of 
the vessel is less than eight points from the wind, but not 
close-hauled. 

Scud. To drive before the wind. 

Sheets. The ropes by which the corners of the sails are 
made fast aft. Each sheet is called after the sail to which it 
is attached. The jib has two sheets, one on each side of the 
forestay, for the convenience of tacking. The fore-and-aft 
foresail has but one, which is made fast to the traveller of the 
fore-sheet horse. As the boat tacks, the traveller enables the 
foresail to pass from side to side of the vessel. 

Shrouds. The rope supports to the masts. Each shroud 
is distinguished by the mast to which it is attached, as the 
main-shroud, the mizen-shroud, &c. 

Spanker. The fore-and-aft sail set with a boom and gaff at 
the after-part of the vessel. 



283 



NAUTICAL TERMS. 



Splice. To join two ropes together. 

Starboard. To the right : the contrary to Port. 

Stays. The ropes leading forward from the mast-head to 
the deck or to another mast, as the forestay, mainstay, &c. 

Staysail. A sail hoisted on a stay. 

Tatk. To turn a vessel with her head to the wind from one 
side of the wind to the other. Tacking up (or down) channel 
is beating against a contrary wind ; Tacking off a lee shore, 
attempting to keep off the shore. Port and Starboard tacks, 
going to the left and the right, to get as much of the wind 
as possible. Tack is also the name of a rope attached to the 
lower forward corner of a sail. A vessel's tacks are always to 
windward and forward, and the sheets to leeward and aft. 

Thimbles. Small rings of metal inserted in the sails and in 
the ends of ropes. 

Throat. The throat of the mainsail or fore-and-aft sail is 
that part which is fixed close to the mast. 

Traveller. The ring that passes to and fro along the foresheet 
horse. 

Unbend. To untie or unfasten. 

Unmoor. To let loose a vessel from her moorings. 

Vane. The bunting, flying at the masthead or elsewhere, 
to show the way of the wind. 

Waist. That part of the ship between the forecastle and 
quarter-deck ; amidships. 

Wake. The path left in the water by the passage of the vessel. 

Wear and Wear to. To come round on the other side of the 
wind without bringing the vessel's head to the wind. 

Yards. The spars which go crosswise on the masts, and on 
which square sails are set. 

These are the principal sea, phrases you will need 
to become acquainted with. When we say a vessel 
is close hauled^ or on the wind, or plying to wind- 
ward, we mean that she is steering close to the wind. 
Cutters are said to have good way when they can 
sail within five points of the wind; square-rigged 
vessels should sail within six points. A vessel is 
said to be sailing before the wind when the wind is 
dead over the taffrail. Her head is then sixteen 
points from the wind. 



284 



YACHTING AND SAILING. 



VI. The Yacht at Sea. 

Every trade and profession has its slang. We do 
not employ the word in its mere dictionary form, as 
meaning " phrases used by the low, the vulgar, and 
the ignorant/' but as expressing the fact that the 
law, the army, the counting-house, the manufactory, 
and the shop, have each and all their well-under- 
stood and accepted technicalities. To be a bar- 
rister or a solicitor, a soldier or a merchant, a 
manufacturer or a trader, it will be necessary to 
familiarize yourself with the language peculiar to 
each calling. So also with Boating and Sailing. To 
become a yachtsman you must not be ignorant of 
the slang of the sea. What follows will be easily 
understood if you have learned the meaning of the 
technical terms already given ; but if you have failed 
to read and understand them, then we fear that 
you will not be of much use in managing a sailing- 
boat. Presuming, however, that you have con- 
quered the technical terms, we now proceed to 
show you what to do when you are in your yacht. 

Setting Sail. — As already explained, your first 
task is to hook on the bobstay and bowse down the 
end of the bowsprit. Then you must cast off the 
lashings which hold the mainsail furled; look to 
the foresail and jib, that they are ready to be hoisted, 
and see that the mainsheet is clear of obstructions. 
Before you set the headsails you must set the 
mainsails, and haul out the jib on the bowsprit; 
but do not hoist it until the mainsail is set and her 
moorings slipped. The boat should never be loosed 
from her moorings till the mainsail is fairly set and 
the anchor weighed — that is, raised from the water 
and made fast to the side of the boat Run up the 



285 



foresail directly the vessel is free. The boat's head 
will be canted or brought round by hauling the fore- 
sheet aweather. When fairly under way, run up 
the jib, being careful that the jib-sheets (or ropes), 
are clear and properly trimmed. Then, having got 
your main fairly up, haul up the peak. If there are 
many craft near you, so as to leave but little room 
for turning, you must drop or lower the peak, and 
set the headsails. Then, by hauling the foresheet 
aweather, you can turn the boat in a very little 
more space than its own length. 

Reefing Sails. — Caution and expedition are neces- 
sary in this operation. The boat must be luffed 
close to the wind, or laid-to. but not sufficient to 




YACHT WITH A BREEZE ON THE PORT TACK— ALL 

SAILS SET. 

allow her to come about. Ease off the jib-sheet, 
and haul the foresail aweather. Then haul in the 



236 



YACHTING AND SAILING. 



mainsheet as taut as you can, and the boat will 
be laid to. Now drop the peak and main suffi- 
cient for the reef you require. Cast off the main 
tack, and take down a reef, securing it by the reef 
earrings to the boom. Then tie up by reef-knots 
all the points along the lower part of the sail. You 
can then set up the peak and main, ease off the 
sheets, and haul down the main tack. The boat is 
then under a reefed mainsail. If you require to take 
in a second or third reef, proceed in the same way ; 
but be careful never to tie a second or third reef till 
the first is thoroughly secured. Look well to your 
reef tackle, and see all sound and taut. It is 
seldom necessary to reef sails in smooth seas and 
light breezes, but it is imperative when the wind is 
strong and the sea heavy. 

Tacking. — Our illustration represents a yacht 
tacking outside the harbour — that is, with her head 
towards the wind. How are we to tack, or turn 
the boat's head to the wind, so as to get the full 
advantage of the breeze ? This is what you must 
do: — "Ready about !" cries the captain, in order 
that all hands may be attentive and at their stations. 
The helm is then " put up," or to windward a little. 
Let the vessel go rather off the wind, to get good 
way on her, then gently "down" or to leeward with 
the helm ; which fact is made known by the helms- 
man calling out, "Helm's a-lee!" Let fly the jib 
sheet, which takes off the balance of wind from the 
head, and assists the helm in sweeping the stern to 
leeward, or, in other words, allowing the head to 
come quicker up to the wind. The man at the jib 
sheet quickly gathers in the slack or loose rope of 
the one opposite to that he let free. When the jib 
comes over the port side of the stay (which, you 
will remember, is the large rope from the lower 



287 



THE YACHT AT SEA. 



masthead to the stern-head), haul the port jib 
sheet well aft. When the mainsail is rilled, let draw 
the foresail — that is, let go the bowline to the 
weather-shroud. It was held there till now, that the 
wind might act upon it with greater power to turn 
the vessel, from the time her head was about half- 
way round. From the time the jib-sheet is let 
loose till the foresail is let draw — that is, till the fore- 
sail pulls or draws the jib— the vessel is said to be 
"in stays." Now right the helm, and shift over 
the tack to the mainsail. In tacking, one hand 
(man) should attend the mainsheet, to gather in 
the slack till the boom is amidships, and he eases 
off the rope as the sail fills, and the vessel lies over 
^n the other side. To repeat, a vessel is "in 
stays " at the time she is coming about, after the 
helm is put down and while the sails are shaking in 
the wind. In squally weather, when the vessel is in 
stays, and it is doubtful whether she will come round, 
or in order to make her come round when she gathers 
sternway, shift her helm to the opposite side. She 
will then be on the starboard tack. In the illustra- 
tion, i is the jib, 2 the foresail. 

A vessel is said to have missed stays when she 
fails to come about when the helm is put down. 
This seldom happens in fair weather, but it is not 
uncommon in rough seas when there is much wind, 
or in very light variable airs. Whenever the boat 
is difficult to manage, and shows symptoms of dis- 
obeying her helm, you should be careful how you 
put her about. In such a case reef all sail, and 
lay her as close as you can to the wind. 

The following illustration represents a yacht try- 
ing for harbour in a gale. It will explain more 
fully than words the necessity for caution and sea- 
manship. 



288 



YACHTING AND SAILING. 




YACHT ON THE STARBOARD TACK, IN A HEAVY GALE, 
WITH MAINSAIL CLOSE REEFED. 



We now come to consider another and a very 
pleasant part of the yachtsman's duties, namely — 

Beating to Windward. — The boat that sails fastest 
and nearest to windward is invariably the winner of 
matches, but it is not necessarily the best sea-boat 
Much of the success achieved by a yacht, however, 
is due to the manner in which it is managed — to a 
careful attention to the trim of the sheets and the 
adjustment of the sails. In sailing to windward — 
that is, in beating against the wind — the sails should 
be set as flat as possible, so that they may be eased 
off for running free and sailing on a bowline. Sail- 
ing a boat against the wind by various zigzag tacks 
is a performance that needs the nicest skill, a keen, 
watchful eye, and frequent practice — that is, if 
you would do your work in a seamanlike manner. 
But the art is by no means difficult to acquire. 
The helmsman must be careful to keep an eye on 
the luff of the mainsail, and should steer as close to 



289 



THE YACHT AT SEA. 



the wind as he can. In simpler language, he must 
endeavour so to steer the craft as — while sailing 
as close to the wind as possible — to keep the sails 
full without allowing them to flap to and fro. In 
smooth water you can steer closer to the wind than 
in rough seas. " Keep her full " is a maxim with 
all yachtsmen; that is, keep the sails well blown 
out with the wind. 

In beating up a narrow channel to windward, the 
best plan is to furl the jib, and depend only on the 
main and foresail. Large jibs are dangerous at such 
times, as their driving power is apt to be too much 
for the steersman. When the vessel goes free, help 
her all you can, by easing the tacks whenever prac- 
ticable. 

Sailing to Leeward, or Scudding, is the art of sail- 
ing the boat when she is running before the wind. 
Skill and caution are more requisite than when you 
sail against the wind, because the sails are apt to 
unexpectedly gybe, when a mast or a sail may be 
carried away before you know where you are. Much, 
very much, depends on the watchfulness and skill of 
the helmsman. If he sees the slightest indication 
of the sail gybing, he must instantly put down the 
helm; and in a heavy sea the mainsail must be close 
reefed or even furled. In scudding, the foresail is of 
little or no assistance, but the jib sometimes helps 
the boat forward. The jib-sheets, in such a case, 
should be judiciously trimmed and eased off. It 
will generally be best, in squally weather, to drop 
the peak, trice up the main tack, and reef the main- 
sail. All this, however, depends on the force of the 
wind that drives you forward. 

Furling Sails. — The way in which you furl the 
sails of a cutter or sloop yacht is this : — Lift the 
flap of the sail over the boom ; then place the aft 



290 



end of the sail over the flap, hauling it taut while 
another man neatly rolls the loose sail and lashes 
it over the gaff. The sail should never be rolled 
round the gaff or the boom. In hot weather, and 
likewise when wet, the sails should be furled loosely, 
so that the wind may penetrate and dry them. 
Mildew soon attacks a wet sail rolled tightly. The 
foresail, which is usually fastened to the forestay, 
should be lowered to the stem of the vessel and 
rolled up. Jibs and gaff-topsails are lowered by 
their ropes and stowed away below. Spiritsails and 
foresails are stowed and furled without being lowered. 
After taking out the sprit, they can be rolled up and 
fastened to the mast, not round it. When sails are 
new they should be frequently wetted with salt water, 
and allowed to dry gradually. This plan will pre- 
vent mildew : rain rots sails more than sea-water. 

Sailing on a Bowline. — This is a method of sailing 
with the wind free and blowing sideways. In this 
case you need not keep your sails close-hauled ; but 
you may ease off your sheets a little, when the sails 
will draw well, and the vessel go at good speed. 
Trim the mainsheet and jibsheet, so that no parts 
of them are slack enough to cause the sails to flap 
or quiver. When this is done every portion of the 
sail is filled with wind, and a good, lively run may 
be made. Boats built long and narrow are the best 
sailers on a bowline. 

Steering. — There are only one or two other points 
that need remark before we bring our instructions 
to a close, Learn to steer by the compass, and, for 
this purpose, get a few practical directions from a 
good helmsman. We need not explain the nature 
of the mariner's compass, further than to say that it 
is placed in a binnacle in sight of the helmsman ; 
that, by the power of the magnet, the needle constantly 



291 



THE YACHT AT SEA. 



points to the north, by which means the vessel can 
always be kept in the direction desired; and that in 
the inside of the compass-box is a clear black stroke 
called the lubber-tine, which, being in a direct line 
with the bow of the vessel, is a guide to the steers- 
man, who keeps the point of the card which indicates 
the boat's course in the same direction as the lubber- 
line. 




292 



CONCLUSION. 

Before drawing our remarks to a close, we may 
refer to perhaps the most useful boat of all that 
ever rode upon the waters : we mean the LIFE- 
BOAT — the boat that, when no other vessel can 
withstand the tempest's shock, when the stoutest 
ships that ever breasted the waves are struggling in 
vain against the force of the rushing billows, cleaves 
the water, rides securely in the boiling trough, and 
saves the lives of those who must otherwise perish. 
All sorts of boats are valuable, but this most 
valuable of all. It is probable that many of our 
readers may have contributed towards the building 
of Life-boats, which are sometimes built by volun- 
tary contributions. It is not necessary here to 
enter into details as to the services rendered by 
such boats upon our coasts ; but in dealing with 
things nautical they may not, on any account, 
be omitted. Our engraving represents sections, 
sheer and midship, of a boat for saving life 
from shipwreck, built so that it will not sink, 
and always keep afloat the right way up. The ends, 
a a, are fitted with air-tight copper cases ; the sides, 
B b, are filled with cork or india-rubber air-tight 



293 



THE LIFEBOAT. 



cases ; and the round buoy, c, is a ring of cork 
covered with canvas, and ropes attached to it, 
carried by all sea-going vessels. The buoy, d, is 




LIFEBOAT. LIFE-BUOYS. 



made of copper, and has a fusee in the tube at the 
top, carried by all ships of the royal navy at the 
stern (outboard) ; and when a man falls overboard, 
it is brought into use by pulling at a lanyard or line 
that comes inboard, which fires the fusee and drops 
the buoy into the sea : the smoke by day or light 
by night enables the unfortunate seaman to see the 
help at hand, and assists the boats to find him. 




294 



■"1 

i 



Part I. 
RIVER-FISHING. 




Rods, Tackle, and Baits. 

HE selection of a Rod should be made 
with care, and we offer the following hints 
to the tyro. Unless you can afford to 
purchase rods for every kind of angling, 
you had better bethink yourself what kind you are 
most likely to follow. If you live among trout- 
streams, get a light fly-rod that you can easily work 
with one hand; for greater handiness more than 
compensates for not being able to throw so far as 
you might with a two-handed one, and the diminished 
physical exertion may well be taken into account. 
A stiffer top and joint next to the top will render 
the rod available for spinning with the minnow for 
trout, although it is advisable to have one a little 
stronger and less pliable. For bottom-fishing a 
longer and somewhat stiff rod is best, while for pike 
a strong and serviceable one must be used. The 
salmon rod should be about eighteen feet long, and 
is all the better if made in two pieces, and joined 
with a splice instead of a ferule ; but if you have a 
splice, have two ferule-like rings loose on the rod, 
but made to fit tight over the two ends of the splice, 
which can then be easily secured by a few turns of 
waxed-silk cord. The chief objection to two-piece 
rods is that they are not easy to carry about, and 



) 



295 



FISHING. 



TACKLE. Plate I. 




..J 



296 



TACKLE, 



TACKLE. Plate II. 




297 



FISHING 

are more liable to be broken than the ordinary kind. 
The rings for, the line should not be too small, or a 
slight " kink " may check the running out of the line 
at a critical moment. They should be made to fall 
flat when not in use, with the exception of those on 
a pike rod, which, as afterwards described, should 
be fixed standing. Too many rings cumber the rod, 
and too few render the strain unequal. It is need- 
less to descant upon the various kinds of wood of 
which rods are made : go to a good tackle-maker, 
and trust to his recommendation. See, however, 
that the rod you choose is one which you feel will 
fit your hand, for this requisite is as essential in the 
choice of a rod as in that of a gun or a coat. 
When taken in the hand about a foot from the butt 
end, it should not feel top-heavy; and when you 
shake or wave it, it must not bend like a willow 
wand, but like a strip of thin steel. With care a good 
rod should last almost a life-time, and if kept well 
oiled and occasionally varnished will remain "as 
good as new." If troubled by the joints sticking 
fast, as is often the case after a wet day's fishing, 
they can be easily parted by turning the ferrule 
around in the flame of a candle or piece of lighted 
paper, and that without damaging the wood. 

Next in order to the rod come the Reel and Line, 
The former is usually made of brass, than which 
material nothing can be better. A large wooden 
reel, which runs very freely, is used for pike-fishing 
on the Nottingham plan, and " fancy " reels of costly 
metal and workmanship are turned out for the 
salmon-fisher, whose only recommendation to balance 
against their extra cost is that they are a trifle lighter. 
The size of the reel depends upon the kind of fish 
you angle for, and the breadth and depth of the 
water. Avoid multiplying reels : it is quite a 



298 



mistake. A check-reel is useful, as it does not 
overrun itself and entangle the line when the strain 
has ceased. 

The question of Lines is a vexed one. For fly- 
fishing we prefer a mixture of silk and hair ; for 
spinning, plaited silk. Many lines are improved by 
a waterproof dressing, but it is apt to render them 
rotten, and when it wears off it is difficult to renew. 
For pike-fishing a very cheap and efficient line can 
be obtained from the Manchester Cotton Company. 
It does not kink after being wetted and stretched, 
is very strong, and holds little water. 

Of Hooks little can be said. One make is as good 
as another. To test their "temper," place the 
thumb-nail against the barb, with the thumb inside 
the hook, and press outwards. The angler should 
take care to have a good stock by him. A Pocket- 
book, with divisions for hooks and coils of gut, 
loops or flannel for artificial flies, and having in its 
recesses a lump of cobbler's wax, some sewing-silk, 
and a pair of scissors, is an indispensable companion. 
Floats are of various kinds, to suit all tastes, and in 
the course of this little work we shall point out 
the most useful. For landing heavy fish, Landing- 
nets and Gaffs are useful, and in some cases indis- 
pensable. For the transport of live bait, gudgeons, 
roach, or minnows, a Bait-can is required. This 
should have two lids of perforated metal, with an 
inch and a half space between. The holes are to 
admit air to the prisoners, and the double lid is to 
prevent the water splashing out and wetting the legs 
of the bearer. A good-sized Creel completes the 
equipment. 

A Disgorger (fig. i) is often useful in extricating the 
hook from the fish when it is deeply swallowed. It 
is simply a narrow strip of bone or stout wire, forked 



299 



FISHING. 

at one end. The fork is placed across the hook, 
when a twist of the wrist will disengage it. 

The Clearing-ring (fig. 2) is a heavy metal ring, 
shutting with a clasp, and attached to a stout line. 
When the hook is fast on something at the bottom, 
the ring is clasped round the line and allowed to 
run down it to the hook, which it will frequently free. 

Baits may be divided into two classes, natural 
and artificial, and it is needless to say that where 
practicable the natural bait should be used. In 
fly-fishing this is not often the case, and artificial 
flies are made in such perfection as to quite equal 
the natural fly in destructiveness. 

The Lob-worm is a universal bait. The easiest 
method of obtaining a quantity is to go into the 
garden after dark with a light, and if after a shower 
of rain so much the better : you will see dozens 
lying stretched at full length on the loam. Avoid 
making any noise, and suddenly press the finger on 
their tails, to prevent their sudden withdrawal into 
their holes. 

Red-worms are pink in colour, and are smaller 
than the preceding. They are to be found by 
digging in manure-heaps, and are a first-rate bait ; 
as is also the Brandling, found in dung and tan- 
heaps. It is ringed with scarlet, and requires but 
little scouring before use. 

It is extremely necessary that your worms should 
be properly scoured y as upon this much of your 
success will depend. This is done in the following 
manner : — Procure some long clean moss, and, after 
washing it well and squeezing out the wet, place the 
worms in it, when in a few days they will be purged 
and cleansed, and much tougher and livelier. If 
moss is not easily procurable, tea-leaves are a good 
substitute. 



300 



BAITS. 

Wasp-grubs are tempting delicacies to drop 
among trout and the basking chub, and may be 
kept for a long time if the comb is baked in a slow 
oven or before the fire, and kept on dry straw. 

Caddis are the larvae of certain water-flies, and 
are found at the side of ditches and streams, crawl- 
ing along the bottom in their curiously constructed 
cells. 

Gentles may be bought in any quantity, or bred 
if the angler likes the trouble. When full grown 
they should be kept in dry sand. If the hook is 
tipped with the chrysalis, which is of a red colour, 
the meal is rendered more tempting. 

The Co7if dung-bob, found under cow-dungs in the 
summer, is good for carp. 

The Spawn of any fish we only mention to warn 
our readers against, as there is a penalty of £2 
attached to its use. 

All flies are good for dipping with. 

Intermediate between natural and artificial baits 
come the various Pastes. The most simple and the 
most efficacious is that made of the crumb of new 
white bread, moistened and kneaded into consis- 
tency. It may be coloured with vermilion or 
flavoured with honey, cheese, or pounded shrimps. 
In fact there is no end to the combinations that 
may be made with it. 

It is often advisable, some hours before com- 
mencing, to ground-bait the spot where you intend 
to fish. Bran and chopped worms, mixed with 
clay, may be thrown in, and pieces of chewed bread 
cast about your float will attract the fish together. 

Artificial Flies are to be obtained at so cheap a 
rate that it is not worth the angler's while to make 
them ; and as the art is one not to be learnt from 
word-description, without actual precept and prac- 



301 



FISHING. 

tice, we shall not attempt the impossible. Gene- 
rally speaking, a small and dark fly is to be preferred 
on bright clear days, and a gaudier and larger 
imitation for lowering and windy weather. Every- 
body, however, has his own particular fancy, and on 
strange rivers it is well to be guided by residents in 
the neighbourhood. 

By the river-side dress soberly. Anything staring 
or bright-coloured startles the fish, whose power of 
sight is very keen. Brown and grey are the best 
colours for killing fish. And as to weather, do not 
go out when the wind is in the east, for it is very 
seldom that fish bite well at such times, or imme- 
diately before rain or thunder : with those exceptions 
any weather may be suitable, for fish of all kinds 
are exceedingly capricious, and often falsify the 
angler's calculations. 



The Trout. 




As no man is a salmon-fisher without being a 



302 



I 
THE TROUT. 



trout-fisher first, we commence our lessons in 
angling with the latter. 

The pleasantest and generally the more success- 
ful way of fishing for trout is with the artificial fly. 
To the end of the line will be attached a casting- 
line of fine round gut, about six feet long, on 
which will be knotted three flies, tied to short lengths 
of gut, at intervals of fifteen inches or so. To 
enable the angler to use these lines effectually he 
must attend to the following directions: — Make 
your first trials with a short line, gradually increasing 
the length as you become more proficient. Fisst 
wet the cast, or " collar/ 7 in the water, to take the 
curls out ; then taking the rod in the right hand, 
just above the reel, wave it gently backwards 
towards the left or right shoulder (both ways should 
be practised) until the line is well stretched out 
behind, then bringing it back, describing somewhat 
of a circle in the air with the point of the rod, 
switch it rapidly forward, checking the motion 
before it becomes horizontal. This ought to pitch 
the line straight out over the water, and the motion 
being suddenly (but not too suddenly) checked, the 
flies should fall on the stream before the rest of the 
line. This latter perfection cannot always be 
attained, but it is well to try for it, as. the slight 
splash made by the line will in clear water startle 
the fish before the flies fall. Every motion should 
be made quickly, but not harshly, or you may jerk 
your flies off. Nothing but practice can make 
perfect in fly-fishing. A single day in the company 
of an expert will teach you more than the most 
diligent reading. When the flies are on the water 
let them float down stream, keeping the line on the 
stretch and imparting to it a quivering kind of 
motion, so as to aid the deceptive appearance of 



303 



FISHING. 

the flies. A dimple in the water and a galvanic 
twitch will warn you of a rise, at which strike with 
a sharp jerk of the wrist upwards. If hooked, keep 
an even and steady strain on the fish, letting go no 
more line than is absolutely necessary. Wind up 
slowly, and if possible walk backwards until your 
fish is landed. If small he may be whipped out at 
once, but if large a landing-net will be advisable. 
On no account touch the line. If the elastic strain 
of the rod is removed, a sudden plunge may free 
your captive and leave you lamenting. 

Opinions are divided as to whether it is best to 
fish up or down the stream. In fishing down-' 
stream the line is kept well stretched, and not an 
inch of water is wasted, which is not always the 
case when you fish up-stream. In the latter case 
the line is sometimes doubled upon itself, and has 
to be cast more frequently to cover the same extent 
of water; but then when you strike you do so in 
the proper direction, and there is no chance of 
pulling the line away from the fish, for, be it remem- 
bered, they always lie with their noses pointing 
up-stream. On the whole, perhaps, it is most con- 
venient to fish downwards ; but that is impossible 
when you are fishing a small burn or Welsh moun- 
tain stream. From the extreme clearness of the 
water, if you stand at the head of the pool you are 
at once detected by the sharp eyes of the trout, 
and your sport spoiled ; whereas if you approach 
them from behind they, not having eyes in their 
tails, are unsuspicious of your dangerous propin- 
quity. The casts, too, are shorter and more easily 
managed in brook-fishing, and there is not the same 
objection to fishing up-stream as in river-fishing with 
a longer line. 

Where possible, have the sun in your face and 



_J 



304 



THE TROUT. 



the wind at your back ; but if you cannot have 
this, avoid at all events letting your shadow fall 
across the water, for nothing frightens fish so much. 
It is better to use a shorter line, and cast right in 
the teeth of the wind. 

Trout spawn in the autumn, generally October 
or November, and during the winter are of course 
quite unfit to be caught. About March they come 
into season again, and towards June they are in 
their prime, for in this month they have their annual 
feast on the May-flies. These succulent morsels 
fall in hundreds on the water, and are eagerly gobbled 
up. Blowli?ie-fis king may now be tried with suc- 
cess. This most deadly method is practised in the 
following manner :-^-A line of floss silk is armed 
with a small hook and long length of fine gut. A 
May-fly, or at other seasons any tempting-looking 
insect, is impaled upon the hook, which is run 
through its back just at the juncture of the wings, 
and the line is allowed to float out with the breeze, 
the fly just touching the water every few inches or 
so. Great care and skill are required in the land- 
ing of the fish, as the silk is but weak. 

Minnow-fishing is another deadly way of killing 
trout. The tackle we should most recommend for 
the natural bait, which should always be used if 
available, consists of a brass needle, which is pushed 
through the minnow, having two wings, which im- 
part to the bait a spinning motion. Near the top 
of the needle are two triangle-hooks, and one hook 
of each is fixed in the shoulders or back of the 
minnow, while a piece of lead attached to the 
middle of the needle lies concealed in the throat 
of the bait. A couple of swivels are necessary, to 
prevent the line twisting. Artificial spinning-baits 
(fig. 3) are also very useful, particularly in thick water, 



305 U 



FISHING. 



and the brighter they are the better. That known 
as the " Phantom " is one of the best. The flight 
is cast across the stream and worked back in pulls 
of about a yard at a time, and at such a pace that 
it is made to spin sharply. The moment a run is 
felt, strike sharply. 

Worm-fishing, although not so dignified or grace- 
ful as either of the preceding, is in certain states of 
the water quite as likely to fill the basket. When 
the streams are muddy after rain repair to their 
banks with a stifiish rod and a moderate-sized hook, 
baited with a well-scoured worm. At the distance 
of a foot from the hook one or two large shots are 
placed on the gut. You fish by feel, with the line 
kept "taut," as a sailor would say. A bite is 
easily felt, and after a few seconds you may strike. 
Throw in among eddies, behind rocks and stones, 
or close along the edge of the bank if the water is 
tolerably deep, and you cannot fail to catch fish. 
The worm, if it be a bright red one and well scoured, 
may also be used in the very hottest and most 
glaring days of summer, when no other kind of 
fishing is of the slightest avail. Use the finest 
tackle consistent with strength, no shot on the line, 
and a stiff rod. 

The Salmon. 

Before we proceed to the capture of this noble 
fish it may be well to give our readers a short 
narrative of its wonderful life. It is well known 
that the salmon is not solely a fresh-water fish ; 
that at certain seasons of the year a considerable 
portion of its time is spent in the salt water. In 
the early spring, exhausted by its spawning labours 
and long sojourn in fresh water, it swims seawards. 



306 



After recruiting its strength and increasing in size 
in the salt water, it begins to feel the pangs of love, 
and, led by an unerring instinct, seeks its parent 
river (never entering the wrong' estuary), for the 




purpose of spending a long honeymoon, and de- 
positing its spawn in the gravelly beds of the fresh 
running stream, where alone it can be vivified. In 
its upward progress man's snares have to be avoided 
and innumerable obstacles to be overcome. To 
jump weirs and falls it does not, as it is often said 
to do, put its tail into its mouth and spring like 
a suddenly unbent bow, but taking a " run," 
with fins and tail strongly working, it dashes at the 
obstacle, and " scurries," rather than leaps, up it. 
It can seldom make a clear jump of more than 
five or six feet, and its highest leaps are made from 
the deepest water, where it can obtain a longer 
upward run, during which it gains an impetus for 
the spring. The salmon and its mate next seek 
out a shallow gravelly stretch of the river, and dig 
with their snouts a long and narrow ditch, in which 



307 



FISHING. 

the female deposits her spawn, which is impregnated 
by the male, and then covered over. This process 
is repeated until all the spawn is deposited, during 
which time, by the way, the smaller fish, including 
trout, have a rich repast on the grains that escape. 
All this takes place in the late autumn, and all 
through the winter the salmon, weak and in poor 
condition, is protected by the law from the angle or 
net, and lies by in quiet eddies to recruit its strength 
a little before leaving for the sea, which it does in 
March or April. 

The eggs are hatched about this time, and the 
infant salmon stays in its fresh- water home for about 
a year, according to the best authorities, when 
it makes its first trip to the sea, led by that un- 
failing instinct which controls all its movements. 
On its return we find that it has increased in size 
from a few ounces to some three or four pounds. 

The most common and indeed only sportsman- 
like mode of capturing this fish is with the artificial 
fly. The instructions already given for wielding 
the fly-rod will apply equally well to fly-fishing for 
salmon, except that both hands will be necessary to 
support the greater weight and length of the salmon- 
rod. One fly is quite sufficient on the cast. The 
local tackle-shops will always supply the necessary 
information as to size, colour, and tackle suitable 
to the water. 

The salmon-fly should never be allowed to float 
with the stream as trout-flies may. Its size causes 
it to be rolled over by the water, doubled back on 
the' line, and displayed in an otherwise unattractive 
manner to the fish below. It should always be 
worked across and against the stream in a succes- 
sion of jerks, with a forward and backward motion 
of the rod, so as alternately to drag it towards you 



308 



THE SALMON. 



and then let it fall back in the water. It should 
neither be worked too quickly nor too slowly : the 
happy mean alone ensures success. 

In shallows flowing into or out of deep pools the 
salmon may be found, also in eddies and swirling 
backwaters, under the lee of rocks and stones, or 
at the converging point of two currents. In fact, 
all spots whither by the action of the stream food 
is carried will be favourite haunts. If your fly is 
skilfully thrown, so as to be swept with the current 
into the eddy, you have a fair chance of hooking 
your fish. 

When hooked there commences a most exciting 
tussle. Do not strike at the first run, but wait till 
the salmon has turned, with the fly in his mouth, 
then strike and look out for squalls. Nothing can 
stop his first rush, and you must give line, though 
grudgingly, until his run is over, following him 
along the bank where practicable. Recover your 
line, or as much of it as you can, while he rests, and 
prepare for another rush. If he approaches any 
dangerous place, "give him the butt," as it is called, 
and place as great a strain on the fish as the rod 
and line will bear, lest you should lose him through 
getting the line entangled in tree-roots or cut against 
sharp rocks. Sometimes he will sulk at the bottom 
of a deep hole for a long time, taking no notice of 
the repeated tugs of the line, or the stones thrown 
in to start him away. When he is dislodged the 
fight recommences, and all the angler's skill, patience, 
and presence of mind will be fully employed ere he 
can secure his captive. 

Fly-fishing, however, is not the only way in which 
the salmon can be taken : spinning with the 
minnow is occasionally successful, and, when the 
water is muddy with rain, bait-fishing with a good- 



309 



FISHING. 

sized hook (with two or three large shots, a couple 
of feet from the hook), baited with worms, shrimps, 
or cockles, will be found occasionally very killing. 



The Pike. 




This fish is so voracious as to be termed the 
fresh-water shark. Instances have even been 
known of over-grown and half-starved monsters 
attacking human beings while bathing. Its edible 
qualities are of no mean order, and the sport which 
it affords is plentiful and varied. It is a fish of 
rapid growth, and frequently attains a large size. 
The average weight is, however, about six pounds. 
Up to three pounds in weight these fish are usually 
called Jack, and over that weight Pike. Its appetite 
is omnivorous. Young ducks, water-hens, water-rats, 
frogs, and all kinds of fishes form its daily food, 
yet we have also caught it with a lob-worm. In 
preserved waters it is sometimes advisable to form 



310 




harbours of refuge for the smaller fish, by driving a 
number of stakes into the bed of the stream, just 
far enough apart to admit them, but close enough 
to exclude their pursuer. 

Its chief haunts are slow and deep rivers, canals, 
large ponds and lakes, and backwaters in salmon 
and trout rivers. Where there is a bed of water- 
lilies a pike may generally be caught, for these seem 
to be good harbours for them. They spawn in the 
spring, and are not in season until June; but the most 
favourable time for catching them is in the autumn 
and winter, when they are in excellent condition 
and run freely. No amount of frost or snow is 
too great for pike-fishing, and the largest we ever 
caught was one Christmas-time, when the snow was 
deep on the ground. 

Your rod should be about twelve feet six inches 
in length (hickory is the best material), strong, stiff, 
yet tolerably springy, with a lancewood top. The 
rings should all be upright and large, the bottom 
one large enough indeed to admit the thumb, and 
the top one not standing in a line with the rod, 
but at right angles to it. The object of having the 
rings of this kind is to prevent any sudden check 
through the line kinking or curling around the ring. 
The rod should be fitted with a large and strong 
reel and some eighty yards of plaited silk line. 

Spinning is the mode to which we award the 
preference, and, to enable the reader to see what 
he should provide himself with, we refer him to the 
sketch of a spinning-flight shown at fig. 4. This 
ordinarily consists of three triangle-hooks, one 
"back" hook, and a lip-hook, moveable, so that it 
may be adjusted to suit any sized bait. In baiting 
this spinning-flight the lip-hook A is passed through 
both lips of the bait-fish. Then insert one hook 



311 



FISHING. 

of the first triangle just below the gill ; the next 
triangle may be taken over the back of the bait, 
and one hook of it fixed below the back fin. The 
last triangle should in like manner be inserted near 
the tail, which will be brought to a curve by fixing 
the back hook rather high up in the side of the 
bait ; and this curve will give it a spinning motion 
as it is drawn through the water. 

For live bait a double hook (fig. 5) must be used. 
To bait this the gimp is detached from the swivel b, 
and attached to the loop of the baiting-needle e ; 
the threaded needle is then put in near the gill, 
and brought out just below the back fin, and care 
must be taken to hurt the bait as little as possible. 
The lead both for this and the above is of the 
shape shown at d. 

Spinning, like fly-fishing, is hard to describe, but 
we will try to put it as clearly as possible. Take 
your stand by the water-side with the rod in the 
right hand, and the butt resting against the groin. 
Let the bait hang about two yards from the point 
of the rod, the line being controlled by the fore- 
finger of the right hand. With the left unreel a 
quantity of line, and let it lie in loose coils on the 
ground, seeing that it does not catch in any bush 
or thistle. Then, with a strong swing, pitch the 
bait right out, letting the line run free. A fair 
spinner can cast the bait thirty-five or forty yards 
with ease. The more lightly it falls on the water 
the better, as it will last longer and be less likely to 
frighten the fish. Draw the line in a yard and then 
lift the rod, and so, with alternate draws and lifts, 
the bait is brought home spinning sharply, and the 
line is coiled on the ground ready for another cast. 
During the cast the angler has probably moved a 
few yards down-stream, so as to fish fresh water 



312 



THE PIKE. 

the next time. A run will be known by a sudden 
stoppage of the line and perhaps a swirl in the 
water, upon which strike hard and play your fish 
carefully, never giving him an unnecessary inch of 
line, and do your best to prevent his running under 
any tree growing near the water's edge, as in case 
he should you may lose your fish through the line 
getting entangled among the roots. You will need 
the gaff to land him, and take good care to keep 
your hand from contact with his teeth, for he bites 
very sharply indeed. If there be danger of his 
leaping into the water again you may effectually end 
his struggles by severing the back -bone with a knife. 
Cut the tackle away and rebait, for the same fish 
will rarely serve twice. The Thames spinners have 
a way of coiling the line in their hand, instead of 
letting it fall on the ground; but this is a knack 
only to be learnt from personal observation, and is 
scarcely worth the learning. The Nottingham men 
throw from the reel, which is a large wooden one, and 
runs easily. An undressed light silk line is used, 
and, instead of being drawn in by the hand, it is 
wound in rapidly by the revolutions of their large 
reel. This style has advantages, and is useful where 
the ground is scrubby and the line likely to catch ; 
but the motion imparted to the bait is not so life- 
like as when the hand and rod are alternately used. 
The sketch (fig. 6) shows the form of hook for 
trolling with a gorge bait. The loop of the 
gimp is slipped on the baiting-needle, which is 
run through the fish from the mouth to the centre 
of the tail, and drawn tight, the hooks lying close 
to the cheeks of the bait, and the lead lying con- 
cealed in its belly. No other fastening is necessary, 
although some anglers tie the tail to the gimp with 
silk. Cut off the ventral fin on one side, and the 



313 



FISHING, 

pectoral fin on the other. This will give a more 
eccentric motion to the bait. Cast out the line in 
the same manner as in spinning, but let the bait 
sink to the bottom, which it will do in a curving or 
circling manner, shooting first on this side and then 
on that, and draw it up nearly to the top in a 
slanting direction. Repeat this until it is close in 
shore, when it may be taken up for another cast ; 
but lift it out slowly, as a pike will frequently leave 
it until it seems to be escaping from him, when, for 
fear of losing it, he will make a dash at it. When 
you get a run do not strike, but let out line as the 
fish moves to his haunt, where he will gorge. Give 
him at the least five minutes, and, if you can control 
your impatience, some minutes longer — unless he 
moves off before, then tighten the line : there is no 
need to strike, as in spinning, for the hooks will be 
firmly embedded in his stomach. This kind of 
angling is suited for weedy water, or for fishing 
among tree-roots or off wooded banks, as the hooks 
do not catch. As the trace will have to be so 
frequently detached from the line, for the purpose 
of baiting, we may here mention a wrinkle, for which 
many cold fingers will thank us. Form a small loop 
at the end of the line, and whip a pin to it, leaving 
the head projecting a little beyond the loop. If 
the loop of the trace is slipped through this loop, 
and over the pin's head, it will form a perfectly 
safe fastening, easily unlinked, and incapable of 
binding like the ordinary knot will do when wet. 

Live bait-fishing is very killing when the waters 
are muddy, and also generally in pools and lakes. 
A large float is required, and the line is kept down 
by a small bullet. The tackle is composed of one 
large triangle, above which a small single hook is 
whipped on to the gimp. This hook is thrust 



314 



through the back of the bait, so that the triangle 
hangs loose just below the belly. The bait swims 
about, and when a pike takes it, which is evidenced 
by the float disappearing, you strike quickly as in 
spinning. 

Trimmering is a cold-blooded, wholesale way of 
slaughtering the pike, and is decidedly unsportsman- 
like. It is only allowable when the table is to be 
supplied or the stock kept down. Trimmers are 
round pieces of wood, painted white on one side 
and red on the other, with a line wrapped around 
them, and secured in the cleft of a stick passing 
through them, with a couple of yards hanging loose, 
and armed with a double hook dressed on wire. 
These are baited with fish alive or dead, or frogs, 
and are set to float on a pool or river. When a 
fish strikes, the trimmer turns over, betraying the 
run by its altered colour, and freeing the line so as 
to give the pike room to tire himself. 

The best bait undoubtedly is a gudgeon.- Its 
firm flesh and great brilliancy give it peculiar attrac- 
tions, while as a spinning bait it is unrivalled. 
Roach may be used in its absence, but are not so 
good. Perch, with the back fin cut off, will also 
answer. Wrap the fish up in a damp cloth for 
transport. They will carry better and keep fresh 
and unbruised. For live bait-fishing they must of 
course be carried in such a bait-can as we have 
already described. 

Of artificial baits there are numbers. The most 
useful and most generally used is the Spoon-bait, 
which is very killing in wild and stormy weather. 
It is considered an improvement to paint the con- 
vex side red. The artificial fly is sometimes. used, 
but cannot take a place among pike-baits proper. 

In the summer the evening is the best time for 



315 



pike-fishing, and in the autumn and winter the 
middle of the day. 



The Grayling. 




The grayling is something like the trout in its 
habits. The streams it most loves are quickly 
moving, clear-flowing shallows, deepening into long 
stretches of deep water. Comparatively speaking 
it is rather a rare fish, though in those rivers which 
it does frequent it is plentiful enough. October, 
November, and December are the best months for 
grayling, and on bright days capital .sport may be 
had with dark flies of a small size. 

The fly is, with this fish* as with trout, the 
pleasantest and most successful lure. Generally 
speaking the flies used for trout will be found 
successful also with the grayling. Gentles, in the 
autumn, and the white larvae of beetles and moths 
are excellent baits for bottom-fishing. On feeling 
a bite do not strike at once, but wait a few seconds, 
to give the fish time to swallow the bait. Graylings 
should be struck and played with extreme caution 
and gentleness, as their mouths are very tender, and 
the hook is easily torn away. 



316 



THE PERCH. 



The Perch. 




Of the fish usually caught by bottom-fishing the 
perch perhaps shows most sport. It is a hog- 
backed fish, strongly and firmly built, and marked 
with transverse black stripes down the sides. Its 
dorsal fin is large and spiny, and when erected is 
a powerful weapon, necessitating some care in 
handling the fish when landed. It is gregarious, 
and where one is caught there are sure to be many 
others : the prudent angler therefore will not leave 
the place until he has given it a fair trial. The 
perch is a bold and rapid biter, and takes the float 
away with a dash. In fact, the smaller the fish, the 
more determinately does he sail off with the bait. 
It is not well, however, to strike at the first bob of 
the float, for perch have large mouths, and the 
hook might be snatched away. 

Perch spawn in March, and are in season from May 
to November, but the best months for their capture 
are August and September. The majority of perch 
are under a pound in weight, they seldom exceed 
three, and a perch of a pound and a half may be 



317 



FISHING. 

considered a good fish. Where they are very 
numerous excellent sport may be obtained on a 
favourable day, when they bite quickly. Their 
favourite haunts are clear and quietly flowing rivers 
(not so frequently in swift rivers as some writers say) 
with a gravelly bottom and of moderate depth. 
In such streams they affect the neighbourhood of 
tree-roots, under overhanging banks, at the debouch- 
ment of streams, in eddies and backwaters, by posts, 
mill-dams, or any structure in the water that may 
afford shelter, such as theipiles of bridges and boat- 
houses. In lakes or ponds, where they are usually 
plentiful, they will be found by the edges of weed- 
beds, and particularly among and by water-lilies. 
Perch bite freely in almost all kinds of weather, 
but a warm dull day after rain is the best. 

A good strong rod must be used, and tackle to 
match, although fineness and invisibility should 
never be lost sight of. A rather large hook should 
be employed, and the line should be well shotted 
at a distance of a foot from the hook. A float is 
necessary, and should not be too small. The cork 
ones are the best for perch-fishing, and should be 
pretty rotund in the body. The line should be of 
such a length that the float may sit upright on 
the water, and the bait be about six inches from the 
bottom where it is shallow, and about a quarter 
way from the bottom where it is deep. The most 
usual and frequently the most killing bait is a red- 
worm. We always bait with two, in this manner : 
we run the hook through the middle portion of the 
first worm for about a third of its length, then bring 
it out and run the worm up the line ; this done, we 
pass the hook through the second worm, so as to 
conceal the bend of the hook in its body, leaving 
the head and tail free, then slip the first worm down 



318 



THE PERCH. 



on the shank, and a most enticing bait is the 
result. The loose ends, which, by the way, should 
not be too long (to ensure which use short worms), 
play about in the water in a lively manner, and 
doubtless seem to the roving perch a very tempting 
morsel. Whether you bait with one or two worms, 
see that the hook is well covered. 

When you see the float bob do not strike at once, 
but let it be fairly pulled under, or drawn some 
distance away, before you lift your rod. If you are 
careful not to let one escape after being pricked 
with the hook, you may commit great havoc among 
a shoal. In lakes and large rivers it is often well to 
ground-bait the place with balls of soft clay, with 
which pieces of coarse lob-worms are mixed. These 
will attract the perch as the clay dissolves in the 
water and frees the worms. The perch will of 
course prefer the well-scoured bait of the angler. 

Equally good with, and in some waters better 
than worms are minnows. The hook should be 
gently thrust through the skin under the back fin, 
so that the minnow may live and swim about in the 
water. In minnow-fishing quick striking is advisa- 
ble, as the hook is uncovered. Minnows and worms 
may be used together in a very de^/y style of fish- 
ing, called fishing with a paternoster. This is con- 
structed in the following manner : — To the end of 
the gut a small bullet is attached, and at intervals 
above it are fastened hooks attached to short links 
of gut, or preferably to hog's bristles, as the latter 
stand well out from the line, if properly whipped 
to it. Four hooks will generally be found sufficient, 
and may be baited with worms, minnows, and 
shrimps. No float is used : you fish by feel. In 
this manner two or three may be taken at a time. 
We have often used the paternoster with a float, 



319 



FISHING. 



L 



and without the bullet at the end of the line, with 
considerable success. 

The Carp. 




rc-'^as*' 



" And my first direction is, that if you will fish 
for a carp, you must put on a very large measure of 
patience," says old Isaak Walton, and as far as the 
generality of waters go he is right. The carp is 
usually considered the most cautious of fresh-water 
fish, and only succumbs to the most cautious and 
patient fisherman. 

Occasionally, however, carp bite freely in rivers 
or pools that are not much fished. Fine gut, small 
hooks, no shot, or very small ones, and a small float, 
are indispensable to success. For our own part we 
prefer the red-worm to any other bait ; but in the 
summer they will only take it in the mornings and 
evenings. During the middle of the day any one 
of the pastes before-mentioned are more successful. 
They should be kneaded to the consistency of 
dough, and ct piece about the size of a green pea 
placed upon a small hook. Strike at the first 
movement of the float in angling with paste ; but 



320 



THE CARP. 

when angling with the worm give the fish plenty of 
time. The carp has a very small mouth, and is a 
slow biter. He will play with and carry the bait 
about frr some time before finally swallowing it, 
and during this time it is not safe to strike, although 
the float will be moving all the time. Should the 
float indicate a bite, and then remain quiet for a 
considerable time, you must not infer that the fish 
has left it. He may have it in his mouth lying 
quiet, or he may be cautiously watching it before 
taking another taste. Green peas slightly boiled 
form good baits, and are often much lauded, as are 
wasp-grubs and other insect larvae. 

In the summer, when carp are basking on the 
surface, they may be taken by dibbing with the 
natural fly, and even with an artificial imitation : a 
large blue-bottle fly, or bee, or other "fluffy" insect 
will be an attractive bait. Use a long rod and 
short fine line, with a very small hook, just placed 
through the body at the root of the wings. This 
should be " dibbed " on the surface of the water in 
likely spots, under bridges and over deep holes, or 
it may be placed a few inches before the nose of 
any basking carp. In this and in worm-fishing it 
is a good plan to cast the bait first on a weed or 
branch, and then let it drop into the water as if 
falling in accidentally. We have frequently caught 
large carp with a ledger line and Nottingham reel. 
In this mode of fishing no float is used, but the 
line is passed through a perforated bullet, which is 
kept from running down to the hook by a shot 
placed on the gut about eighteen inches above it. 
This is thrown a long distance out, in the same 
manner as in pike-fishing; the line is then drawn 
tight, and the bait allowed to rest until a bite is 
perceived by the twitching of the line as it is drawn 



321 



FISHING. 



through the bullet. We consider this a most killing 
way of carp-fishing, where there are large fish. 
When fishing with worm the bait should rest on the 
ground, when with paste about six inches from it. 
The depth may be found by previously plumbing it. 

Ground-baiting is essential to good sport with 
carp, and should be done, if possible, the night 
before. Use bran, clay, bread, and chopped worms, 
and throw in a little chewed bread around your 
float while fishing. 

The haunts of carp are in the quietest portions of 
rivers and pools, and extreme quiet must be observed 
while fishing. They grow to a large size, and live 
to an immense age. Numerous stories are told of 
their tameness when fed and cared for, and are no 
doubt true. They will keep alive for a long time 
out of their native element, and bear transport for 
a great distance if packed in wet moss. 

Carp spawn in April and May, but can never be 
called out of season for the angler. 

The Tench. 




Somewhat like the carp in its habits, although 
different in every other respect, the tench is a fish, 



322 



THE TENCH. 



usually averaging about three pounds in weight, that 
is well worth angling for. It is of a peculiar thick- 
set, muscular build, of a greenish-brown hue, and 
covered with a soft slime, which is said to have 
great healing powers. This fish has been called 
the physician of the pike, because (so it is reported 
even yet, and was firmly believed in by our fore- 
fathers) when the pike is hurt in any fray he seeks 
out the tench, and, rubbing against him, is healed 
of his wounds by the slime. However this may be, 
it is a fact, established by experiment, that pike 
will not bite a tench. 

Tench frequent still, weedy waters, and it would 
seem that the muddier the bottom is, the better 
they like it. The tench spawns in May and June, 
and is in its best season at the time of the corn 
harvest. The best baits are ' small red-worms, 
which should just touch the ground ; and, unless 
there is a current, no shots should be used. In 
ponds a porcupine quill float is best, but in rivers 
a small cork one may be used. The tench is a 
slow and cautious biter, and will play with the 
worm for some time before it makes a bolt of it. 
When, however, the float rises so as to be flat on 
the water you may safely strike. This rising of 
the float is a peculiarity of tench-fishing, caused by 
the fish pushing the bait upwards, instead of diving 
off with it. If you strike then, provided your hook 
is not too large, you will hook your fish. When 
hooked you must give him the butt, as he at once 
makes for the mud and weeds ; and if you allow 
him to bury his nose in the former, or get fairly 
into the latter, you will probably lose him. Land 
him as quickly and quietly as possible, or you may 
frighten his neighbours. 

Worms, however, are not the only baits by which 



323 



FISHING. 

tench can be caught. Wasp-grubs and the other 
baits recommended for bottom-fishing may be used 
with success ; but we should not recommend paste, 
as the bite of the tench is not sufficiently decided 
to enable the angler to strike so immediately as he 
must do with paste. A little chewed bread or 
moistened bran, but preferably the former, will 
entice them to the neighbourhood of your hook. 
They seem to swim in pairs, and if you catch one 
you may be tolerably certain of catching another 
at or near the same spot, if you are sufficiently cir- 
cumspect. Carp also swim in twos or threes, those 
of a size keeping together. Early in the morning 
and late in the evening tench usually bite well. 
On mild drizzly days they will bite well all day, but 
even then you will obtain better sport towards dusk. 
It is a good plan at such times to affix a white 
feather or piece of paper to the cap of the float, 
and when this cannot be seen you must shorten 
your line and fish by feel. The biting will con- 
tinue on dark nights as long as you like to stay; 
but on bright moonlight nights, when a few hours 
by the water-side would be pleasant, tench are 
seldom caught. Indeed this is true of most fish. 

The Chub. 

Although it is stated by some writers that the 
chub thrives best in ponds, yet in our opinion it 
is essentially a river fish. If it thrives at all in ponds, 
it is only in those which have a stream of water 
passing through them. Still and deep holes in 
rapid rivers, which run over a gravelly bottom, and 
oozy and muddy in the deeps, are its favourite 
haunts. The best chub are frequently taken in the 
heavy swirling eddies at the foot of a rapid ; if over- 



324 



THE CHUB. 



hung by the bushes, so much the better. It is a 
roundly built, handsome fish, averaging from half 
a pound to four pounds in weight, and of a silvery 
brightness, verging upon yellow in the summer. 
Chub make rapid headway in a river if once intro- 
duced, especially if the bottom of the stream is 
more of a gravelly than a rocky character. They 
spawn in the early spring, but do not attain their 
greatest strength and elan until winter, when they 
are among the few fish that will afford sport on fine 
days at that inclement season. 




There are many ways of fishing for chub, the 
most common being perhaps bottom-fishing, with 
worms, grubs, pastes, &c. In still deeps the worm 
or wasp-grub on a moderate-sized hook is good. 
Use an ordinary goose-quill float, as where there is 
any stream the porcupine float is overwhelmed. 
It is necessary also to use several shots on the line 
to sink the hook, otherwise the current would bear 
it to the top. A couple of red-worms or large 
brandlings, or one large well-scoured lob-worm, will 
be ah enticing bait. A couple of wasp-grubs may 
be used with success in the summer and autumn. 



325 



If the stream is of such a nature that a float can- 
not safely be used, employ the bullet-tackle, as de- 
scribed for carp-fishing. The bait should be cast in 
at the head of the stream, and allowed to run with 
it into the holes and eddies, the line being kept 
taut, so that the slightest bite will be felt. For 
bottom-fishing, the various pastes, cheese, snails, 
and even small frogs, may be successfully used, but 
we much prefer the old-fashioned worm. 

As chub are gregarious, when a good hole is 
discovered the angler should stay by it as long as 
the fish will bite, and return to it on future occa- 
sions ; for " once a chub-hole, always a chub-hole," 
is a true saying. There will almost always be such 
bushes near as will afford him some concealment 
from the sharp eyes of these cunning denizens of 
the stream. A little ground-bait thrown in occa- 
sionally will serve to keep them on the feed and 
tend to allay their suspicions ; but care should be 
taken not to throw too much. 

The chub may also be caught by spinning or 
trolling with a minnow or small gudgeon ; but this 
kind of angling is less sure than the others. 

The pleasantest way of chub-fishing, however, is 
by dibbing with the natural fly on warm summer 
days. There are two ways of doing this. If the 
river is tolerably open, and the banks clear of bush, 
get a long rod and floss-silk line, such as we men- 
tioned under the head of trout-fishing, and, with 
a small hook baited with a bee or grasshopper, or 
similar insect, get on the windward side of the 
river, and, letting the line float out on the breeze, 
drop the fly in the most likely spots by just lowering 
the point of the rod. By following this method, 
and skilfully humouring the fly into otherwise in- 
accessible spots, a large basket may be made. 



326 



THE CHUB. 



The other method is best pursued on hot, still 
days, when the chub bask on the top of the water 
under the bushes. The hook, a small one, should 
be carefully inserted between the wings of a bee, 
grasshopper, or cockchafer. Roll the line around 
the point of the rod quite to the hook, then, cau- 
tiously and quietly approaching the water, behind 
the bushes, push your rod through the branches 
gently and quietly, until the point overhangs the 
water, and unroll the line until the fly touches 
the water, in which it must be dibbed in a 
seductive manner. You may pick out the largest 
of the basking fish, and drop the fly just before his 
nose, and so proceed down the river, selecting the 
largest to grace your basket. When hooked do 
not give him an inch of line : the place is too 
dangerous for tackle, on account of branches and 
snags. Give him the butt, and land him as well as 
you are able with the net. Of course any other 
fish may be taken in this way ; and in the May-fly 
season trout may be caught in numbers in the deeps 
by fishing in this manner with the May-fly. 

Artificial fly-fishing may also be followed in the 
shallows in the summer. The flies for this purpose 
should be large and rough in the body. Black and 
red palmers are standard flies for chub-fishing. 

The Bream. 

Handle the bream, when caught, as little as 
possible. Its scales are coated with an unpleasant 
sticky slime, that no doubt arises from its habits, 
which are mud-loving and slothful. Its chief 
haunts are slow, muddy rivers, such as the Yare, 
with a scarcely perceptible current, and a slimy 
oozy bottom. In lakes and broads where the 



327 



FISHING. 

water and bottom are of a somewhat similar cha- 
racter the bream is to be found in large numbers, 
and it attains its greatest size where the water is 
brackish. It averages in weight from one pound 
to three or four, and sometimes more. In habits 
and tastes it is something like the carp, but it is 
neither so gamesome nor so edible. It spawns 
towards the end of June, and is usually considered 
as in best season just before that process is com- 
menced ; but in our opinion August and September 
are the best months, and on mellow and fine days 
in October excellent sport may be obtained. 




The only successful method of fishing for bream 
is by bottom-fishing. Worms are the best bait. 
Either the red-worm, brandling, or lobworm may be 
used. The spot fixed upon should be ground-baited 
the night before with chopped worms, bran, and 
bread, mixed up with clay or mould, and, in a river, 
thrown in just above the required spot, that the 
stream, if there be one, may carry the bait down- 
wards, and distribute it over the fishing-ground. 
The distance above is a matter of judgment, and 
must, of course, depend upon the swiftness of the 



328 



THE BREAM. 



current. A quill float should be used, and a strong 
rod. The line should be shotted, so as to balance 
the float and allow the bait to trail on the bottom. 
Strike at the first bite. The bream fights like the 
carp, but does not show so much sport. Two or 
three rushes, and then it is all over with him. 

As the bream frequents waters of considerable 
extent, the swims of the float should be as long as 
possible ; but, as it is difficult to discover its move- 
ments at any distance from the bank or boat, it is 
often well to use the following float : — Affix two 
quills into a small cork float, so as to form one 
long quill float, with a small cork ball in the middle, 
as shown in fig. 7. Load the upper end with a 
couple of shot, fixed in with wax, and weight the 
line so that the float may lie flat on the water while 
undisturbed by a bite ; but on the faintest touch of 
a fish the balance is overcome, and the float starts 
into an upright position. A bite can thus be dis- 
cerned at a great distance. This "dodge," or 
"wrinkle," is invaluable at certain times and on 
certain waters. The angler will, of course, be able 
to judge where it is necessary or advisable to use it. 
The ledger-bait may be used with success in the 
manner directed for carp and chub. 

Early in the morning and late at night are the 
best times to angle for bream ; but in warm dull 
days, with a little wind, it will bite well all day. 
Some anglers go so far even as to say that a strong 
breeze, or gale, and a dull, " hard " sort of day, is 
the best for them, but with this we cannot agree. 
In brackish waters the bait should be larger and the 
line stronger than in perfectly fresh waters, as the 
fish are larger and more voracious. When the water 
is thick after rain, or from a high tide, or if there is 
a soft warm mist on the water, bream bite well. 



329 



FISHING. 



The Barbel. 




This is a fish that is not widely distributed, 
although tolerably common in some rivers. The 
Thames and the Trent are its chief strongholds, 
and in these rivers it is much fished for. It is 
essentially a river fish, and loves strong and swift 
currents, flowing between weeds, piles, and bridges. 
Always feeding on the bottom, it works along the 
gravel, stirring it up with its snout in search of food, 
after the manner of swine on dry land. From the 
sides of its mouth hang wattles or barbs (hence its 
name). It spawns in April, but is almost always in 
season as far as sport is concerned. In weight it 
is usually of from three to six pounds, and often 
attains to the weight of ten pounds. The barbel 
is a nice feeder, and some care and skill are necessary 
for his capture. The most approved way of fishing 
for him is with the ledger-line, already described, 
having a good-sized lob-worm for bait, or two red- 
worms, in either case taking care that they are well 
scoured. He may also be caught with gentles, paste, 
cheese, &c, in the same manner as that recom- 
mended for carp and bream. When struck keep a 
strong pull on the line, or he may seize hold of 



330 



THE BARBEL. 



some root or post at the bottom, and defy all your 
efforts to remove him. Fine but strong tackle 
should always be used. It is usual and also best 
to ground-bait the spot for a night or two before 
fishing, when you will have a better chance of 
sport. When a float is used, the long line float as 
described for bream-fishing may be employed. 



The Roach. 




Roach are so exceedingly plentiful, and there are 
such numerous methods of fishing for them, that 
they are, and deservedly, favourite fish, especially 
with London anglers. Walton deems roach " silly/' 
and easily caught ; but they have certainly gained 
in wisdom since his day, for although small ones 
may be caught as fast as the angler throws his line 
in, yet the larger ones are exceedingly cautious, 
and no small skill is required in circumventing 
them. Roach love clear and limpid streams, but 



331 



FISHING. 



are found in all kinds of waters, choosing quietly 
flowing waters in preference to more turbulent 
streams. They are gregarious, and usually swim in 
large shoals, the largest heading the procession. 
In weight they vary from an ounce to a couple of 
pounds, and it has always appeared to us that the 
large fish are solitary in their habits, or at all events 
they do not hang together so much as the smaller 
ones. They spawn in May or the beginning of 
June, and may be fished for from July through the 
winter. The rod for roach-fishing should be long, 
to reach over the weeds; and light, to facilitate 
quick striking. The line should be fine, and the 
gut of the finest, while the hooks should be small 
and slender. When a float is used it should con- 
sist of a small porcupine quill. This sinks at the 
slightest touch, and is more visible to the angler 
than the half-inch quill that some writers recom- 
mend. Save where there is a stream, no shot should 
be used. 

Paste, a very small red-worm or brandling, a few 
grains of boiled pearl barley, or a plump gentle, 
may be used with success. The line should be as 
short above the float as possible, to favour the 
strike. At the first movement of the float, strike. 
If you do not you lose both your fish and your bait. 
As your tackle must be fine, if you hook a large 
fish a landing-net will be necessary. The above 
baits may be used at all times in any water, save 
that paste may not be used in quick running 
streams. When roach are playing near the surface 
in some good feeding-place, such as at the mouth 
of a drain, great havoc may be committed among 
them by baiting with a wasp-grub, baked before the 
fire, or slightly boiled, and, using no float, casting it 
as you would a fly, among the shoal. Do not let it 



332 



THE ROACH. 



sink, but draw it gently away, when the roach will 
follow it eagerly, and one more daring than the rest 
will rush in and seize it. 

Roach will take the fly freely if it be worked 
slowly and allowed tc sink a few inches below the 
surface. If a gentle be placed on the hook, or, what 
will answer as well, a shred of kid glove or of wash- 
leather, the roach will dash at it madly. A natural 
grasshopper may also be used in this manner, as 
also for dibbing on the surface, as described when 
treating of chub-fishing. But perhaps the best 
fly for dibbing for roach is the yellow fly founa on 
cow-dung. 

Two hooks may be used with advantage in roach- 
fishing, with a different bait on each. Many anglers 
fish for roach with a line composed, for some dis- 
tance next the hook, of single hair, and, as may 
be expected, often beat the gut-line fisher. Great 
care and skill in landing are required if this refine- 
ment of angling is adopted, and a landing-net is in 
all cases necessary. Ground-baiting should be 
practised if possible. 

The Dace 




is something like the roach, but longer and more 
slim and graceful ; its fins too are not red, and its 



333 



FISHING. 

scales are finer, but in its habits it much resembles 
the roach : possibly, however, it loves swifter streams, 
and is found oftentimes in trout shallows and scours. 
It is gregarious, and at the mouths of drains and 
other favourable positions may be found in great 
numbers. The remarks made on the roach will 
apply almost equally well to the dace. Flies, gentles, 
and small red-worms are its favourite food, and are 
taken greedily, especially in the spring and autumn. 
During the summer months flies, tipped with gentles, 
or a piece of white kid glove or chamois-leather, 
should be used. Whipping for dace on the shallows 
in the summer evenings is a favourite amusement 
with many. 

The Gudgeon. 




This beautiful little fish delights chiefly in quiet 
streams, flowing over a gravelly or sandy bottom, 
but does not dislike rapid trout-streams. 

The gudgeon averages in weight nine or a dozen 
to the pound, and during the warmer portions of 
the year bites well all day long. They swim in 
shoals, and, on a good day, will keep the angler 
fully employed. A light rod should be used, with 
a small hook. Discard the float, and fish by feel, 
if the stream be rapid. A red-worm, gentle, or 



334 



THE GUDGEON. 



caddis may be used as bait, and should touch the 
bottom. The bait should fit the hook tightly, and 
leave no loose ends for the gudgeons to nibble at 
Do not strike at the first bite, for the gudgeon 
nibbles at the bait some little while before he finally 
takes it. To attract the fish to one spot rake up 
the gravel with a garden-rake or bough. This 
muddies the water and stirs up insect food, when 
the gudgeons will flock to the spot. Repeat this 
operation every time the biting ceases. 

Gudgeon spawn twice a year, but may be said to 
be always in season. 

The Minnow. 




This active little fish is, in company with the 
stickleback, the first fish the juvenile angler tries 
his hand at. It is about an inch and a half or two 
inches in length, of a bright silvery hue, with black 
transverse bars. It abounds in incredible numbers 
in all our streams, and may be caught with a small 
hook and worm, and by striking quickly, or, for 
bait, by decoying them over a net with a bunch of 
worms. 

If the incautious fly-fisher allows his cast to 
remain in the water for any length of time, he may 
find his hooks stripped bare of their feathers by 
these indefatigable little destroyers. 



335 



FISHING. 



The Bleak. 




This active little fish has scales of such a silvery 
sheen that it is said they are used to make mock 
pearls of. It frequents strong and clear streams, 
but may also be caught in still water. Artificial flies 
and gentles, or both combined, are the proper lures 
for bleak, and, with light tackle and as many hooks 
as he pleases, the angler may have plenty of sport. 

The Pope 




is a small fish of the perch family. It grows to no 
larger size than a finger's length, but may be caught 
in exactly the same manner as the perch, of which 
it is almost a fac-simile, only of course with smaller 
hooks. 



336 



CHAR AND GUINIAD. 



Char and Guiniad 

are so uncommon and so rarely caught that they 
do not come within the scope of a treatise like the 
present. 

The Rud, or Roach Carp, 




is a variety of the roach, and may be angled for 
in precisely the same manner. 

The Lamprey, 




a kind of sucking-eel, does not concern the angler, 
as it does not take bait 



337 



FISHING. 




~* **~. " j 



This fish is of use only for bait when other fish 
cannot be obtained. He may be caught by fishing 
for him with a small worm ; as may also 



The Miller's Thumb, 

which is a miniature cod-fish in shape, and is found 
in the same places as the loach. Both these fish 
may be killed by striking the stones underneath 
which they live heavily with a large hammer. This 
stuns them, and they can be easily secured. 



The Eel. 

Every one knows the form of the eel. They are 
so common in all rivers that they are made ac- 
quaintance with at an early stage of the angler's 
life. To a certain extent the eel is a migratory fish, 
where the length of river permits any migration ; 
and vast numbers annually ascend and descend 
the rivers, whereto and whence is not yet decided. 



338 



The spawning of the eel, too, seems clouded in 
mystery, some writers asserting that it is viviparous ; 
but this assertion seems to require proof. Its 
haunts are among tree-roots and stumps, under 
weeds and overhanging banks, in holes of masonry, 
and in soft mud. If you gaze cautiously over the 
bank when the water is clear, you may perceive 
their heads protruding from their haunts on the 
watch for prey ; and if a hook baited with a worm 
is guided to them, they will greedily seize it. They 
are to be found wherever there is water enough. 




From May to August they are most in season, 
and will bite more freely when the water is dis- 
coloured after rain, and during thunder, which seems 
to stir them up exceedingly, also at night after 
hot days. A lob-worm is the usual bait, and should 
always rest on the ground. A float may be dis- 
pensed with, and the ledger-line used. Give plenty 
of time for the eel to swallow the bait, as he is a 
slow biter. The hook should be large, and the 
tackle strong. When you take him out of the 



339 



FISHING. 

water, to prevent his entangling your line put 
your foot upon him and cut his head nearly off, so 
as to divide the spine; or strike him a blow on 
the tail, which paralyzes an eel sooner than any- 
thing else, though it will not kill him. 

Eels are also caught by means of night-lines, 
which are baited with worms or loach, and hauled 
out in the morning. Another common and success- 
ful method is by "bobbing." A quantity of large 
worms are strung on worsted, and tied up into a 
ball, with a weight in the middle. This is let down 
to the bottom, and when it is judged, from the 
frequent tugs at the line, that a sufficient quantity 
of eels are biting, it is hauled quickly and quietly 
out, and the eels shaken off into the boat or basket. 
Their teeth get entangled in the worsted, and 
remain so long enough to allow the eels to be 
hoisted out in the manner described. A rod may 
be used, but in boat-fishing it is not necessary. If 
used, it should be a very stiff one. Any short 
stout stick will do. Another method of killing eels 
is by spearing them. Sniggling is a method we have 
not practised, but which is thus described : " It is 
performed with a stick about a yard long, with a cleft 
at each end, and a strong needle- well whipped to a 
small whipcord line from the eye down to the 
middle. In baiting run the head of the needle quite 
up into the head of a lob-worm, letting the point 
come out about the middle ; then put the point of 
the needle into the cleft at either end of the stick, 
and, taking both stick and line together in one 
hand (some of the line being wrapped round the 
hand), put the bait softly into holes under walls, 
stones, &c, where eels hide themselves (if there 
be an eel there, he will take the worm and needle 
out of the cleft) \ draw back the stick gently (having 



340 



THE EEL. 

slackened the line), and give time for his swallowing 
the bait ; then strike, and the needle will stick 
across his throat : let him tire himself with tugging, 
previous to any attempt to pull him out, for he lies 
folded in his den, and will fasten his tail round any- 
thing for his defence." 

The Flounder 




is a flat fish, properly a sea or brackish-water 
fish ; but it frequently finds its way a long distance 
up the rivers, and thrives well. It may be angled 
for with a worm, using a strong line and stout gut 
and a stiff rod. When struck it clings to the bottom 
and gives no play. Still where they abound they 
are worth catching, if only for the table. 



Angling Quarters. 
For particular information as to "where to go 



341 



FISHING. 

and how to go " in search of sport, we would refer 
our readers to "The Rail and the Rod," published 
in parts to correspond with the various great lines 
of railways, by Mr. Horace Cox, of the Strand, 
London. The angler will find its pages a useful 
guide in his angling rambles. 

Nets and Netting. 

Under this heading we propose to treat only of 
those nets which are either auxiliary to the angler's 
art, such as the landing-net and casting-net, or those 
which are used for catching fish in places and at 
times when they cannot be caught with the rod. 

The Landing-net is a round bag-net, mounted on a 
wire hoop and fixed to the head of a staff, which is 
sometimes made telescopic, for the sake of porta- 
bility. The meshes of the net should be small and 
of stout twine. If the net is tanned or dressed 
with caoutchouc, it will harden the twine and 
prevent the hooks of your spinning-flight catching 
in the meshes to the same extent as they might 
otherwise do. 

The Casting-net should be about thirteen yards in 
circumference, and lightly leaded to permit of far 
casts. Its use is to obtain small fish as bait for 
pike-fishing, which, without its aid, could scarcely 
be procured in the cold months of the year, when 
pike are at their best season. The art of throwing 
is only to be thoroughly learnt by observation of an 
experienced hand, and by long practice. The net 
is neatly adjusted on the grass, and then gathered 
up on the left arm and hand, and with a side swing 
thrown gently on the water, the angler retaining 
hold of the end of the line. The net should spread 
out in a circle, and all parts ought to touch the 



342 



water at the same moment. If one side touches 
the water first, the fish will fly from the splash and 
escape the net before the other side settles down. 
Be careful also not to throw too high, or the splash 
will be much greater than it need be. Allow it to 
remain on the bottom a little time, that the fish 
may get better entangled in the tucks. Draw it to 
the shore as gently as possible, and in lifting it out 
see that you do not shake any of the fish back into 
the water. 

Tench and eels are easily caught by means of the 
Hoop-net (fig. 8). This is in shape like a barrel, the 
net being stretched on a round frame four feet in 
length and two feet in diameter, with channels lead- 
ing into the net at each end, down which the fish 
swim, attracted by a bunch of flowers suspended in 
the middle, or a couple of small fish placed inside. 
It is curious that a bunch of flowers, or anything 
similarly gaudy, should so attract the finny tribe. 
The hoop-net should be set in water about twice 
its depth, in the channels between the weeds, and 
wherever there appears to be a path or run of fish. 

The Drag-net is a large affair, of great length, with 
which a piece of water is enclosed and dragged, 
and is used chiefly for salmon. 

The Flew-net is a net which is generally set across 
a river or pool, and in which, from its peculiar con- 
struction, the fish entangle themselves as they swim 
about. It has two walls of large meshed net-work, 
of any desirable length, and six or seven feet in 
depth. Between these two walls is a finer net of 
small meshes, set very loosely, so that when the 
fish strike it they push the middle net through the 
large meshes of the walls, and enclose themselves 
in a kind of bag. The lower side has lead to sink 
it, and the upper corks to float it. 



343 



FISHING. 



The Twopole-net is a moderate-sized net, to the 
ends of which two poles are attached. A small 
pool in a river can be swept clean with this net. 
The modus operandi is to surround a tree-root or 
other likely haunt for fish, and beat the holes well 
with a pole, when the fish dart out and are imme- 
diately taken. 



l_ — 

344 




Part II. 
SEA-FISHING. 

Tackle, &c. 

UR notice of Sea-fishing must necessarily 
be brief. It may be divided into two 
classes — fishing at anchor, and fishing 
while in motion ; the latter being generally 
known by the names of Whiffing and Railing, 
Off the coast of nearly every part of the kingdom 
are numberless localities which are favourite spots 
for ground-fishing. These are known to the local 
fishermen, and are generally shoals in the neigh- 
bourhood of rocks or a sunken wreck. Their 
position is found by means of " marks," which are 
prominent objects on the shore whose relative 
positions, as seen from the fishing-grounds, have 
been carefully noted. 

Rods are very seldom used for sea-fishing, and 
the lines are hauled in by hand. To stand this 
they must of course be strong. The strong current 
of the tides and the greater buoyancy of the salt 
water necessitate heavy leads, the size varying with 
the locality. The usual form of tackle for ground- 
fishing is shown in fig. 9. 

a is a conical-shaped piece of lead suspended 
on a swivel d. b b are pieces of stout wire, pro- 
jecting out a sufficient distance to prevent the 
snoods c c from fouling. This tackle is baited with 



345 



FISHING. 



one of the baits described below, and is suffered 
to sink to the bottom and then drawn up a few 
inches. When a bite is felt it is hauled in rapidly 
by hand, and the fish lifted over the side. 

Another method of fishing from a boat at anchor i 
is with drift lines, which are lines weighted with 
leads of different weights, and are allowed to run 
out from the boat when the tide is flowing strongly, 
and usually catch chance fish that play at or near 
the surface. 

The same sort of tackle may be used for whif- 
fing and railing, in which methods two or more 
lines are trailed behind a boat under oars ^more 
properly called "whiffing"), or under sail (more 
properly called " railing "). In this mode of fishing j 
artificial baits may be used, such as silver spinners ! 
or white flies, and even pieces of tobacco-pipe, or j 
red or white rag when the pursuit is after mackarel. 



Whiting 




are caught in great numbers from an anchored 
boat. Bait with mussels, lug-worms, or a piece of 
fish. The whiting attains to about two pounds 
in weight 



346 



THE POLLACK. 



The Pollack 




reaches up to twelve or fifteen pounds in weight, 
and is usually found where there is a rocky bottom. 
Drift-fishing and whiffing are the most usual methods 
of catching pollack, and no bait is better than the 
living sand-eel. For fishing from shore, on rocky 
points or harbour heads, a large float, similar to 
that used in live-bait fishing for pike, may be used 
with advantage, as a greater length of line can be 
managed by its aid. 

The Bass 




is of the perch tribe, although more like the salmon 
in shape. It is common in estuaries and harbours, 



347 



FISHING. 

and averages from four to twelve pounds in weight. 
It may be fished for either from a boat at anchor, 
or from shore with a heavily leaded line, thrown 
well out into the sea. The baits will have to be 
tough ones, and the best are pieces of squid, or 
cuttle-fish. Rod-fishing for bass is often practised, 
either whiffing from a boat or from rocks and pier- 
heads. Bass are fond of rough water, and bite 
best when the breeze is fresh and the surf high. 
At such times they come close in shore, following 
the first wave up the beach in search of food. Fly- 
fishing at such times, and when a shoal " breaks " 
on the surface of the water, may be practised with 
success. The flies should be large, and made of 
one or two thick white feathers, rolled round the 
head of the hook and lashed. 

The Trot is a deadly contrivance, which may be 
used for other fish as well as bass. It is of two 
kinds : one a long line, with numerous hooks, sup- 
ported on short links of snooding at intervals, which 
is laid down on shore when the tide is at the ebb, 
and taken up again after the tide has returned past 
the place ; and the other, a similar line, but floated 
with corks, and kept down at both ends by large 
stones ; smaller stones are also suspended at inter- 
vals along the line, to prevent it rising too high. 
This is set from a boat, often across some sandy 
cone between the rocks, and taken up again after 
the lapse of some hours. 

Mackarel 

are too well known to need description. They 
are generally taken by whirring or railing, and 
although the artificial baits described above will 
take them readily, by far the best bait is a small 



348 



MACKAREL. 



r**zzr 




slice cut from the tail of a mackarel. This is simply 
hooked through one end and trailed behind in the 
water. The boat should sail at a pace not exceed- 
ing four miles an hour, at which rate tolerably heavy 
leads will be needed. When the fish cease biting 
turn and sail over the same ground again. Mackarel 
may also be taken at anchor, when sand-eels are 
the best baits. 

The Dab 




is a fish in shape like the flounder. It is found in 
abundance on all the sandy coasts of England, and 
may be taken with a hand-line while at anchor. 



349 



FISHING. 



The Flounder 



is properly an estuary fish, but in quiet bays may 
be caught in the same manner as the dab. 

The Whiting Pout 




is exceedingly common, and may be caught in the 
same manner as the whiting. 

- The Grey Mullet 




at times feeds well, and may be caught in great 
numbers with a paternoster-line baited with rag- 
worms and shrimps. 



350 



THE SMELT. 



The Smelt 




*^v 



is a delicate little fish, which abounds in the 
vicinity of harbours, the mouths of drains, and in 
sheltered coves. It may be caught with a pater- 
noster rigged on gut, or by float-line fishing. A 
small piece of shrimp is sufficient bait. 



The Conger 




u 



is a " magnified eel," and is caught of great weight. 
Its haunts are where the bottom is rocky and near 
wrecks. The tackle should be strong and well 



351 



FISHING, 

served with wire or hemp. A piece of fish forms 
the bait, and a conger-line may be thrown out 
while fishing at anchor for other fish. A gaff will 
be needed in landing the conger, and a stout stick 
to give him his quietus. Although the head is the 
vulnerable point, a blow on the tail will deprive 
that troublesome part of motion, and render your 
task of extricating the hook easier. 

The Sea-bream 




is very numerous on the south coast, and will take 
a variety of baits. In size it is from two to five 
pounds, and generally affords good sport. 



352 




THIS ART OP WMGIM. 



INTRODUCTION. 

MM HERE is no exercise so admirably calculated to impart 
a graceful and elegant carriage and deportment as 
the practice of Fencing. It is also one requiring nothing 
beyond the average amount of muscle and sinew ; a quick 
eye, and natural dexterity of movement, being more essen- 
tial than mere physical strength. 

The Italians were the first, and most skilled masters in 
the use of the rapier, and with them the duello is still a 
national institution. The French also, as a nation, excel in 
the use of the small sword, and even at the present day, 
duels, which are still of frequent- occurrence with our 
Gallic neighbours, are mostly decided with the sword. 
In England, except as an accomplishment, fencing is a 
thing of the past ; but down to our own times, as recently 
as in the reign of George the Third, every well-dressed man 



353 



FENCING, 

carried his sword; in fact, his equipment was not complete 
without one. This he drew on the slightest provocation, 
and it was not alone that encounters, often terminating 
fatally, took place in coffee-houses and taverns, but were 
of such frequent occurrence in the streets and parks, that 
they at last led to a statute rendering it illegal for civilians 
to carry side-arms. 

The small-sword possesses in the hand of a skilled Fencer 
another advantage ; for it should be borne in mind that it 
furnishes a means of defence whenever, or however, at- 
tacked. With a well-tempered blade he can repel the 
attack of almost any weapon with which he may be 
assailed, from the formidable lance of the Cossack of the 
Don to the shillalagh of the athletic and not easily beaten 
Irishman, who trails his coat at fairs or other merry 
makings, requesting that some 'gintleman' will be so 
engagin' as to tread on the tail of it. 

REQUISITES. 

The Fencer should be provided with a wire mask, where- 
with to ward off awkward thrusts in the face ; the foils, or 
mock swords, should have a button on the tip. When the 
match is one of any importance this is dipped in black, so 
as to show on the light dress of an antagonist where he 
has been touched. To the above must be added a well- 
padded glove for the right hand, and shield of leather sewn 
on the front and collar of the jacket. 

PRELIMINARY REMARKS. 

An attack should never be commenced until a good 
opening is detected. The best time to attack is when an 



354 



CARTE AND TIERCE. 



adversary staggers upon a feint or appeal. A Fencer 
should never retreat if he can possibly avoid it, unless he 
do so with a covert design; as it is likely his opponent 
will follow him, and gain an advantage. Cut over cut 
should not be used as a first attack, but applied when 
an antagonist, from being fatigued, rises up with his guard 
low. It is good practice to rise up after a lunge, to make 
a counter parade if possible. It is indiscreet to be too 
eager to thrust, or to thrust too often ; but when a lunge is 
made it should be done effectually, and the guard well 
opposed to that of the antagonist. The eye should be kept 
on that of an antagonist, and not on his sword. 

Before meeting an opponent, the positions, guards, and 
attacks should be well practised. In order to give precision 
to the hand, and to get into the habit of striking particular 
points with the foil, attentive practice is necessary. 




THROWING CARTE AND TIERCE AT THE 

WALL. 

The learner having placed himself at lunging distance 



355 



FENCING. 



from the wall, where a target has been placed about breast 
high from the floor, he lunges out in carte to prove his 
distance, after correcting which, he will rise up to the 
recover, right heel in the hollow of the left foot off the , 
floor, sink down to the second position, with the left hand 
up, and the point opposite the left ear, (see illustration on 
preceding page) . 

He will after a pause steady himself, turn his hand, lunge, 
and throw prime. He then points, lunges, and throws 
prime again. Having ascertained that he has lunged 
correctly, he recovers, and as he rises, he lowers his point, 
and brings it, as before, past his shoulder and opposite the 
left ear. 



POSITION PEEVIOUS TO DRAWING THE 

SWORD. 

In order to facilitate the learner in , p^ 

acquiring the position, chalk lines 
should be drawn on the floor, thus : — 
The pupil should place his left foot on 
the horizontal line, the hollow of it at 
the juncture of the two lines, and his 
right one on the perpendicular line, the 



heel close in the hollow of the left foot. The foil should be 
held in the left hand under the guard, the point downwards, 
as though suspended from the waist in a scabbard. The 
knuckles should rest against the outside of the left hip ; 
the right hand hanging loosely down, close to the right 
side. The body should be held erect; the head up, 
and the shoulders pressed back ; the body turned to the 
left, presenting the right side to the front. 



356 



THE GUARD. 



HOLDING THE SWORD WHEN IN THE 
POSITION OF GUARD. 

The hilt should be held flat in the hand, the thumb 
stretched along the upper side; the end of it about an 
inch from the guard, the pummel lying on the wrist, and 
held loosely, unless when thrusting or parrying, when the 
fingers should embrace it firmly. 

DRAWING THE SWORD. 

In this motion the right hand is raised, and passed 
across the face, the movement being continued until the 
hilt of the sword is seized with the right hand, the thumb 
of the left hand touching the left hip. The sword is then 
drawn as if from a scabbard. 



THE GUARD. 

The guard is the position from which all movements, 
offensive or defensive, are made. 
The Fencer should stand with 
his knees straight, his feet at 
right angles, heel to heel, the 
right foot right side, and the 
head erect. The body should 
be held upright and firm, the 
arms hanging down by the side, 
but easily, and without con- 
straint; the left hand holding 
the foil a few inches beneath 
the guard. He is then to bring 

...,,, & THE GUARD. 

his right hand across his body, first position. 




357 



and seize the foil-handle until both arms are nearly extended 
upward and outward. He should here pause. This is the 
first position of the guard. 

These movements should be frequently practised, as 
they accustom the arms to move independently of the 
body, flatten the points of the shoulders, and give pro- 
minence to the chest. 




THE GUARD. 
SECOND POSITION. 

To arrive at the second position of the guard, the right 
arm with the foil is brought down to the front, until the 
right elbow is a little above, and in advance of the waist; 
the fore-arm sloping upward; the point of the foil being 
the height of the upper part of the waist. The Fencer 
then sinks down, separating the knees, and stepping for- 
ward with the right foot about fourteen or sixteen inches, — 
the number of inches must of course depend on the 
height of the man, and his own comfort in the position 
will direct him as to the distance. The general rule is, 
that the knee of the left leg will jut over the toes of the 
left foot, and the right leg, from ankle to knee, be per- 



358 



THE LUNGE. 



pendicular. It is in this position that he will receive all 
attacks from an adversary, and from this position will 
all his attacks be made. 

ADVANCE. • 

Having placed himself on guard, in carte, he moves the 
right foot gently forward about six inches; the left is 
brought easily after it ; the knees still bent, and the body 
kept as steady as possible, retaining the position of guard. 

EETIRE. 

TI13 reverse of the last movement is made ; the left foot 
is moved backwards about six inches, and the right foot 
brought firmly after it, while all motion of the body is, if 
possble, avoided. 

THE HALF-LUNGE. 

This movement is performed by lowering the left hand 
quickly to within four inches of the left thigh, bending 
the right, and extending the right arm, raising it till 
it is three inches higher than the head; then lowering 
the point of the foil to about the height of the breast. If 
lunging at a 'target the point is levelled to the centre of it. 

THE LUNGE. 

This is effected by stepping out about eighteen inches 
more than in the "half-lunge;" delivering the thrust, and 
keeping fast hold of the hilt; bending the foil upwards, 
but not so much as to cause it to break. The left knee 
should be braced, left hip drawn in, and the right knee 



359 



FENCING. 



bent over the toe, which should point direct to the front ; 
while the left foot is kept flat and fast to the ground, the 
head up, and the body perpendicular from the hip ; the palm 
of the left hand turned upwards, and about four inches 
above the thigh. The look must be directed along the 
inside of the arm. This is the thrust of high carte. 

/ 
/ 

THE RECOVER j 

Is to return from the position of the lunge to that of the 
guard, and is thus effected : The left arm is nimbly thrown 
up to its place, the right arm drawn in, and the left Inee 
re-bent. These movements must be made at the same 
time, as it is their united action that enables a person to 
recover from so extended a position as the lunge, cuick 
enough to avoid a thrust if his own attack has failed. 

THE ENGAGE. \ 

It is customary for adversaries, on coming to the guard, 
to join blades on what is called the inside, that is, the right 
side ; although there are occasions when it is advisable to 
engage on the outside, or on the left, otherwise called the 
carte or tierce sides. 

PARADES. 

Each opening has its parades or defences, and each 
parade will guard its own opening, and, strictly speaking, 
no other. The opening inside above the hand, is defended 
by two parades. 

As its name imports, the first and most natural parade 
is prime. In this parade, the right hand is raised as high 



360 



PARADE. 

as the forehead, so that the Fencer can see his opponent's 
face under his wrist. The blade of the foil is almost 




PRIME PARADE. 

horizontal, but the point is rather lowered toward the 
ground. As this parade will throw the right side of the 
body open to the adversary's sword, it is good play to 
disengage from left to right, and deliver a rapid thrust at 
the adversary, in order to anticipate him before he can 
bring his sword round for another thrust. His point will 
be thrown so far out of the line, that he will be behindhand 
in point of time. 




THRUST UNDER ARM. 



This is a very useful parade for Fencers of short stature, 
as they can sometimes get in their blade under their 
opponent's arm after they have parried his thrust. 



36l 



FENCING. 



The next parade is thafe of 

CAETE. 

In carte the nails of the sword hand are uppermost. 
On the approach of an adversary's blade, the right hand is 
moved a few inches — three or four are sufficient — across 
the body on the inside, the hand being neither raised nor 
depressed. This guards the body on the inside above the 
hand ; but the movement that guards the body on one 
side, has left it exposed on the other. This is the case with 
all simple parades ; consequently, the skill of the swords- 
man must endeavour to neutralize the disadvantage ; 
therefore, when the exposed part outside above the hand is 
assailed, the defence for it is that of 

TIEECE. 

This is formed by turning the hand, with the nails 
downward, and crossing to the opposite side, some six or 
eight inches ; the hand and point at the same elevation 




CARTE AND TIERCE. 

as before : this will guard this opening ; if, however, the 
attack is under instead of over the hand, then the proper 
parade would be " seconde." 
It should be borne in mind, that the original hold of the 



362 



SECONDE— OCTA VE. 



hilt must be maintained, and it on no account is to be 
allowed to turn round in the hand when changing from 
carte to tierce, and vice versa. 

SECONDE 

Is formed by turning the hand in the same position in 
which it was turned for tierce, but the point of the foil slopes 




SECONDE. 

as much downward as in tierce it did upward, the direction 
and distance for the hand to traverse being the same. 
Again, had the attack been none of these, but at the 
inside, under the hand, then the proper parade would have 
been 

DEMI-CIRCLE, 

Which, as its name expresses, is a half-circle described 
by a sweep of the blade traversing the under line. 

OCTAVE 

Is the next parade. In this the hand is held as in carte. 
The foil is kept lower than that of the opponent; the 



363 



FENCING. 



blade is almost horizontal, the point being slightly lower 
than the hilt, and directed towards the body of the ad- 
versary. 




LOW CARTE PARRIED BY DEMI-CIRCLE. 

Octave is extremely nsefnl when the Fencer misses his 
parade of demi-circle, as there is but a short distance for 
the point to traverse, and it generally meets the point of 
the adversary before the point can be properly fixed; 
moreover, it brings the point so near the adversary's body 




OCTAVE AND DEMI-CIRCLE — FIRST POSITION. 

that he cannot venture to make another thrust until he has 
removed the foil. 
The above enumerates and describes the forms of the four 



364 



CONTRE-PARADE. 



parades. They are called simple parades, to distinguish 
them from another set of defensive movements, called — 




OCTAVE AND DEMI-CIRCLE — -SECOND POSITION. 



CONTRE-PARADES. 

A man standing foil in hand, is exposed in four distinct 
places to thrusts from an adversary within lunging dis- 
tance. But he has a defence for each of the exposed 
places. If a man has but one defence for each assailable 
part, then his adversary, knowing beforehand what the 
defence must be, would be prepared to deceive him ; there- 
fore, if he has a second defence for each part, then his 
adversary cannot tell what the defence will be, until his 
attack, false or real, is begun. 

To meet this contingency, a second series of defences 
have been devised, which are of an entirely different 
nature from the simple parades. 

To know one contre-parade is, virtually, to know all, as 
they are all formed on the same plan. They are all full 
circles in the position of hand and direction of foil, of the 
different simple parades j or, more clearly speaking, each 
simple parade has a contre-parade. There are, therefore, 



365 



FENCING. 



four simple parades and four contre-parades, which may 
be thus arranged : — 

Carte ... Contre de Carte. 

Tierce ' Contre de Tierce. 

Seconde Contre de Seconde. 

Demi-cercle ... Contre de Cercle. 

A contre-parade is a full circle in the position of hand 
and direction of blade as it's simple ; thus, contre de carte 
is made by retaining the hand in the position of carte, 
while the foil describes a circle descending on the inside, 
and returning by the outside to the place of its departure ; 
so with all the others, the foil following the direction of 
the simple parade of which it is the contre. These 
complete the entire system of defences. 

We now come to movements of an opposite nature, 
viz., the 

ATTACKS. 

The most simple of these is when two adversaries are 
supposed to be standing en guard, within lunging distance 
of each other; then the most simple movement that the 
attacking party could make, would be 

THE STRAIGHT THRUST 

To the outside or inside, according to his line of engage- 
ment. In describing the lunge, it may be said we have 
described the straight thrust ; it is but a lunge in a straight 
line, taking care, however, to feel firmly the adversary s 
blade, and also taking care not to press or lean on it during 
the delivery of the thrust. 



366 



ONE— TWO. 




THE STRAIGHT THRUST. 

The next attack of importance is 

THE DISENGAGEMENT. 

This movement is performed thus : Being on guard and 
the blades meeting about eight inches from the points, the 
Fencer lowers his point, and passes it under the blade of his 
adversary, turning the wrist at the same time to tierce, and 
pressing lightly against his opponent's blade; he then 
disengages again to carte, lowering his point, turning the 
wrist to carte, and again pressing lightly on the blade of 
his antagonist. 

THE ONE— TWO 

Is but a double engagement, the first being but a feint, or 
false attack, to induce the adversary to form a parade to 
cover the part threatened, for the covering of one part of 
the body exposes the opposite. The second disengagement 
is made to take advantage of this exposure. The arm is 
extended half way on the first, and then wholly on the 
second, to be immediately followed by the lunge. 

The practice of this lesson evinces the advantages of a 



367 



FENCING. 



proper and sufficient extension, and a parade that is not 
too wide. The quick extension of the left leg and right 
arm, performed during the disengage, should throw the 
point near the adversary's breast with such force as to 




ONE — TWO. 

resemble a thrust; at once forcing him to a parade, and 
taking a position much nearer to his body, rendering a 
second disengage beneath his tierce parade almost certain 
to hit, if not met with corresponding neatness. The 
parades must be precise, coming to sufficient guard, and no 
more. If the parade of tierce be made too wide, it is not 
possible to get back to carte again. 

It is well to allow the attacking party to have the option 
of thrusting home in the one; as the adversary's knowledge 
that it is but a feint, may prevent him from going fully to 
guard. 



ONE— TWO— THREE. 

When the young swordsman has acquired facility in 
practising the "one — two," he may commence the "one — 
two — three," making the first disengage by the extension of 
the arm alone; the two by the full extension; and the 



368 



APPEALS, BEATS, AND GLIZADES. 

three, by the complete lunge to be answered by the parades 
of tierce, carte, and tierce again. 

The attack should be neat and deliberate ; anxiety should 
not be exhibited so much to make a hit as to be correct 
and precise. Quickness will follow, as a matter of 
course. The attacked party should stand his ground, with 
his left foot firm, as nothing gives greater promise of 
excellence than receiving the hit without flinching the 
body. To make the parades neatly, and to keep cool, is the 
great secret of success ; for any nervousness or irritability 
in the motions will be fatal to good fencing. The simple turn 
from carte to tierce is almost sufficient to cover the body ; 
care should be taken that the hand is high enough, so that 
the weak part of the blade is not opposed to the forte, 
or strong part of the adversary's. 

APPEALS, BEATS ON THE BLADE, AND 
GLIZADES. 

Appeals, beats, and glizades tend to plant the Fencer 
firmly on his guard, to embarrass his adversary, and cause 
him to give openings. They may be performed previously 
to simple thrusts, feints, or counter disengagements, &c. 
An appeal, or beat with the foot, is performed either on the 
engagement of carte or tierce, by suddenly raising and 
letting fall the right foot, with a beat on the same spot ; 
taking care to balance the body and keeping a good position 
on guard. 

The beat on the blade is abruptly touching the adversary's 
blade, so as to startle him, and get openings to thrust. If 
the opponent resists the beat, he that has made the beat 
should instantaneously disengage, and thrust home. Should 



369 AA 



FENCING. 



the adversary mask feint one — two, and he uses a counter 
parade; counter disengage, or double. 

Glizades are slightly gliding the blade along that of the 
adversary, at the same time forming the complete extension 
of the arm, or the complete extension, managing, and re- 
straining the body, so as to be aware of the opponent's 
thrust, and to make sure of returning it. If engaged in 
carte, out of measure, a quick advance, with a glizade, must 
infallibly afford openings, either to mask feints or otherwise. 

THE BEAT AND THRUST. 

This is another variety of attack. Supposing a Fencer's 
blade to be firmly joined to that of his adversary : when 
the intention was to deliver a straight thrust, there would 
be danger of falling upon his point. This danger is avoided 
by a slight beat on the blade of his opponent the instant 
preceding the extension of the arm. This move is, of 
course, followed en suite by the lunge. 

The companion attack to this is 

THE BEAT AND DISENGAGEMENT. 

The beat here takes the character of the first disengage- 
ment in one — two; that is, it becomes a feint, and is 
intended to induce the adversary to return to the place he 
occupied when the beat was made. The attacking party 
will then immediately pass to the opposite side of his blade, 
in the manner described in the disengagement. 

It will be seen that all that these movements pass under 
the adversary's blade. However, there are certain 
situations in the assault, as a Fencing bout is called, when 



370 



CUT OVER AND DISENGAGEMENT. 

an adversary is more assailable over the point than under 
the blade ; for this purpose there is what the French call 
coupe sur pointy or 

CUT OVER POINT. 

It is thus made : — By the action of the hand, and without 
drawing it back at all, the foil is raised and brought down 
on the opposite side of the adversary's blade, the arm being 
extended during its fall to the horizontal position, on 
attaining which the lunge is delivered. 

CUT OVER AND DISENGAGEMENT 

Is on the same principle as the "one — two," and "beat 
and disengagement." On the adversary opposing the first 
movement (the cut) with a parade, the second movement 
(the disengagement) is made to the opposite side, to be 
followed, of course, by the lunge ; the extension of the arm 
being divided between the two movements. 

These attacks are called simple attacks, because they may 
be parried by one or more simple parades, according to the 
number of movements in the attack. In fact, every attack 
can be parried, and every parade can be deceived ; it is the 
additional movement last made which hits or guards. 

Thus a movement is threatened by disengagement to the 
outside : the adversary bars the way effectually by the guard 
of tierce; then No. 1 makes a second disengagement to the 
inside, which is now exposed from the very fact of the out- 
side being guarded (for both lines of attack cannot be 
guarded at the same time) ; thus converting the attack on 
the part of No.,1 into "one— two;" but should the ad- 



371 



versary parry carte on the second movement of No. 1, the 
attack of the latter would be warded off. This may be 
carried much further, but what has been said will be 
sufficient to explain the nature of simple parades and 
attacks. 

To deceive a " contre-parade," a second movement, 
called a double or 



DOUBLE, 

Has been invented : it is very simple in principle, and 
admirably answers the purpose. For instance, if a Fencer 
were to threaten his adversary by a disengagement to the 
outside, and if, instead of tierce, the latter parried "contre 
de carte," the double is then made by making a second 
disengagement to the same side as the first ; for it will be 
found that his "contre de carte" has replaced the blades 
in the positions they occupied previous to the disengagement. 
The attacking party will then have an opening, and may 
finish the attack by the lunge. 

As all the contre -parades are on the same plan and 
principle, so are all the doubles. Of course, it is understood 
that all the movements of the double are made en suite, and 
without allowing the adversary's blade time to overtake the 
parade. 



THE PEACTICE OF ATTACK AND DEFENCE. 

Two combatants are opposed to each other, and for 
distinction should be numbered One and Two. The 
positions are three, viz. :— 



372 



CARTE OVER ARM. 




FIRST 
POSITION. 



SECOND 
POSITION. 



THIRD 
POSITION. 



HIGH CARTE. 

Both engage in carte. Number One delivers the thrust 
of carte in third position. Number Two parries carte by- 
throwing his hand towards the left shoulder, turning his 
opponent's point past it ; remaining in the second position. 
Then both guard in carte. 

TIERCE. 

Number One and Two engage in tierce. Number One 
delivers the thrust of tierce in the third position. Number 
Two parries tierce by carrying his right hand to the right, 
raising it at the same time, causing his opponent's point to 
pass his. Then both guard in tierce. 

CARTE OVER THE ARM. 

The adversaries engage in carte. Number One dis- 
engages without turning the wrist, and thrusts carte in the 
third position, — although on the tierce side, — looking over 
the arm as in tierce. Number Two parries by turning the 



373 



FENCING. 



nails more up than in carte, and removing his wrist 
sufficiently to the right to cause the point of Number One 
to pass over the shoulder of Number Two. Both then 
guard in carte. 

LOW CARTE. 

Engage in carte, — Number One delivers carte in the 
third position, at the pit of the stomach of his opponent, 
his hand being raised no higher than his chin. Number 
Two parries circle in the second position, carrying his hand 
a little to the left, and keeping it well up. Both then guard 
in carte. 

PRIME. 

Engage in carte. Number One makes a half lunge, so 
as to carry his point to within four inches of the body of 
Number Two ; after which he steps out to the third position, 
turning his hand to tierce and thrust. Number Two parries 
in the second position, carrying his arm towards the left, 
back of the hand opposite the left shoulder ; point down- 
wards, perpendicularly between the feet. This defence 
resembles the fifth guard of the Broad-sword. Both then 
guard in tierce. 

SECONDE. 

Engage in seconde, — Number One delivers his thrust at 
the ribs, under the arm, looking to the right of the arm, as 
in tierce ; the hand and hilt as high as the chin. Number 
Two parries seconde in the second position, by extending 
the arm and moving the hand a little to the right, turning 
the thrust past him. Both then guard in seconde. 



374 



CROSSING THE BLADE. 



CARTE OUTSIDE THE ARM. 

Engage in tierce,— Number One makes a half lunge, 
turning his wrist to carte, and after a pause he lunges and 
delivers carte, close under the arm-pit, bending his own 
foil upwards. Number Two parries circle. Then both 
guard in tierce. 

QUINTE. 

Engage in quinte with the points low, the thumb-nail to- 
wards the left. Number One steps out and delivers his point 
under his opponent's elbow, above the groin ; bending his 
blade and forcing his adversary's, he gives his wrist a little 
turn, and striking vertically downwards with the hilt and 
forte, or strongest point of his foil, beats his opponent's 
point downwards, and clear of his own left knee. Both 
then guard in carte. 



CROSSING AND BINDING THE BLADE. 

Attempts to disarm, although not always successful, yet 




generally afford an opening. It must be borne in mind that 
a thrust must not be given, or an advantage taken, when an 



375 



opponent is disarmed. In this movement, both parties 
engage in carte. Number One gains a little on his adver- 
sary's foil; then suddenly turning his wrist, he bears 
strongly on his blade, forcing it outwards from himself. 
Number Two yields his wrist, and if not disarmed remains 
in the positions into which he was forced by his adversary. 
Then Number One lunges out, and thrusts carte over the 
arm, on the opening he has made. Number Two raises his 
hand quickly, and parries tierce. Both then guard in carte. 

FEINTS. 

A feint is intended to deceive an adversary into a belief 
that the purpose of his adversary is to hit him in one part 
of his body, while the real design is to thrust at another. 

Feint 1.— Engage in carte,-— Number One makes a feint 
by disengaging to tierce, and making a demonstration as 
though he really meant to thrust tierce ; he then disengages 
quickly back, and thrusts carte in the third position. In 
answer to the first movement of Number One, Number 
Two turns his hand ready to parry tierce; but on the 
second, he parries carte in the second position. Both then 
guard in carte. 

Feint 2.— Engage in carte,— Number One turns his wrist 
and lowers his point, and feints seconde inside his adver- 
sary's arm: he next lunges, and delivers prime in the 
third position. They then guard in carte. In answer to 
the first movement, Number Two turns his hand to circle, 
and to the second ; he prime parries in the second position. 
Both then guard in carte. 

Feint 3.— Engage in carte, — Number One disengages and 



376 



PASSES IN CARTE. 



feints carte over the arm ; he then thrusts quinte in the third 
position. Number Two replies to the first feint by turning 
his wrist to parry tierce, and to the second by turning the 
hand and parrying prime, in the second position. Both 
then guard in carte. 

Feint 4. — Engage in tierce, — Number One disengages 
and feints carte. Number Two turns the hand to carte. 
Number One disengages again, and thrusts tierce in the 
third positition. Number Two parries tierce in the second 
position. Both then guard in tierce. 

Feint 5. — Engage in tierce, — Number One disengages 
under the arm, and feints seconde. Number Two lowers the 
point to seconde. Number Two turns the wrist suddenly, 
and thrusts carte over the arm, in the third position. Both 
then guard in tierce. 

Feint 6. — Engage in tierce, — Number One lowers his 
point, and feints seconde inside his opponents arm. Num- 
ber One disengages rapidly over his adversary's arm, and 
thrusts tierce in the third position. Both then guard in 
tierce. 

PASSES IN CARTE. 

Engage in carte, — Number One beats an appeal with his 
foot ; gives a dry beat on his opponent's blade, and half 
lunges in carte. Number Two opposes the half lunge with 
simple carte. Number One next disengages, bringing the 
left foot in front of the right heel, and thrusts in this 
manner without a lunge carte over the arm. Number Two 
turns the hand to tierce, which would be the readiest 
parade, and remains steady. Both then guard in carte. 



377 



FENCING. 



TIERCE. 

They engage in tierce, — Number One makes an appeal 
and dry beat, half lunging in tierce. Number Two opposes 
this with tierce. Number One next disengages, bringing 
up the left foot, and thrusts under the arm. Number Two 
receives the thrust without parrying. Both then guard in 
tierce. 



THE UNDERTHRUST WHEN AN ADVERSARY 
THRUSTS IN TOO CLOSE MEASURE. 

They engage in carte, — Number One engages in carte, 
close in measure, disengages and thrusts in tierce. Number 
Two draws back the left foot, stretching it weH. out to the 
rear, and delivers seconde ; keeping his head well down, 
and his left hand hanging perpendicularly betwixt his feet, 
ready to support him in case he should become unsteady. 
Number Two recovers to guard in carte. Number One 
recovers to carte, by drawing back the right foot. 



GENERAL ADVICE. 

Do not put yourself on the position of guard within reach 
of your adversary's sword. 

If you are much inferior, make no long assaults. 

Do nothing that is useless ; every movement should tend 
to your advantage. 

Let your movements be made as much within the line of 
your adversary's body as possible. 

Endeavour both to discover your adversary's designs, and 
to conceal your own. 



378 



GENERAL ADVICE. 



Two skilful men acting together, fight more with their 
heads than their hands* 

The smaller you can make the movements with your 
foil, the quicker will your point arrive at your adversary's 
body. 

Do not endeavour to give many thrusts on the lunge> 
thus running the risk of receiving one in the interim. 

If your adversary drop his foil by accident, or in conse- 
quence of a smart parade of yours, you should immediately 
pick it up, and present it to him politely. 

Always join blades (if possible) previously to another 
attack, after a hit is given. 




379 




TM 



H ! IX. IB _b£> C2 X S3 JbU 



f I THE principal distinction between the Broad-sword 
exercise and the rapier is, that the latter is formed 
only for thrusting, while the former is adapted for cutting 
also. Indeed, those who use the Broad-sword, are, in the 
opinion of skilled swordsmen, too apt to neglect the use of 
the point, and to give their attention exclusively to the cuts. 
The first lesson in the sword exercise is necessarily to 
know how to stand. The learner should be instructed to 
perform the different movements by word of command, 
remembering to consider the first parts of the word as a 
caution, and not to stir until the last syllable is uttered. 
Then the movement should be made smartly. In giving 
the word, the instructor always makes a slight pause, in 
order to give his pupils time to remember what they 
must do. For example, the words "JDraw swords" is 

given thus : "Draw swords !" The words to be 

given smartly, in order that the movement should cor- 
respond. 



380 



POSITIONS. 




POSITIONS. 

First Position. — The target should be about fourteen 
inches in diameter, and placed on the wall, having its centre 
about four feet from the ground. A perpendicular line is 

then drawn from the spot at the bot- 
tom of the target to the ground, and 
continued on the floor, in order to 
secure the proper position of the heels. 
The learner should stand perfectly 
upright opposite the target, with his 
right side towards it, his heels close 
together, his right toe pointing to the 
target, and his left foot at right angles 
with the right. His arms must be 
clasped behind his back, his right palm 
first position. supporting the left elbow, and his left 
hand grasping the right arm just above the elbow. In this 
position he must bend both knees, and sink down as far as 
possible. This will not be 
very far at first, but he will 
soon sink down quite easily. 
The second position is ac- 
complished by placing the 
right foot smartly in front, 
about fourteen or sixteen 
inches before the left. He 
must be accustomed to ba- 
lance himself so perfectly on 
his left foot, that he can place 
the right either before or be- 
hind it, without losing his 
balance. 




SECOND POSITION. 



381 



BROADSWORD EXERCISE, 




The third position is next to be learned. This consists 
in stepping well forward with the right foot, until the left 
knee is quite straight, and the right knee exactly per- 
pendicularly placed over the right foot. Great care must 

be taken to keep the heels 
exactly in the same line, 
and the body perfectly up- 
right. 

These preliminaries 
having been settled, the 
learner stands upright be- 
fore the target in the first 
position. A sword is then 
put into his hand, and the 
target is explained as fol- 
lows: 

third position. The interior lines re- 

present the cuts. Cut 1 being directed to No. 1 diagonally 
through the target, coming out 
at 4. Cut 2 is the same, only 
from left to right. 3 is made 
upwards diagonally, and 4 is 
the same, only in the opposite 
direction. Cut 5 is horizontally 
through the target, from left to 
right. Cut 7 is perpendicularly 
downward. Care must be taken 
that cuts are fairly given with 
the edge. 

The swords drawn on the 
target represent guards , the guard, however, 7th, not to be 
made across, but must have the point directly rather for- 




382 



CUTS AND GUARDS. 



ward and downward, as a cut 7 glides off the blade, and can 
be instantly answered either by a thrust, or by cut No. 1. 

The two dark spots represent the places where the thrusts 
take effect. 

The learner begins by taking the sword in his right hand, 
having its edge toward the target, and its back resting on 
his shoulder. His right arm is bent at right angles, and the 
elbow against his side. The left hand must rest upon the 
hip, the thumb being to the rear. 




THE TAKGET. 

CUTS AND GUARDS. 

At the words " cuts and guards," the young swordsman 
places himself in the proper position to commence. 

CUTS. 

Cut 1. — Extend the right arm, and make the cut clear 
through the target. When the point has cleared the target 



383 



BROAD-SWORD EXERCISE, 



continue the sweep of the sword, and by a turn of the 
wrist, bring it with its back on the left shoulder, its edge 
towards the left. The arm is then ready for 

Cut 2. — Bring the sword from 2 to 3 ; continue the 
movement of the sword, and turn the wrist, so that it rests 
with the edge downwards, and point below the hip. At 

Cut 3, — Cut through the target, diagonally, bringing the 
sword from 3 to 2 ; and bring the sword onwards, so that it 
rests with the edge downwards, and the point below the left 
hip. At 

Cut 4, — Cut from 4 to 1, and bring the sword round until 
its point is over the right shoulder, with its edge well to the 
right. 

Cut 5. — At the word five, make a horizontal cut from 5 
to 6, and sweep the sword round until it rests on the left 
shoulder with its edge to the left, and its point well over 
the shoulder. 

Cut 6. — Cut horizontally through the target, from 6 to 
7, and bring the sword over the head, with its edge upward 

and its point hanging over the 
back. From this position. 
^•-^ Cut 7. — Make a downward 
stroke until the sword reaches 
the centre of the target. Arrest it 
there, and remain with the arm ex- 
tended, waiting for the word 

POINTS. 

First Point. — Draw back the sword 

until the right wrist is against the right 

temple, the edge of the sword being 

first point. upward. Make a slight pause, and 




384 



POINTS. 




SECOND POINT. 



then thrust smartly forward toward the centre of the 
target, raising the wrist as high as No. 1, and pressing the 
left shoulder well back. 

Second Point. — 
Turn the wrist round 
to the left, so that 
the edge comes up- 
ward ; draw the hand 
back until it rests on 
the breast, and give 
the point forward to 
the centre of the tar- 
get, raising the hand 
as before. 

Third Point.— 
Give the hilt of the 

sword a slight twist in the hand, so that the edge again 
comes uppermost, and the guard rests against the back of 

the hand. Draw back the 
hand until it rests against 
the right hip, and deliver 
it forward toward the spot 
at the bottom of the target, 
raising the wrist as high as 
the spot in the centre. The 
object in raising the wrist 
is to deceive the eye of the 
opponent, who will be more 
likely to notice the position 
of your right wrist, than 
third point. °f y° ur P omt - I n a U tnG 




385 



EB 



BROADSWORD EXERCISE. 



thrusts, the left shoulder should be rather brought forward 
before the point is given, and pressed well back while it is 
being delivered. 

' , GUARDS. 

Wait after the point has been delivered for the word 
" Defend!" — At the word, draw up the hand smartly, and 
form the first guard. Make the other guards in succession 
as they are named, while the instructor proves their 
accuracy by giving the corresponding cuts. The guards 
must be learned from the target, by placing the sword in 
exactly the same position as those delineated. The guards 
are these : — 

A. First guard. E. Fifth. 

B. Second. F. Sixth. 

C. Third. G. Seventh. 

D. Fourth. 

The two spots, H and I, on the target, mark the places 
toward which the points are made ; H for the first and 
second point, I for the third. 



PARRY. 

The parry, or parade of a thrust, is executed with the back 
of the sword. The firmest way of parrying is to hold the 
sword perpendicularly, with its edge to the right shoulder ; 
then, by sweeping the sword round from left to right, any 
thrust within its sweep is thrown wide from the body. 

The parry is executed with the wrist, and not with the 
arm, which must not move. 



386 



HANGING GUARD. 




HANGING GUA&D. 



HANGING GUARD. 

When the pupil is acquainted with both cuts and guards, 
he should learn the hanging guard, a most useful position, 

as it "keeps the body well 
hidden under the sword, 
and at the same time 
leaves the sword in a 
good position to strike or 
thrust. 

It is performed as fol- 
lows : — Step out to the 
second position ; raise the 
arm until the hand is just 
over the right foot, and 
as high as the head. The 
edge of the sword is upward, and the point is directed 
downward and toward the left. The left shoulder is pressed 
rather forward, and the neck and chest drawn inward. 

In this position the swordsman is prepared to receive 
or make an attack, as he may think fit. Although it is at 
first rather fatiguing, owing to the unaccustomed position 
of the arm and head, the sensation soon wears off; and 
there is no attitude which gives equal advantages. 

There are other modes of standing on guard, each 
possessing its peculiar advantages. These are the inside 
and outside guard. 

INSIDE GUARD. 

Stand in the second position, having the wrist of the right 



3 87 



BROAD-SWORD EXERCISE. 



hand nearly as low 
as the waist, the 
hand being exactly 
over the right foot. 
The point of the 
sword is raised as 
high as the eyes, 
and the edge is 
turned inward, as 
illustrated by the 
engraving. 




INSIDE GUARD. 



OUTSIDE GUARD. 

The outside guard is similar to the inside, with this 
difference, that the edge of the sword is turned well 
outward. 

To arrive at the hanging guard, the words are given thus: 
" Inside guard !" — " Outside guard !" — " Guard !" 

ATTACK AND DEFENCE. 

Having advanced thus far, the swordsman is next taught 
to combine the three movements of striking, thrusting, and 
guarding by the following exercise : — 



1. 


Inside guard. 


8. 


Cut three. 


2. 


Outside guard. 


9. 


Third guard. 


3. 


Guard. 


10. 


Cut four. 


4. 


Cut one. 


11. 


Fourth guard. 


5. 


First guard. 


12. 


Cut five. 


6. 


Cut two. 


13. 


Fifth guard. 


7. 


Second guard. 


14. 


Cut six. 



388 



ATTACK AND DEFENCE. 



15. Sixth guard. 

16. Cut seven. 

17. Seventh guard. 

18. First point. (Pre- 

pare for the point 
in first position). 
Two. (Thrust in 
third position.) 

19. Second point. (Pre- 

pare for it in first 
position.) Two. 



20. 



21. 



22. 



(Thrust in third 
position.) 

Third point. 
(Prepare.) Two. 
(Thrust.) 

Parry. (Prepare to 
parry in first posi- 
tion.) Two. (Par- 
ry.) 

Guard. 



The young swordsman will find the foregoing a most 
valuable exercise of drill, and sufficiently interesting to 
make it an agreeable pastime. When he can accomplish 
all these combinations neatly, accurately, and promptly, he 
will be justified in considering himself in a fair way of 
becoming an expert broad-swordsman or a single-stick 
player 




SEVENTH CUT. 



389 



BROAD-SWORD EXERCISE. 



It should be borne in mind, that in this, as well as in all 

the exercises, the cuts and points must be given in the 

third position, as shown in the illustration, in which the 

swordsman is represented just as 

he has delivered the seventh cut 

» 

and is waiting for the next word be- 
fore he resumes the first position. 

The guards, on the contrary, are 
given in the first position, as will 
be observed in the illustration, 
which represents the seventh guard. 

DEAW SWORDS. 

The first word of command is 
"Draw swords." At the word 
" Draw," seize the sheath just be- 
seventh guard. low the hilt with the left hand, and 
raise the hilt as high as the hip, at the same time grasping 
the hilt with the right hand, turning the edge of the sword to 
the rear, and drawing it partially from the scabbard, to 
insure its easy removal. 

At the word " Swords !" draw the blade smartly out of 
the sheath, throwing the point upward, at the full extent of 
the arm, the edge being still to the rear. 




RECOVER SWORDS. 

The wrist is now smartly lowered until it is level with the 
chin, the blade upright, and the edge to the left. This is 
the position of " Recover swords." The elbow should be 
kept close to the body, as in the illustration. 



390 



PRACTISES. 



SLOPE SWORDS. 

At the word "Swords," raise right hand smartly, until 
it forms a right angle at the elbow. 



EETUEN SWOEDS. 

At the word, raise the blade until it 
is perpendicular, move the hilt to the 
hollow of the left shoulder, drop the 
point of the sword into the scabbard, 
which has been grasped by the left 
hand and slightly raised ; — at the same 
time turn the edge to the rear ; pause 
an instant, and on the word " Swords," 
send it smartly into the scabbard, re- 
moving both hands as the hilt strikes 
against the mouth of the scabbard; 
drop them to the side, with the palms 
outward, and stand in the first position. 

PBACTICES. 

There are many exercises with the 
broad-sword, called " Practices." One 
we have given, which is to be practised 
alone: but when the tyro has acquired some amount of 
confidence in the use of his weapon, he must be placed op- 
posite an antagonist, when they will go through them ; each 
in turn taking the attack and defence. 

These exercises are always learned with the single-stick* 
or basket-hilted cudgel, in order to avoid dangers which 
would be inevitable if the sword were used. The young 




RECOVER SWORDS. 



391 



BROADSWORD EXERCISE, 



swordsman must also be provided with a stout wire mask 
wherewith to defend the face and neck. This latter should 
be formed as a kind of helmet above, to guard the head 
from an unconsidered, or rather too successful cut on the 
part of an adversary, when the seventh guard is broken 
through. No practices, loose or otherwise, should be 
permitted without the masks, as neither of the combatants 
would be able to cut or thrust with confidence, and a timid, 
hesitating habit of attack would be engendered. 

SECOND PRACTICE. 

The object of this is to teach the point and parry, and to 
give steadiness to the feet. Two swordsmen are placed 
face to face, at just such a distance that, when perfectly 
erect, they can touch the hilt of their adversary's sword 
with the point of their own. 

The one who gives the first point is called '.' Front rank," 
and the one who gives first parry is called " Rear rank." 
There may be a dozen in each rank, or only one. When 
there is more than one, each man tries his distance by ex- 
tending his sword. 



WORD OP 
COMMAND. 

Guard. 



Third Point. 



Point. 



FRONT RANK. 

Hanging guard. 

Prepare to give third 
point. 

f Give third point, and 
when parried, spring 
back to first position, 

L and prepare to parry. 



-! 



REAR RANK. 

Hanging .guard. 
Prepare to parry 

Parry third point 
- and prepare to 
give third point. 



392 



FOURTH PRACTICE. 



WORD OP 
COMMAND. 



Point. 



FRONT RANK. 



REAR RANK 



, Parry third point, -^ Give third point, 
J and prepare for third Land prepare to 
I point. J parry. 

In this and the other practices, the cuts must be de- 
livered in the third position, and the guards in the first. 
In the third and fourth practices the cuts may be given 
lightly, as many of them are not intended to be guarded, 
but merely to show the powers of the sword in various 
positions. 

FOURTH PRACTICE. 



WORD OP COMMAND. 


PRONT RANK. 


REAR RANK. 


Guard. 


Hanging guard. 


Hanging guard. 


Head. 


Seventh cut. 


Seventh guard. 


Head. 


Seventh guard. 


Cut seven. 


Leg. 


Fourth cut. 


Seventh guard. 


Leg. 


Seventh guard. 


Fourth cut. 


Head. 


Seventh cut. 


Seventh guard. 


Head. 


Seventh guard. 


Seventh cut. 


Guard. 


Hanging guard. 


Hanging guard. 


Slope swords. 


Slope swords. 


Slope swords. 



In this and the preceding exercise, the power of shifting 
the leg is shown. If two swordsmen attack each other, and 
Number One strikes at the leg of Number Two, it will 
be better for Number Two not to oppose the cut by the 
third or fourth guard, but to draw back the leg smartly, 
and cut six or seven at the adversary's head or neck. 

In loose play, as it is called, that is, when the combatants 
engage with swords without following any word of com- 
mand, but strike and guard as they best can, both swords- 



393 



BROAD-SWORD EXERCISE. 



men stand in the second position, because they can either 
advance or retreat as they choose, and can lunge out to the 
third position for a thrust or a cut, or spring up to the first 
position for a guard, with equal ease. 

It is often a kind of trap to put the right leg more 
forward than usual, in order to induce the adversary to 
make a cut at it. When he does so, the leg is drawn back ; 
the stroke passes harmless, and the deceived striker gets 
the stick of his opponent on his head and shoulders. 

The next is a very complicated exercise, called the 





FIFTH PRACTICE. 


WORD OF 






COMMAND. 


FRONT RANK. 


REAR RANK. 


Draw swords. 


Draw swords. 


s 


Inside guard. 


Inside guard. 


raw swords. 


Outside guard. 


Outside guard. 


Inside guard. 


Guard. 


Hanging guard. 


Outside guard. 


Head. 


Seventh cut. 


Hanging guard. 


Head. 


Seventh guard. 


Seventh guard. 


Arm. 


Second cut (at arm.) 


Seventh cut. 


Head. 


Seventh guard. 


Second guard. 


Head. 


Seventh cut. 


Seventh cut. 


Arm. 


Seventh guard. 


Seventh guard. 


Head. 


Seventh cut. 


Second cut (at arm.) 


Head. 


Seventh guard. 


Seventh guard. 


Right side. 


Sixth cut. 


Seventh cut. 


Head. 


Seventh guard. 


Sixth guard. 


Head. 


Seventh cut. 


Seventh guard. 


Right side. 


Sixth guard. 


Sixth cut. 


Guard. 


Hanging guard. 


Hanging guard. 


The swordsman will find this practice most exhilarating 


and showy in effect. In all these practices it is essential that 



394 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



he should become sufficiently intime with each, as not to 
require the word of command beyond first, second, or third 
practice* 

FORT AND FEEBLE. 

The half of the sword-blade next the hilt is called the 
" Fort," because it is the strongest place on which the cut of 
an adversary can be received. Always parry and guard 
with the fort of your sword ; as if you try to guard a cut 
with the "feeble," which is the remaining half of the blade, 
your guard will be forced, and the cut take place. " Fort 
and Feeble" is also applicable to the foils used in Fencing. 

DRAWING CUT. 

A curved sword is the best calculated for making the 
drawing cut. Indeed, the curved sabre may be considered 
to have quite superseded the straight one, if we except the 
cutlasses still in use in the navy. A large beet-root or 
mangold-wurzel affords good practice. The root should be 
placed loose on a table, from which the swordsman stands 
at arms length, laying the edge of the sword slightly on it 
and slicing the root by repeatedly drawing the sword over 
it. This is no easy task, although it is apparently simple 
enough, and produces an unpleasant sensation from the 
wrist to the shoulder during the early practice of it ; but 
after a little time the sword glides off the root as easily as 
if the latter was made of highly-glazed porcelain. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Keep your eye off your own sword, and fix your attention 
on the eye and sword wrist of your adversary. 



395 



BROAD-SWORD EXERCISE. 



It should be borne in mind that the great point in 
Broad- sword exercise, as in Fencing, is to gain time. 
Every effort, therefore, should be made to advance your 
point nearer to your adversary than his is to you. 

The assault should be commenced out of distance, so as 
to leave no reason for either of the opponents to complain 
of having been taken by surprise. 

Should both antagonists mutually exchange a cut or 
thrust at the same instant, he who gave his cut or thrust in 
the third position is the victor. 

When one party receives a cut or a thrust, he passes his 
sword into his left hand, and his adversary comes to inside 
gnard. 

Always spring back to the second position after delivering 
a cut or thrust. 

The line of direction should be carefully kept, or an 
opening will be left for your opponent to get his sword into. 

It cannot be too strongly impressed on the minds of tyros, 
the necessity of invariably wearing the mask in these en- 
counters ; or the loss of an eye, or other disfigurement of 
the face is always imminent. 

It is hardly necessary to impress on the minds of young 
swordsmen that any rudeness, or taking advantage of 
superior physical strength to force an adversary's guard, is 
not permissible either in I 'art d'escrime, or in the Broad- 
sword exercise. Every movement and exercise must be 
performed with gentleness and grace. 



c^^tj^e^y^^^ 



396 




BOXING. 



BOX I XG, when pn<trf«d with caution, is an invigorating 
nei&e> and those skilled in the art are at all times 
furnished with natural weapons. As in fencing and the 
bro*d-*wor<l exercise* it develops the physical powers 
:mi'1 jxreservcs their elasticity. 

The advantage possessed by one who has learned Boxing 
scientifically, over an antagonist who fights from mere 
brute instinct, is manifest. In an encounter the skill of 
the former neutralizes any advantage the latter may 
possess in strength or stature. 

Pugilism, pur et simple, may be claimed as entirely 
English. It has never been thoroughly understood on 
the Continent of Europe, and even in the United States 
only by professional prize-fighters. The French combine 
with the " Fistic Art " that of the " Savate," which means 
using the legs and feet, as well as the arms and hands, as 
a means of attack and defence ; but a trained English 
boxer, if he suspects that such a movement is intended, 
will lay his opponent on his back before he can recover 
his balance : in fact, even without being previously aware 
of what was in the mind of the disciple of the Savate, 



397 



BOXING. 

a smart pugilist will be prepared to anticipate, and check- 
mate it. In America combatants are a little too apt to 
supplement the hands and arms with biting, scratching, 
kicking, gouging, and the use of the " knuckleduster." 

The Pancratium of the ancients combined boxing and 
wrestling ; but, except for that combination, it very much 
resembled our modern system. Even in the latter, there 
is an approach to that made in ** throwing " an opponent, 
which is pretty much the same as what is called in wrest- 
ling " cross buttocking." 

THE GLOVES. 

In a friendly encounter, the gloves answer the same pur- 
pose as the button on the foil in fencing. Yet, if they 
are used very energetically, a "facer" from even a well- 
padded glove will leave its mark. They should be stuffed 
wjith the best horsehair, and covered with soft Chamois 
leather. The Greeks, for mere exercise in sparring, made 
use of muffles, or gloves, as we do. These were the Castus, 
and in a serious encounter the padding was removed, and 
replaced by lumps of heavy metal. Plato, in speaking of 
training, says: — "It is only by frequent use of the gloves 
that a knowledge of 'stopping' and 'hitting* can be ac- 
quired." This is curious, as proving that the Divine Plato 
was not altogether a novice in the art of self-defence. The 
sparring muffles were called by the Romans sacculi. 



THE POSITION. 

The weight of the body should be thrown principally on 
the left leg, so that the boxer can either advance or retire ; 



398 



THE SET-TO. 



the right arm bent at the elbow to something less than a 
right angle, and brought across the body, so as to defend 
the stomach, technically called the "mark," and in the slang 
of the prize-ring, the "bread-basket." The left arm is 
more advanced, and kept well into the side, as this last 
enables the boxer to hit straight from the shoulder, which 
he would otherwise be unable to do. The "fist" must be 
made by clenching the fingers tightly with the thumb 
doubled down outside them, so that when the knuckles are 
presented towards an antagonist, he can see no part of it. 
The head should be held erect, and thrown slightly back, 
while the eye is fixed steadily on that of the opponent. 
Novices who are apprehensive of damage to their faces, 
generally rush into the arms of their adversary, with the 
head downwards, like a goat or ram about to butt; thus 
giving him a famous chance of delivering a blow on the 
temple, which rather surprises the greenhorn, as the 
position of his head has deprived him of the power of 
parrying that which he has been unable to see was coming. 

THE SET-TO. 

In placing two combatants face to face, the general 
rule is for the left toe of each to be on a level with the 
right heel of his opponent. This gives the proper distance, 
a knowledge of which is of the utmost importance. 
Variations in this rule, however, must be allowed, as 
some persons, even of equal height, have longer arms 
than others, and can consequently reach some inches 
further. 

A "set-to" generally opens with a little preliminary 
sparring, which is supposed to give the antagonists time 



399 



BOXING. 



to form an idea of each other's play; but it is more a 
form than anything else, as an experienced boxer, clever 
at feints, will pretty well keep his "little game" to himself. 



PARRYING AND STOPPING. 

The right hand and arm are chiefly used for parrying 
and stopping. These are effected as follows. Suppose 
an antagonist aims a blow at your nose, or on the upper 
part of the chest, and you feel yourself in a good position ; 
don't think of retiring, but hold your ground, and throw 
your right arm out with energy, directed upwards, and by 
catching your adversary on the wrist, it is thrown out of 
the direction in which it was aimed. This is an important 
parry, as it is sure to leave his head unguarded, and gives 
an openining for putting in a "one — two," that is, two blows 
succeeding each other rapidly. It is a favourite move 
with prize-fighters, who call it a "postman's knock;" by 
others it is called the " counter." Its great value is, that 
it is sent home at the moment when your antagonist has 
flattered himself that he is about to strike, so that the 
turn in affairs caused by it, in a great measure effects 
the disarrangement of his plans at the outset. 

Stopping is another move, and is used where the parry 
is impracticable. For instance, suppose an antagonist 
strikes at the body, the parry cannot be effected ; therefore 
you must either be content to receive the blow, take it 
in hopes of returning it. or stop it. In stopping, the 
blow is received on the arm, and thereby its force is 
broken, and unless your adversary is possessed of more 
than ordinary strength, the arm does not suffer much from 



4OO 



MILLING ON THE RETREAT. 



the stroke, as naturally yielding to it, it acts like the 
buffer of a railway carriage. 

HITTING. 

Being placed in position, and the fists doubled, the next 
thing is to learn to strike. The blow should be delivered 
straight from the shoulder ; not merely with the arm, but 
an impetus must be given with the entire body, assisted by 
the spring of the right foot on the ground. Swing hitting 
must be avoided, as the arm loses by it a great part of 
its force. An adversary is hardly ever staggered by a 
blow delivered in this fashion. A circular one also takes 
more time to deliver than a straight one, and while you 
swing your arm round you give your adversary an oppor- 
tunity of darting in and striking before your blow has had 
time to reach him. The ancient Greeks appear to have 
differed from us on this point, for we find in Virgil's 
account of the match between Entellus and Dares, that 
one of the combatants — 

** Hammering right and left, with ponderous swing, 
Ruffianed the reeling youngster round the ring." 

Never hesitate or draw back, once you have made up 
your mind to strike. Your antagonist perceives your 
intention, and, if he is anything of a boxer, will not 
fail to take advantage of your vacillation to plant a 
blow. 

MILLING ON THE RETREAT. 

This has been a favourite practice with many eminent 
prize-fighters. It consists in keeping well up to your 



401 C C 



BOXING. 



man, and slowly retiring before him at the same time, 
acting chiefly on the defensive, but planting a blow 
whenever an opening presents itself. Where your ad- 
versary is a smart boxer, and presses you more closely 
than is agreeable, it is called " ruffianing his man." 

GETTING THE HEAD IN CHANCERY. 

Supposing you are adroit enough to get your left arm 
round your adversary's neck, and securing his head, the 
latter is said to be "in chancery." Then, should he not 
be able to disengage himself, you rain blows on his "nob" 
until he calls out " Enough ! " Hitting in this way is called 
"fibbing." 

THROWING. 

This is an operation requiring considerable dexterity. 
Shifting round, and merely trying a little play, until a 
favourable opportunity occurs, you endeavour to plant 
a "facer." Should you succeed in this, thereby stag- 
gering your antagonist for a moment, you will, quick as 
lightning, catch him round the back with your left arm, 
and, opening your hand, pin his left arm to his side; 
then, getting your left thigh under his right one, you 
land him, by a jerk, on his back. Should he be too 
powerful to submit quietly; a "facer" or a "ribber," 
well delivered with the right hand, will assist the ma- 
noeuvre. When an adversary is "floored," a round is 
completed. In prize-fighting, if, after a certain number 
of seconds, a man is not ready to come again to the 
"scratch," he is "counted out;" that is, he is considered 
vanquished. 



402 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

It cannot be too strongly borne in mind, that in boxing, 
one of the elements of success consists in keeping your 
temper. There is no doubt that it is aggravating to get 
a dab on the nose, but to be disconcerted by it, and 
lose your presence of mind, is to lose the fight. "Claret" 
may be "tapped," even by a well-padded glove, when 
sent home by a vigorous arm, and the eyes be made 
to run water; but though the tears may be streaming 
down your cheeks, face your man with a smiling coun- 
tenance, and keep your brain clear. 

Some boxers fight entirely on the Fabian system ; that 
is, they are possessed of such staying powers, that, by 
standing entirely on the defensive, without either giving 
or taking, they at length wear out their adversary's 
bottom. In this manner battles have been won, and 
no blood spilt. It is called "bloodless milling." This 
manner of fighting has been adopted by some moderns, 
and was much in vogue with the ancients. Melancomas, 
the favourite of the Emperor Titus, could stand with 
his arms extended for two entire days. 

A blow delivered below the belt is not allowed to 
count; it is called a "foul blow," and it is considered 
cowardly to deal it. 

Although many pugilists condemn the practice of 
shifting ground, it is not against the rules of the prize- 
ring, and may be practised if found convenient. 




403 




THE ART OF SWIMMING. 




THE POSITION. 



1 . — Introductory. 




WIMMING, I contend, is the most useful 
of all the accomplishments which help to 
make up the complete education of a gen- 
tleman. Other athletic sports have their 
special advocates and their enthusiastic votaries ; 
but in all that tends to muscular development, 
the strengthening of the nervous system, and the 
renovation of the several functions of life, Swimming 
must be admitted to bear away the palm. At any 
rate, I believe that no course of training can be 
satisfactorily pursued in which Swimming does not 
form a prominent feature. But independently of this 



404 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



particular view of the case, see how admirably the 
noble and invigorating art serves the cause of 
humanity. How many a valuable life has been 
saved by the timely aid of the strong swimmer \ 
How many times has it happened that when a 
vessel has struck upon hidden rocks close to land 
the intrepid swimmer has carried a rope to the 
shore, and thereby established a communication ! 
And yet, with all these recommendations, it is asto- 
nishing to find how few of the inhabitants of this sea- 
girt isle know how to swim. Why is this? Not, surely, 
from want of water; for the great ocean is not at 
a great distance from any of our homes, and rivers 
and streams flow past our very doors. Not from 
fear ; for among all the people of the world the 
British alone have entirely succeeded in making a 
friend, and servant, and plaything of the sea. Not 
from any distaste for the art ; for it is well known 
that all boys love to bathe and paddle in the water 
whenever and wherever they can. In the busy 
life of great cities Swimming is undeservedly 
neglected; and the paucity of baths and public 
swimming-places, provided with competent in- 
structors, may have something to do with the fact. 
Parents, too, sometimes discourage rather than 
recommend natation; and thus it is that youths 
become swimmers by chance, or accident, or any- 
thing but scientific study. However, not to occupy 
too much space in mere generalities, I propose to 
do what has not been very well done before — that 
is to say, to teach Swimming scientifically and prac- 
tically. 

Let us, then, begin with such instructions as 
will be readily understood and easily followed 
in practice, avoiding the vice of some modern 
treatises by not attempting too much. 



405 



THE FIRST ESSA V. 



2. The First Kssay. 

The first thing necessary for a good swimmer is 
confidence. Now this can only be acquired by 
frequent immersion. After a few trials, however, 
the tyro will discover that his body is lighter than 
the water ; and this knowledge of the buoyancy of 
the water, and the almost impossibility of the 
swimmer's body sinking in it, is the one great 
requisite for plain Swimming. Of course, the more 
scientific branches of the art require study and long 
familiarity with the element in which only it can 
be practised. A few trials will soon teach you to 
overcome the instinctive fear we all have of ven- 
turing alone into the water ; and if, in the early stages 
of your practice, you can procure the assistance of 




PLAIN SWIMMING. 



406 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



a good swimmer, your progress will be greatly 
facilitated. Plain Swimming is a perfectly simple 
operation, easily acquired, and, when once acquired, 
never forgotten. In taking your first dip walk 
quietly in until the water rises to your waist or 
thereabouts, and then paddle about until you get 
accustomed to the new sensation. Much mischief 
has been caused by following the advice very often 
given of plunging head-foremost at the tyro's first 
attempt. The shock to the system experienced by 
this method has often spoiled a good swimmer, and 
caused a nervous trepidation which it has taken 
years to conquer. Such advice cannot be too 
severely condemned; for, besides the danger of ; 
drowning, the sudden plunge is apt to frighten and 
discourage the learner, and cause a distaste for | 
Swimming and a disinclination to pursue it as an 
art. Franklin, the American philosopher, is the : 
father of this serious mistake, which has been ; 
ignorantly followed by every pretender who, without | 
being a practical swimmer, has thought fit to write I 
about Swimming. | 

When in the water to the depth of the waist, 
gradually immerse yourself, and "take a duck," as it 
is familiarly termed, so as to wet the head and the 
whole of the body. Repeat this as often as you feel | 
inclined ; and you will very soon become thoroughly 
accustomed to the "feel" of the water, and acquire | 
a ( degree of confidence which you will always ! 
find valuable, rendering your bath a real pleasure I 
instead of a simple exercise. A very good plan is 
to drop a porcelain egg or some white object to the 
bottom, and try to pick it up; when, by repeating 
this experiment, you will acquire the conviction, 
so necessary to a thorough swimmer, that your 
body is of less specific gravity than the water it 



407 



THE FIRST ESSA K 



displaces. This, however, is only true with regard 
to the body in certain positions. By doubling up 
and contracting the limbs you make the body as 
heavy as a stone, and as likely to sink to the 
bottom ; but by spreading out the limbs and keeping 
the body stiff and straight you will find that the 
tendency is not to sink, but to float on the surface. 
You will soon be able to prolong the period 
of your " duck," till after a few trials you make a 
fearless plunge, either from the water itself or from 
the side of the bath or the shore, as the case may 
be. Having acquired sufficient confidence, you 
can now increase the depth till the water just 
covers the shoulders. Then turn your face to the 
shore and commence striking out. In doing this 
keep the fingers close together about four inches 
beneath the surface, so that no water can pass 
through them, with the palms rather concave. Now 
lean with your chest on the water, and as you 
throw your arms forward your body will assume a 
horizontal position, just beneath the surface. With 
slow and steady action let the legs follow the motion 
of the hands, or rather act simultaneously with 
them. Then spread the hands so as to describe a 
half-circle, the elbows coming close to the body, 
and the hands to the chest. Some clever writers 
have advised amateurs in Swimming to imitate the 
action of a frog. Nothing can be more absurd, 
false, and mischievous than this advice; for a man 
does not swim at all like a frog, and if he attempted 
to do so down he would go, head first. The limbs 
of the two animals are formed on different plans. 
It is right and natural for the frog to throw out his 
limbs in angles, and bring them back in similar lines 
of projection, with a sort of front and back jerk, 
continually repeated; but when a man swims he 



408 



spreads his legs and arms widely apart, and brings 
them close together in order to lepeat the stroke — 
an altogether distinct motion from that of the frog. 
Take it as a rule that as you throw out your legs 
you should also expel the air from the lungs, and 
as you draw your legs up you should take air into 
the lungs. By this means you can drive away the 
water which rises to your mouth. Remember that 
the reason for these directions is that if you draw 
your breath when you strike out you will probably 
take in a quantity of water, while if you expire it, the 
motion of your legs and arms will be in accordance 
with that of your lungs, and you will be quite safe. 
But it is not at all necessary to consider your 
breathing in your early trials. A few yards is all 
you will be able to accomplish at first. Therefore, if 
you feel any inconvenience from the water entering 
your mouth, close your lips, and it cannot get in. 
As you progress the management of the breath 
will cause you neither trouble nor anxiety : keep 
your head well up, your body straight, your limbs 
extended, and your breath will take care of itself. 
Slow and steady is the rule in learning : swiftness 
will be certain to come afterwards. 

But I must give you yet a few more directions. 
In getting ready for each successive stroke, draw 
back the legs and arms by a simultaneous motion. 
Keep the toes well turned out, and the feet wide 
apart; and as you send out the arms kick the legs 
backward and sideways to their full extent, keeping 
them separate till they have described as wide a circle 
as possible, the legs coming close together at the end 
of each stroke. Press against the water with the 
sole of the foot, and not with the toes, and then 
you will get a much better purchase, and make 
more easy and rapid progress. For you must 



409 



SWIMMING ON THE BACK. 



recollect that, though the limpid water divides easily 
enough as your hands and feet pass through it, a 
real resistance is offered by it to the body of the 
swimmer ; and it is on this resistance you must, to 
a certain extent, rely in propelling yourself forward. 
Without this simultaneous action of the arms and 
the legs it is impossible to become a good swim- 
mer. In propelling the body through the water it 
is of the utmost consequence to use the feet pro- 
perly. And to do so it is necessary so to turn the 
ankle-joint that, in drawing the leg up after the 
kick, the instep or upper part of the foot offers 
the smallest possible resistance to the water. This 
action of the foot has never before been noticed in 
any treatise on Swimming; and the reason why it 
has not is that few practical swimmers have at- 
tempted to write about the art. But, to attain 
perfection in Swimming, this action of the ankle-joi?it 
is absolutely necessary. 

3. Swimming on the Back. 

This method of swimming is readily accomplished ; 
indeed, many youths acquire it before they are au 
fait at the usual plan. It is the easiest way of 
supporting the body in the water ; and if the head 
be thrown well back, the chest held well up, and 
the body kept still, it is almost impossible to sink. 
And this, by the way, is a fact that should be re- 
membered, in cases of sudden immersion, by persons 
who cannot swim. Many a life lost by drowning 
would have been saved had the victim only lain 
quietly on his back, instead of struggling into an 
upright position. Place the hands on the sides, 
near the hips ; lay the head and body easily down 
on the water, the knees and elbows turned out so 



410 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



that they keep under, and lie perfectly still. The 
legs must then be drawn up and used in the same 
way as in chest-swimming, not forgetting to use 
the ankle in the manner already described. When 
you have learned to swim well on the back you 
can practise what is called "the steamer," which 
is done by beating the water with the feet, so as 




SWIMMING ON THE BACK. 



to send up a storm of spray like the paddle-wheels 
of a steam-boat, while at the same time you propel 
yourself forward head first. There is, however, no 
utility in "the steamer." 

4. Floating. 

To float well it is necessary to lie on your back 
with the body as straight as possible, the head 
thrown well back, and the arms stretched back 
behind the head as far as they can go. This method 
of lying on the water removes the centre of gravity 



411 



FLOATING. 



nearer to the head, so that the body can be made to 
float for any length of time on, or just below, the 
surface, with the face sufficiently out of the water 
for breathing, and the toes just visible, in a line 
with the head. The easiest method of floating is 
to lie upon the back, chest well up, hands over the 
head, with the palms pressing upwards, and allowing 
the feet to hang down, showing only the knees. 
Floating in fresh water is much more difficult than 
in the sea, in consequence of the superior buoyancy 
of the latter. You can keep moving by a slight 
motion of the hands, when floating becomes a sort 
of back swimming. 

5. The Plunge. 

I told you that a good method of getting 
accustomed to the water was to "duck" after a white 
object at the bottom. But simple " ducking " is a 
very different thing from plunging. By-and-by you 
will be able to make the grand dive, head foremost, 
from almost any height; but it is best to begin with 
the simple plunge before you attempt the regular 
plunge, the easiest way of making which is to 
place the body in the attitude shown in the en- 
graving, and throw yourself, head foremost, quietly 
into the water. 

If you bend too far forward you will probably 
throw a somersault into the water. This, though 
often done by swimmers, may alarm you at 
first; it is therefore better to make the plunge 
shallow rather than deep. You must remember 
that you make with hands and arms a passage, as 
it were, for your head and body. If you assume 
the position given in the diagram, you will at once 
avoid too deep a plunge and too flat and disagree- 
able a fall. Indeed, the head may be held even 



412 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



lower down. Once in the water, how are you to 
get out? Well, if, directly you have made your 




THE PLUNGE. 



plunge, you place your limbs and body in a straight 
line, the water will bring you to the surface all right. 
Some clever writer once stated that it was 
impossible to open the eyes in the water, in 
consequence of the pressure on the eyelids ; and all 
the rest of the clever writers have endorsed the 
absurdity. Now you should know that there is 
no difficulty whatever in keeping the eyes opm under 
water, and in opening and shutting them as often 
as you please. In fact, you should always accustom 
yourself to use your eyes as freely beneath the 
surface as above it. You will soon overcome the 
slight tingling sensation at first observed. 



413 



DIVING, 



6. Diving. 

You should accustom yourself to dive out from 
the bank or side of the bath, and in a short time 
you will be able to make the grand plunge without 
hesitation or fear, when you must adopt a some- 
what different attitude from that shown in my last 
lesson. Brace the body firmly, and, with the hands 
joined wedgelike in front of the head, take your 
jump boldly into the water. What is termed a 
" header," principally practised at the Universities, 
is usually taken from a height, or from the bank 
after a run. 

Diving in deep water is much more easy than in 
shallow streams; but to be able to leap into shallow 
water is a very useful accomplishment. To do this 




DIVING IN SHALLOW WATER. 



it is necessary to keep your body pretty straight 
when making the dive, and to curve your back 
upwards at the instant your head touches the water. 
To such perfection in this respect do some 



414 



swimmers arrive, that their heads may be seen to 
emerge almost at the same instant that their feet 
touch the waves. 

Previous to taking the dive it is as well to fill 
and empty the lungs several times. This drives 
out nearly ail the air from the lungs, and enables 
you to remain under water for a considerable 
time. 

The next feat to be accomplished is the perfect 
and complete " header." 




THE HEADER. 



The test of a thoroughly good and successful 
header is that it makes no splash, the body gliding, 
as it were, down into the depth of the water like 



415 



DIVING. 

an otter or a fish; a series of waving rings and a 
multitude of bubbles on the surface alone showing 
the vanishing-point of the diver. Of course, the 
faculty of leaping from a height is only to be 
accomplished by the aid of courage and presence of 
mind. Do not attempt too much at first, but let 
your practice be progressive— the low bank or 
leaping-board before you try the bridge. 

Remember that the depth to which you descend 
depends entirely on the impetus given by the jump. 
But you need not be afraid of depth ; for there is 
no more danger in sixteen fathoms of water than 
there is in three. If you are out of your depth you 
must swim, and swimming in deep water is easier 
and pleasanter than in shallow. 

7. Rising to the Surface. 

Having made your dive, nothing is easier than 
to rise to the surface. This you do immediately by 
raising the hands above the head, and at the same 
moment striking downwards with the feet. If you 
do this rapidly, you spring waist-high above the 
surface, in a sort of " Jack-in-the-box" fashion. But 
by merely keeping still, and letting the body assume 
an upright position, you cannot help rising to the 
top. In fact, you must come up. 

8. Swimming under Water. 

This you do in precisely the same manner as if 
you were on the surface, only there is this difficulty 
to contend with, that you have the trouble of 
holding your breath. But the difficulty is more 
imaginary than real ; for as soon as you feel that 
you want to breathe you rise to the surface and 
blow. The most unforeseen occasions may, at some 



416 



time or other, oblige you to throw yourself into the 
water with your clothes on, and it is a troublesome 
and difficult thing to swim under those circum- 
stances. Commence at first by swimming with 




your trousers and stockings on, then with your vest, 
and afterwards with your coat, increasing by degrees, 
until you are able to swim with all your ordinary 
garments on. I mention this because, should you 



417 



DD 



SWIMMING UNDER WATER. 



happen to have to swim with your clothes on, it is 
easier to keep below than upon the surface. 

9. Side-swimming. 

This style of Swimming is the most difficult of 
acquirement, but at the same time it is, perhaps, 
the most useful; for a side-swimmer can progress 
against a tide which it would be almost impos- 
sible to resist upon the breast. The side-swimmer 
offers only half the resistance to the water which is 
presented by the chest-swimmer, and is enabled to 
make way in a much more rapid manner. But, out 
of many hundreds of persons who profess to 
understand and practise the art of Swimming, 
there are but very few really good side-swimmers. 

The most ready way of practising this style of 
Swimming is by laying the face and body well down 
sideways on the water, with the mouth a little 
raised, so that you may breathe freely. It matters 
not on which side you swim, the plan of proceeding 
being, of course, the same. The hand must be 
used as a cut-water, taking care that when you send 
it out from the shoulder you send your legs out at 
the same time. Let the other arm rest close to 
the body till you have had some practice with 
one hand ; then commence using both hands. If 
swimming on the right side, the right hand is struck 
out boldly to the full extent of reach, and brought 
down decisively and still straight, using the left 
more as a rudder, though in a similar way to the 
right, but not with so long an action : swimming 
on the left side is the same thing mutatis mutandis. 
To my mind, this plan of Swimming is not only the 
most useful and comfortable, but it is also the most 
elegant. The swimmer can change from side to 



418 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



side at pleasure, and alternate with chest or back- 
swimming, or floating. This style of natation is 
not often taught by professional swimmers, unless 
when training a pupil for Swimming-matches ; but 
it will be found to be delightful when once 
thoroughly acquired. 

10. Swimming like a Dog. 

This plan of Swimming is very useful, as it gives 
a change of position. In order to swim like a dog 
it is necessary to carry the hands and feet alter- 
nately out of the water — the right hand working 
with the left foot, and the left foot with the right 




SWIMMING LIKE A DOG. 



hand. The hands should be bent as in the en- 
graving, the palms downwards, a little below the 
surface, beating up and down, alternately with the 
feet. 



419 



SWIMMING HAND-OVER-HAND. 



11. To Swim Hand-over-hand. 

It requires a rather considerable number of efforts 
to swim in what is termed the Indian style, but of 
all manners of swimming this is the quickest. Cast 
yourself on your stomach, and at the same time throw 



4:J?k 




the right hand to the front; bend the last joints of the 
fingers in such a manner that they form a cavity, at 
the same time also moving the feet ; then force the 



420 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



body along; the right arm thus passing behind 
the body, throw the left hand out in the same 
manner as the right. By this alternate movement 
of the arms the body leans to the right when 
propelled by the right arm, and to the left when 
propelled by the left arm. By some this is called 
" waltzing ;" it is done to perfection by Beckwith, 
though in a somewhat different way. 

12. Swimming with one Hand out of the 

Water. 

The same movements are made as in swimming 
hand-over-hand — leaning on the left side with the 
right hand out of «the water. It is necessary, at the 
same time, in order to overcome the inaction of the 




TO BE KEPT DRY. 



right hand, to give greater impulsion to the legs. 
The left hand is held out of the water in swimming 
on the right side. It is necessary to accustom 
yourself well to swimming in this manner without 
holding anything in the hand ; but after a time you 



421 



SWIMMING WITH ONE HAND. 

can carry different objects in the hand, the weight 
of which may be gradually increased. It is thus 
that some, while traversing a river, swimming with 
one hand, carry their clothes above the head with 
the other ; but this latter will be found to be a 
very difficult operation to any but an accomplished 
swimmer. 

13. To Swim Frogwise. 

I have already told you that a man cannot swim 
like a frog ; but there is, nevertheless, a style which 
is known as swimming frog-fashion. 

When you are in the water up to the shoulders, 
place the arms close to the body, the palms of the 
hands and the fingers close together, the thumbs 
sticking up ; then incline the upper part of the 
body slowly to the front, keeping the head upright. 
As soon as your feet have left the ground, bring 
the heels one against the other, near to the upper 
extremity of the hips ; then, by a simultaneous and 
active motion, carry the hands to the front, and 
throw the feet back. The arms should be held at 
the height of the shoulders, the hands thrown on 
either side, the fingers joined, rather curved, a little 
below the surface of the water. Then bring them 
back to the first position. The legs and arms 
should always be thrown out to their full extent. 
Repeat the same movements at equal intervals, 
without hurrying. Throw yourself on your back, 
the face, the chest, and toes being above the 
surface, the arms placed against the sides of the 
body. You progress by making a movement of 
the hands backwards and forwards, at the same 
time using the feet in the same manner as described 
for hand-over-hand Swimming. When you wish to 
change your position and swim on the stomach, 



422 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



raise one hand out, and press down and embrace, 
as it were, the water with the other ; you will then 
turn over easily. 

14. Balancing in the "Water. 

This is by no means so difficult a feat as might 
be supposed ; though considerable confidence is 
necessary in order to perform it properly. When 




out of your depth, let your head fall gently back 
till your chin is just on a level with the surface. 
You will then be in a perpendicular position, as 
shown in the diagram; but I should advise the 
young swimmer to throw his head much farther 
back on the water. In this feat the arms, and 



423 



BALANCING IN THE WATER. 

even the legs, may be crossed; and, if the water 
be smooth and unruffled, you will be able to 
balance or suspend yourself easily enough. . This 
may be continued for a while, when, if you stretch 
your arms gradually above your head to their full 
length, your body will assume a horizontal posi- 
tion, and you will be able to float upon the sur- 
face like a plank. In floating, you will remember 
that I told you the arms must be thrown back as far 
as possible, and the body kept rigid, when the toes 
will appear above the water. This is due to the 
fact that the lungs become the centre of the body, 
the head and the arms at one end balancing the legs 
at the other. Of course, in floating or balancing, 
the slightest motion will remove the centre of 
gravity, and alter the position of the body. 

15. Treading Water. 

Allow your feet to descend into the water as in 
balancing. By an action of the feet similar to that 
of stepping up a ladder, you will be able to keep 
your head and neck above the surface. The hands 
may be made to assist you very much in treading 
water, by a kind of pawing motion, keeping the 
backs of them upwards, and making the strokes 
downwards. In this way you may continue for a 
good while, and by inclining your body to the right 
or left you may advance in any direction you 
choose, though, of course, your progress will be but 
slow. I have seen and performed a variety of feats 
in the water ; but anything beyond plain Swimming 
is only to be acquired by great and continual practice. 

16. Upright Swimming. 

In France and Germany, and various military 
and naval schools abroad, Swimming in the upright 



424 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



position is much practised. The system was intro- 
duced by M. Bernardi, a Prussian officer, and is 
exceedingly valuable to soldiers. The pupil is first 
taught to float in an upright position — in fact, to 
perform the feat we call balancing. He is then 
directed to use his limbs much in the same way as 
in walking, stretching his arms out sideways to their 
full extent, and putting one foot forward and the 
other backward in regular order, at the same time 
keeping the head directly in the centre of the body, 
so as to preserve the balance evenly. He next 
learns to make a circular sweep with the hands at 
the same moment that the legs are struck forward 
and downward. 

17. The Prussian System. 

In the Prussian system, as taught by General 
Pfael, the swimming girdle or rope is used, as with 
us, the teacher guiding and suspending the pupil 
till he acquires confidence to go alone. After that, 
the pupil is encouraged to dive into the water, 
keeping his legs straight and close together ; next 
the movement of the limbs, as already explained 
in these lessons, is attended to. In truth, the whole 
system is much like that now taught in our Swim- 
ming-schools, with, perhaps, a little more military 
precision. 

18. The Washing-tub. 

Lie on your back, and gather up your knees as 
close as you can to your chin, and at the same 
moment work the hands with a downward pressure. 
You will now find that you are able to rotate at a 
rapid pace. 



425 



THE PLANK. 



19. The Plank. 

This is a feat for two swimmers. One lays him- 
self flat on his back on the water, the feet and legs 
close together, the hands kept straight down by the 
side of the body, and the head well up. The other 
then takes hold of his ankles, and pulls at them, 
while at the same time he impels himself. By this 
action one swimmer passes quickly over the other. 

20. The Wrestle. 

Two swimmers treading water place themselves 
opposite each other, and the one, touching the head 
of the other, endeavours to force him under. The 
right hand is only to be held above the water. 

21. The Float. 

Lie on your back with your feet stretched out 
and your body as motionless as possible. Another 
swimmer then takes your feet and propels you 
forward. 

22. The Drive. 

Two swimmers place themselves on their backs, 
feet to feet, and the object of the game is to see 
which can first impel the other forward. 

23. Leap-frog. 

This amusing sport is performed as follows : — 
One swimmer treads water, and the other follows 
close behind him, with his hands upon his shoulders. 
Then, with a spring, he mounts with his feet to his 
neighbour's shoulders, and dives in, forcing him 
down ; and so on, alternately. 



426 




24. Corks, Bladders, &c. 

Do not use them : all artificial means of learning 
to swim are bad. But in cases where confidence is 
not to be easily attained they may be employed 
sparingly. A better support, however, is a plank, 
which may be pushed before you, and used as a 
float when required. Discard them all as soon as 
you have confidence in the water. 

25. The Cramp. 

Swimmers are exposed to a muscular contraction 
which is known under the name of the cramp — a 
contraction which renders powerless the limb which 
it attacks. But a swimmer should not be alarmed : 
with a little presence of mind, the evil is to be sur- 
mounted. As soon as the swimmer feels the cramp 
in his feet or legs, he should forcibly stretch out the 
limb, and raise the foot up, or rather turn the toes 
up : if his efforts do not succeed, he should throw 
himself on his back, and float until he receives 
assistance. The most important thing of all is 
to preserve presence of mind ; for the most able 
swimmer, if he gives himself up to fear, courts the 
same danger as those who do not know how to 
swim. 

26. How to Teach Swimming. 

The general directions already given will, I pre- 
sume, have been sufficiently clear to enable all my 
readers to obtain a fair average notion of the 
graceful art I profess. You will not probably have 
had much actual practice in the water, but you will, 
at any rate, have so far profited by my teaching as 
to have got rid of some of the nervousness and 
hesitation natural to the tyro in his first attempt to 



427 



HOW TO TEACH SWIMMING. 



swim. Now, if you will carefully follow me in the 
directions here given, and perseveringly carry theory 
into practice, you will soon be a good swimmer. 
There is nothing like getting a thorough knowledge 
of the reasons for doing things — that is to say, the 
theory ; but it is impossible to acquire facility in 
any art by theory alone. How to do it must be 
followed by actually doingdt. 

Well, then, without making more ado, let me show 
you the way. 

My pupils always begin in this manner : they get 
into the water to about the waist, and then, spread- 
ing out the limbs, endeavour to float, or at any rate 
prevent themselves from sinking. They soon find 
that it is much more easy to float than to sink; and 
this knowledge once acquired, they have little diffi- 
culty in following out any directions I give them. 
Inorder to give the learner confidence in the water 
a little manual aid is very useful. I usually pass a 
flat band or rope round his chest, and, holding the 
other end of it, support him on the surface, while 
he makes his first strokes ; or, if necessary, I go 
into the water with him, and place my hand gently 
under his chin or his chest, and the other hand on 
his back, to prevent his head from going under. 
But if you find that you do not readily take to the 
water with confidence, then a good plan is to float 
a plank and push it easily before you, so that you 
can at any time seize it with your hands as before 
stated^ To support the body on the surface, only 
very slight assistance is necessary, and any swimmer, 
with this knowledge, can teach and assist others as 
efficiently as the most doughty professor. 

An ounce of practice is worth a pound of theory. 
I hope^ therefore, that my pupils will steadily per- 
severe in this noble art. I say noble, because, 



428 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



while it takes high rank — perhaps the highest — 
among athletic sports and pastimes, it is un- 
doubtedly one of the most useful and health- 
preserving accomplishments. Not to repeat what I 
have already written, I cannot but observe that 
every boy should be an expert swimmer; for who 
knows how soon or how often he may be called 
upon to show familiarity with the water in the 
saving of life? During one summer it was my 
good fortune to rescue upwards of a dozen adven- 
turous — or perhaps I should rather say careless — 
youths from a watery grave. And what I, in my 
profession as a swimming-master, am liable to be 
called upon to do daily, you may at least be ex- 
pected at some time or other to perform. Rovers 
all over the world as Englishmen are, it is a source 
of wonder to me that so few of them are thoroughly 
good swimmers. For the emigrant and the travel- 
ler to know how to swim is hardly less important 
than to know how to ride and shoot. 

In swimming it is necessary to observe certain 
rules, and to take some precautions which pru- 
dence advises. Before entering into water the body 
should not be in any great perspiration, nor should 
it be perfectly cool. When you can plunge into 
the water, the best way is to throw the whole of the 
body in at one movement; the ascending action of 
the blood is thus prevented, which might cause 
injury to the head. On coming out of the water the 
clothes should only be put on after the body is 
perfectly dry; and it is salutary, after you are dressed, 
to take a sharp walk. The middle of the day or 
immediately after dinner is not particularly favourable 
for this exercise — the morning is the best time (but 
not on an empty stomach, especially in the case of 
weakly constituted persons), or, better still, the 



429 



HOW TO TEACH SWIMMING. 



evening, before supper. Running waters are always 
to be preferred to enclosed waters. Choose, as 
far as you can, a level bottom without stones, so 
as not to hurt your feet. Avoid swimming among 
weeds, for fear of entangling yourself. 




430 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 




lints to lcmtner L 8. 

ROBABLY one of the best ways of learning 
to swim is to go with a competent teacher, 
in a boat, into deep water, which is the 
most buoyant, and prevents the constant 
tendency of beginners to touch the bottom, which 
here is of course impossible. 

The teacher should fasten a rope carefully around 
the waist, or, better still, to a belt which can 
neither tighten nor slip down. The rope may be 
attached to a short pole. Supported in this 
manner, the pupil may take his proper position in 
the water, and practise the necessary motions, and 
the support of the rope may be gradually lessened, 
until the pupil finds himself entirely sustained by 
the water. 

Corks and bladders are often used as supports 
for learners ; but, as I have already said, it is much 
better to begin without them. As, however, they 
may be a protection in some cases against acci- 
dents, and may enable the learner to practise the 
proper motions for Swimming more carefully, they 
are not to be entirely condemned. Several large 
pieces of cork must be strung upon each end of a 
piece of rope, long enough to pass under the chest 
and reach just above the shoulders; or well blown 
and properly secured bladders may be fastened in 
the same way. Care must be taken to confine 
these supports near the shoulders, as by their 
slipping down they would plunge the head under 
water, and produce the very catastrophe they were 
designed to prevent. 

A great variety of life-preservers have been in- 



431 



HINTS TO LEARNERS. 



vented, made of India-rubber and cork shavings, 
in the form of jackets, belts, &c., which may be 
used like the cork and bladders ; but as their bulk 
is generally all round the chest, they hinder the free 
use of the arms, and impede the velocity of motion* 
As life-preservers they would do very well if people 
ever had them on when they were needed, or had 
presence of mind enough to fit and inflate them in 
sudden emergencies. The best life-preservers are 
the self-reliance and well-directed skill of a good 
swimmer. 

Swimming with the plank has two advantages : 
the young bather has always the means of saving 
himself from the effects of a sudden cramp; and he 
can practise with facility the necessary motions 
with the legs and feet, aided by the momentum of 
the plank. A piece of light wood, three or four 
feet long, two feet wide, and about two inches thick, 
will answer very well for this purpose. The chin 
may be rested upon the end, and the arms used ; 
but this must be done carefully, or the support may 
go beyond the young swimmer's reach. 

A better method, as many think, than any of 
these is for the teacher to wade into the water 
with his pupil, and support him in a horizontal 
position by placing his hand under the pupil's 
chest, while he directs his motions. He may then 
withdraw his support almost imperceptibly. I do 
not see, however, what advantage this method has 
over that first noticed with the boat, unless it be 
that the teacher can better enforce his precepts by 
example, and, in swimming himself, give practical 
illustrations of his theories of propulsion. 



432 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 




]0U must not fancy that when you have 
read what I have written you will neces- 
sarily be able to swim well. On the con- 
trary, you must persevere daily if you ever 
intend to become a good swimmer. Do not be 
discouraged by a few failures ; for, depend upon it, 
nothing worth having or worth knowing was ever 
acquired without trouble and determination. 

In still water a swimmer ought to make a 
hundred yards in a minute and a half — rather faster 
than a tide. It is extremely good work to be able 
to swim forty yards under water in about forty or 
fifty seconds. Very few can reach fifty yards in 
this time. A good plunger ought to go from thirty 
to forty feet without taking a stroke, but over fifty 
feet has often been accomplished by some of those 
swimmers who have made plunging a specialite. 
The bank or diving-board should be slightly raised 
above the surface of the water. A good swimmer 
ought to be able to propel his body five feet in one 
stroke ; but it is not good judgment to take too 
long a stroke at first : all this will come naturally to 
you afterwards. 

To swim a mile in the Thames above Battersea 
in fifteen minutes is good work : if below London 
Bridge, where the tide is stronger, the distance 
ought to be accomplished in less time, although it 
is surprising what small assistance the tide gives the 
human body. In still water a good swimmer ought 
to make a quarter of a mile in eight minutes and 
three-quarters, or thereabouts: if in a bath — say 
forty yards long — at least twenty seconds ought to 



433 EE 



GOOD SWIMMING, 



be saved ; and if in a smaller bath, still greater 
speed should be attained, as a swimmer with 
practice can turn faster than he can swim, on 
account of the more solid purchase the side of 
the bath gives to the feet. 

Having shown you the various styles of Swimming, 
and how to acquire ease, grace, and confidence in 
the water, it only remains for me to add a few more 
suggestions as to Sea-bathing and How to Save 
Life \ and if, with these and practice, you do not 
become a swimmer, the fault is yours, not mine. 




434 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 




OR the benefit of such of my readers as 
take a holiday at the seaside, I append a 
few simple directions that will be found 
useful. 

27. Bathing from the Shore. 

Take care that some one of your companions 
remains with your clothes : at watering-places there 
are always sea-rovers looking out for flotsam and 
jetsam. Wade in up to the shoulders, and then 
turn to the shore and strike out; but beware of 
sunken rocks and sharp-shelled Crustacea. Do not 
go far from land, and see that the tide does not 
carry you too far away from the spot whence you 
started. 

28. Bathing from a Machine. 

Take the number of your machine before enter- 
ing, and leave your watch and valuables at home, 
or in the hands of the proprietor of the machine. 
If you can dive, go out into deep water, and make 
the " header" boldly. But if you lack confidence, 
you can dive with the assistance of the ropes. Be 
careful not to bruise yourself against the wheels, 
nor go too far away from the machine. 

29. Bathing from a Boat. 

Of all the methods of sea-bathing this is the 
pleasantest and the healthiest. But if the wind 
blow sharply, I should advise you not to remain 
too long in the water, and to undress and dress as 



435 



SEA-BATHING. 



quickly as you can. Choose a boat with a small 
ladder over the side : you will find it useful in 
getting in from the water — landsmen generally 
making a trouble in getting smartly on board — to 
say nothing of a grazed shin or a raw elbow. In 
diving take a good wide leap from the head of the 
boat rather than from its side, and see that ybu are 
well followed by the boatmen. If you cannot 
swim well, a rope, with a broad band for the chest, 
will be found very useful and comfortable. 

30. The Tide. 

Notice the "set" of the tide, and take pre- 
cautions accordingly. Swimming seawards with the 
tide is rather dangerous, as you may find it hard to 
get back against an ebb. 

31. The Waves. 

Be careful that you are not taken off your feet 
unawares ; watch the advance of the wave, and as 
it comes in leap upwards, so that it may pass 
under your feet ; but if the waves come in with a 
rush, and a roar, and a torrent, then you may let 
them pass over you without danger. If you are 
a good swimmer, you may actually dive through 
the waves, or throw yourself boldly forward and 
crest them. The waves nearest the shore are the 
most noisy and dangerous, as they break on the 
shingle and roll awkwardly. In coming in take 
care to run well out of reach of the next wave 
as soon as your feet touch the bottom. No swim- 
mer should venture far from shore when the tide 
is running out without being accompanied by a 
boat. But when the tide is coming in you may 
go as far as you choose, and float back. 



436 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



SBMfltthwss afl th* Jlil 




RECRUIT, on entering the French army, 
is early taught to swim. Water, when it 
becomes familiar, is the best of friends. 
Soldiers have been known to march fifteen 
miles farther (after a long march), under a sultry 
sun, when the officers have given them orders to 
bathe for half an hour. The recruit is brought to 
the river on a sultry ; broiling day. There the 
fear of water naturally seizes him ; but he is in- 
trusted to the hands of a veteran swimmer, who 
gives him his first lesson, and little by little he 
becomes expert : he learns to dive, too, and ascer- 
tain the nature of a river bed, so that the engineer 
may judge from his report what sort of bridge can 
be thrown across a stream. He is taught how to 
swim a long time, how to rest himself, how to save 
a companion ; he is trained to swim with his 
clothes on, to carry his musket dry, and to practise 
a thousand dodges, by which he may approach, 
unnoticed, the opposite bank of a river, where an 
enemy is encamped. The medical authorities of 
the French army recommend that men inclined to 
diseases of the chest should be frequently made to 
swim. The following are the effects (which M. le 
Dr. Dudon attributes to Swimming) on the organs 
of respiration : — " A swimmer wishing to proceed 
from one place to another is obliged to deploy his 
arms and legs to cut through the liquid, and to beat 
the water with them to sustain himself. It is to the 
chest, as being the central point of sustentation, 
that every movement of the limbs responds. This 
irradiation of the movements to the chest, far from 



437 



being hurtful to it, is beneficial ; for, according to a 
sacred principle of physiology, the more an organ 
is put in action, the more vigour and aptitude it 
will gain to perform its functions. Applying this 
principle to natation, it will easily be conceived 
how the membranes of the chest of a swimmer 
acquire development, the pulmonary tissues firm- 
ness, tone, and energy." 

I am glad to perceive that this useful art is now 
rapidly becoming popular. A few years ago not 
one in a hundred could swim — and such was parti- 
cularly the case amongst our seamen and fishermen. 
Observing this lamentable deficiency amongst a 
class of our countrymen whose vocation calls them 
to spend more than half their time on the water, 
the National Life-boat Institution, six or seven years 
ago, were induced to direct public attention to the 
subject. Cases had often been brought under its 
notice of persons perishing simply because they 
could not swim a few yards. Happily such a state 
of things is rapidly disappearing, and high and low 
are now practising the art with an assiduity be- 
coming its importance ; and I trust the day is not 
distant when it will become a part of the education 
of all classes of the people. 

It may here be mentioned as a fact not generally 
known, that when a person is drowning, if he be 
taken by the arm from behind, between the elbow 
and shoulder, he cannot touch the person attempting 
to save him, and whatever struggles he may make 
will only assist the person holding him in keeping 
his head above water. A good swimmer can keep 
a man thus above the water for an hour. If seized 
by any other part of the body, the probability is 
that he will clutch the swimmer, and perhaps, as is 
often the case, both will be drowned. 



438 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 




lout is fmt life- 

NE of the very first and most valuable 
means of saving your own life is to know 
how to float, though floating is by no means 
swimming. Remember that the water will 
support the body, if you only place yourself in the 
proper position. Many persons are drowned by not 
attending to a few simple and easily acquired rules. 

Exertion in the water is not requisite to preserve 
the body from sinking: all that you have to do is to 
lie on your back, and keep your face above the stirface, 
without attempti?ig to imitate the action of the swimmer. 

Keep your hands under the water. As the waves 
pass over you, take advantage of the interval to renew 
the air in your chest. 

Keep the lungs as full of air as possible. 

Now these rules fully carried out will, at any rate, 
prevent you from sinking. For you must recollect 
that keeping your lungs full of air is as good as 
tying a bladder round your neck, or placing corks 
behind your shoulders. Remember, also, that the 
act of raising your hands above your head causes 
you to sink inevitably, while by keeping them 
below the surface you can float till succour arrives. 
The water in your ears will not hurt you, though it 
may cause a humming sound in your head. Nor is 
it absolutely necessary to close your eyes, for the 
water will not hurt them, beyond, perhaps, a slight 
tingling sensation. Endeavour by all means to 
preserve your presence of mind, and do not give 
way to fright. 

So much for your own safety. But in cases where it 
is necessary to save the life of a companion, or other 



439 



SAVING LIFE, 



person, in danger of drowning, a different system 
must be pursued. The first and most important 
object is to bring your friend ashore: this is 
sometimes very difficult, as drowning persons are 
apt to grasp at and cling to you. Shakespeare 
tells us that drowning men catch at straws. There- 
fore beware of that catch, as it is very dangerous 
both to the drowning man and to the rescuer. 
When you reach the person in danger, you should 
endeavour to support his head, with your hand 
under his chin. But at all hazards bring him 
ashore as quickly as possible, either above or under the 
water. Keep your man at arm's length, and if 
possible approach him from behind, so as to 
prevent him clutching or clinging to you; then push 
him before you to shore. A very slight exertion 
will suffice to keep him from sinking. 

In eases ivhere the person is insensible any means 
of bringing him quickly ashore may be taken. 
Raise his head above the surface, and either push 
him before you or support him with one arm, while 
you swim with the other, or tread water, or swim on 
your back; but in any case use despatch. While 
you display courage, beware of rashness. 




440 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



RESTORATION OF THE APPARENTLY 

DROWNED. 

In the year 1857 the Royal National Life-boat 
Institution circulated various rules for the restoration 
of the apparently drowned. These had been tested 
by a large experience in all parts of the world, 
and had been found highly effective. But they 
were still capable of improvement. The officers 
of this excellent institution have therefore issued 
a set of new rules, illustrated by engravings. 
These directions, which follow, are those adopted 
by the Royal Humane Society: — Send immediately 
for medical assistance, blankets* and dry clothing, 
but proceed to treat the patient instantly on the 
spot, in the open air, with the face downwards, 
whether on shore or afloat; exposing the face, neck, 
and chest to the wind, except in severe weather, 
and removing all tight clothing from the neck and 
chest, especially the braces. 

The points to be aimed at are — first and imme- 
diately, the Restoration of Breathing; and, 
secondly, after breathing is restored, the Promotion 
of Warmth and Circulation. 

The efforts to restore breathing must be com- 
menced immediately and energetically, and per- 
severed in for one or two hours, or until a medical 
man has pronounced that life is extinct. 

Efforts to promote warmth and circulation, be- 
yond removing the wet clothes and drying the skin, 
must not be made until the first appearance of 
natural breathing. For if circulation of the blood 



441 



HOW TO SAVE LIFE. 



be induced before breathing has recommenced, 
the restoration to life will be endangered. 

I. To Restore Breathing : Hall's Method. 

To Clear the Throat. — Place the patient on 
the floor or ground with the face downwards, and one 




442 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



of the arms under the forehead, in which position 
all fluids will more readily escape by the mouth, 
and the tongue itself will fall forward, leaving the 
entrance into the windpipe free. Assist this 
operation by wiping and cleansing the mouth. 

If satisfactory breathing commences, use the 
treatment described below to promote warmth. 
If there be only slight breathing, or no breathing, 
or if the breathing fail, then — 

To Excite Breathing — Turn the patient well 
and instantly on the side, supporting the head, 
and — 

Excite the nostrils with snuff, hartshorn, and 
smelling-salts, or tickle the throat with a feather, 
&c, if they are at hand. Rub the chest and face 
warm, and dash cold water, or cold and hot water 
alternately, on them. 

If there be no success, lose not a moment, but 
instantly — 

To Imitate Breathing — Replace the patient 
on the face, raising and supporting the chest well 
on a folded coat or other article of dress. 

Turn the body very gently on the side and a 
little beyond, and then briskly on the face, back 
again ; repeating these measures cautiously, efficiently, 
and perseveringly about fifteen times in the minute, 
or once every four or five seconds, occasionally 
varying the side. 

[By placing the patient on the chest, the weight of the 
body forces the air out; when turned on the side 
this pressure is removed, and air enters the chest] 

On each occasion that the body is replaced on 
the face make uniform but efficient pressure, with 
brisk movement, on the back between and below 
the shoulder-blades or bones on each side, removing 



443 



the pressure immediately before turning the body 
on the side. During the whole of the operations 
let one person attend solely to the movements of 
the head, and of the arm placed under it. 

\The first measure increases the expiration, the second 
commences inspiration.] 




444 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



The result is Respiration, or Natural Breathing, 
and, if not too late, Life. 

Whilst the above operations are being proceeded 
with dry the hands and feet; and as soon as dry 
clothing or blankets can be procured strip the body 
and cover, or gradually reclothe it, but take care 
not to interfere with the efforts to restore breathing. 

[The foregoing two illustrations show the position of 
the body during the employment of Dr. Marshall 
JfalPs method of inducing respiration.] 

II. Silvester's Method. 

Should these efforts not prove successful in the 
course of from two to five minutes, proceed to 
imitate breathing by Dr. Silvester's method, as 
follows : — 

Place the patient on the back on a flat surface, 
inclined a little upwards from the feet ; raise and 
support the head and shoulders on a small firm 
cushion or folded article of dress placed under the 
shoulder-blades. 

Draw forward the patient's tongue, and keep it 
projecting beyond the lips : an elastic band over 
the tongue and under the chin will answer this 
purpose, or a piece of string or tape may be tied 
round them, or by raising the lower jaw the teeth 
may be made to retain the tongue in that position. 
Remove all tight clothing from about the neck and 
chest, especially the braces. 

To Imitate the Movements of Breathing.- 
Standing at the patient's head, grasp the arms just 
above the elbows, draw them gently and steadily 
upwards above the head, and keep them stretched 
upwards for two seconds. [By this means air is 
drawn into the lungs.] Then turn down the patient's 



445 



arms, and press them gently and firmly for two 
seconds against the sides of the chest. \By this 
means air is pressed out of the lungs .] 




Repeat these measures alternately, deliberately, 
and. perseveringly, about fifteen times in a minute, 
until a spontaneous effort to respire is perceived, 
immediately upon which cease to imitate the 



446 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



movements of breathing, and proceed to induce 
circulation and warmth. 




[The foregoing two illustrations show the position 
of the body during the employment of Dr. Silves- 
ter's method of inducing respiration ?\ 



447 



HOW TO SAVE LIFE. 



III. Treatment after Natural Breathing has 
been Restored. 

To promote Warmth and Circulation. 

Commence rubbing the limbs upwards, with firm 
grasping pressure and energy, using handkerchiefs, 
flannels, &c. By this measure the blood is propelled 
along the veins towards the heart, ,] 

The friction must be continued under the blanket 
or over the dry clothing. 

Promote the warmth of the body by the appli- 
cation of hot flannels, bottles or bladders of hot 
water, heated bricks, &c, to the pit of the stomach, 
the armpits, between the thighs, and to the soles of 
the feet. 

If the patient has been carried to a house after 
respiration has been restored, be careful to let the 
air play freely about the room. 

On the restoration of life a teaspoonful of warm 
water should be given; and then, if the power of 
swallowing have returned, small quantities of wine, 
warm brandy-and-water, or coffee, should be ad- 
ministered. The patient should be kept in bed, 
and a disposition to sleep encouraged. 

General Observations. — The above treatment 
should be persevered in for some hours, as it is an 
erroneous opinion that persons are irrecoverable 
because life does not soon make its appearance, 
some having been restored after many hours' seem- 
ing lifelessness. 

Appearances which generally accompany 
Death. — Breathing and the heart's action cease 
entirely; the eyelids are generally half-closed, the 
pupils dilated, the jaws clenched, the ringers semi- 
contracted, the tongue approaches to the under 



448 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



edges of the lips, and these, as well as the nostrils, 
are covered with a frothy mucus. Coldness and 
pallor of surface increase. 

Cautions. 

Prevent unnecessary crowding of persons round 
the body, especially if in an apartment. 

Avoid rough usage, and do not allow the body to 
remain on the back unless the tongue is secured. 

Under no circumstance hold the body up by the 
feet. 

On no account place the body m a warm bath, 
unless under medical direction, and even then it 
should only be employed as a momentary excitant. 




449 



FF 



SWIMMING FOR LADIES. 



•ttrftmmttg \z\ ladfes. 




-«- 



LADIES BATHING COSTUME. 




HY should not ladies learn to swim ? The 
question has often been asked, but never 
has it been satisfactorily answered. Miss 
Harriet Martineau, with that practical 
good sense for which she is so eminent, has ere 
now ventilated the subject ; but she has not, I 
think, touched upon the real point of the question 
— which concerns the men much more than the 
ladies — I mean the real or presumed difficulty 
of ladies finding proper bathing-places away from 
the observation of the other sex. Few English 



450 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



ladies have the opportunity of learning this most 
useful and necessary art, although it is one which is 
very easily acquired. Swimming-baths for ladies 
are not yet among the institutions of our free, 
happy, and highly refined country. At the sea-side 
watering-places, says a recent writer, "the English 
bathing-dress is one of such incumbrance and in- 
delicacy that it would be quite impossible to learn 
to swim in it. In Biarritz, in the south of France, 
both gentlemen and ladies have a suitable and 
picturesque dress, which entirely covers the person, 
and one in which they have the free use of their 
limbs. Fathers and brothers can without any in- 
delicacy bathe with their families \ and why should 
our English ladies be so much behind their Conti- 
nental neighbours? Ladies can form no idea of 
the pleasure derived from a knowledge of swim- 
ming : it gives them confidence when in a boat, 
knowing that if they are upset they can save them- 
selves. At present all social enjoyment of bathing 
is lost by being separated from the family party; and 
why should this separation be ? If suitable dresses 
were adopted, how much more pleasant it would be 
for each family to have their own machine, not in 
the water, but on the sands," so that they might 
dress at leisure. If ladies' swimming-baths were 
established, I am confident they would very soon 
become fashionable, and be sufficiently well patro- 
nized to make them pay as a commercial speculation. 

The following, on this subject, was addressed to 
the Times by an eminent physician : — 

"My attention has long been very much attracted 
by the anomalies, and, I must say, indecencies, of 
the English system of sea-bathing ; and, after some 
hesitation, I have resolved to address you, re- 
questing you to bring your powerful influence to 



4Si 



SWIMMING FOR LADIES. 



bear to introduce a reform which will add con- 
siderably to the pleasure and seeraliness of what 
has become a universal fashion, and what, rightly 
practised, must be a universal benefit. I beg those 
who are fond of bathing, those who enjoy the sea- 
side, and those who value whatever tends to the 
enjoyment or conserves the propriety of mankind, 
to give a few moments' consideration to a contrast 
which I will set before them. I am aware that the 
inconveniences attendant upon public bathing at 
our watering-places have been frequently noticed 
by correspondents of the newspapers J but it has 
only been in a casual way, and moreover in a 
hopeless tone, as if nothing effectual could be done 
to cure the evil. Indeed, unless the plan I shall, 
before I conclude, propose be adopted, I confess I 
see little prospect of any reform. 

"Police regulations have been tried over and 
over again, and invariably found comparatively 
useless. What else could be expected ? If people 
go to a place to bathe, bathe they will. They can- 
not bathe in their ordinary clothes ; they cannot 
be compelled to bathe at unreasonable hours, and 
when they bathe a concourse must necessarily 
assemble. Families sojourn at these places in great 
numbers, and the family element introduces at once 
an idea of community, which contributes to the 
freedom and publicity of the whole affair. The 
result is that the whole community bathe virtually 
in public. There would be nothing in this had we 
revived, with the practices of the ancients, their 
manners also. Public baths are no novelty ; even 
the meeting of men and women at baths has been 
ere now an ordinary custom; and the fact of the 
bathing taking place in the open air instead of in 
buildings is manifestly adapted rather to encourage 



452 



THE ART OF SWIMMING. 



than hinder the revival of this custom — firstly, 
because do what you will you cannot make open- 
air bathing strictly private, or keep the sexes entirely 
out of each other's sight ; and secondly, because 
open-air bathing is favourable to, and seems naturally 
to suggest, attire such as would enable the men and 
women to mix as freely with each other as when in 
their ordinary dress. But what a contrast to this 
does our present fashion present ! 

" Every one has been at some watering-place, and 
it is not necessary therefore for me to enter into 
very elaborate particulars. Were it so, my pen 
would have to be laid down, for the scenes which 
are daily complained of by men to men, and by 
women to women, while living at sea-side watering- 
places, are practically indescribable in print. 
Almost all English bathing-places resemble *ich 
other in the fact that there are rows of ho*' _ *Jong 
the beach, from which, without the aid of an opera- 
glass, the bathing operations are clearly visible — 
some houses from which the bathers may be very 
easily recognised, and some from which it is unsafe 
for a lady to look at bathing-time, lest her delicacy 
should be outraged. Then the beach is largely 
frequented hy flaneurs of both sexes, who must be 
either very much shocked at the free-and-easy 
spectacle afforded them, or prove, by not being 
shocked at it, that they have already sustained a 
decrease of sensitiveness through witnessing it. 
The costume considered necessary is, for the men, 
a covering of water, say about to the height of the 
knees. Nothing can be more natural. There is 
even something picturesque and poetic about this 
manner of veiling nudity, but its insufficiency is 
obvious when we reflect what a small proportion it 
bears to the amount of covering exacted in ordinary 



453 



SWIMMING FOR LADIES. 



life by recognised notions of propriety, and re- 
member numbers of ladies are always promenading 
the beach, and sitting in the dwelling-houses close 
to the bathing-places. 

"The female Briton when bathing has a slight 
advantage over the male as far as civilized notions 
of propriety go, inasmuch as she generally wears a 
chemise or shirt of blue flannel, open at the chest 
and tied round the neck. It reaches a little below 
the knee, and is just long enough to make swim- 
ming impossible, but by no means adapted, either 
in size or shape, to effectually answer the require- 
ments of decency. On this point I will not dwell, 
however, further than to say that if ladies believe 
that their system of bathing renders them greatly 
less than men objects for the inspection of the 
improperly curious, they are much mistaken. I do 
not care to notice the argument that if people 
behaved properly they would not stare. It suffices 
that people do stare, and that a certain proportion 
of people always will stare. What is required, 
therefore, is a system by which the temptation to 
gaze can be removed, or by which gazing can be 
rendered innocuous, or even invited, by tasteful 
dressing, without any reproach whatever. 

" Contrast with all this the scene that may be 
witnessed at Biarritz, and you will be possessed 
with my plan ; for I desire nothing better than the 
substitution of the pleasant and comrne il faut 
bathing-habits worn at this place, the favourite 
resort of the best society. 

" To my intense surprise I saw, when I first 
visited Biarritz, gentlemen walking down to the 
water with their wives on their arms, and their 
daughters following them. All were dressed in a 
seemly yet convenient fashion. The men wear 



454 



THE ART OF SWTMMING. 



simply loose, baggy trousers, and a skirted Gari- 
baldi of the same or corresponding material. 

"The ladies wear what may be described as a 
simple Bloomer costume, consisting of jackets 
shaped variously according to taste, and loose 
trousers reaching to the ankle. The dress is com- 
pleted by list slippers, to protect the feet from the 
shingle, and a straw hat, neatly trimmed, to protect 
the fair wearer's complexion. 

" The complete decency of the costume was 
sufficiently evidenced by the fact that ladies and 
gentlemen walked about together in it, and still 
more by the fact that on the part of the ladies the 
dresses were trimmed in such a way as to add 
materially to their comeliness, and to prove beyond 
doubt that they were meant to be looked at just as 
bonnets and paletots are. 

" Dressed in this sensible manner, all the nervous- 
ness and awkwardness of English bathers are lost. 
All is buoyancy and ease. The simplicity and 
convenience of the method for bathing influence the 
manners of the beach, and instead of the leering and 
mock modesty which offends the critic on manners at 
an English watering-place, the extreme social felicity 
of seeing and being seen is enjoyed each day with 
as much gusto as if every day were a fete, and as 
if the company on the sands constituted one con- 
tinuous conversazione. 

" People walk about among their friends before 
bathing and after bathing with the greatest ease 
and freedom, engaging in conversation, lounging, 
refreshing themselves, reading — in short, doing every- 
thing that people do at our watering-places, with this 
grand difference, that it can all be done in the bathing- 
dress, and that the bathing, instead of being an un- 
pleasant furtive parenthesis in the day, when nobody 



45 5 



SWIMMING FOR LADIES. 



likes to be seen, and everybody hopes not to be 
missed, is freely partaken of in company, and be- 
comes the means of much enjoyment and social plea- 
sure. I maintain that, if once the difficulty of novelty 
was surmounted, the introduction of this elegant, 
cheerful, and sensible French custom would greatly 
increase the pleasure taken in bathing, and would 
vastly increase the number of bathers and the fre- 
quency with which they can bathe. The present 
system is bad enough, we all know, for a man, and 
it must be much worse for a woman — so much worse 
that most ladies must have some difficulty in over- 
coming their diffidence sufficiently to bathe, and 
many of the more timid order must be entirely pre- 
vented from doing so. 

"Could families bathe together in England as 
under this system which I am advocating they do 
abroad, I am sure they would find a great addition 
to the delight derivable from a sea-side holiday; they 
would avoid that miserable separation in the early 
morning which makes such a hiatus in the day, 
and turns what ought to be a pleasure into a 
chilling and odious necessity; and they would 
cease to make spectacles of themselves for the 
random or systematic curiosity of gazers from the 
beach or from the neighbouring houses." 




456 



THE ART OF SWIMMING 




j[LEANLINESS, obtained in whatever way, 
keeps open the pores of the skin, and 
allows of the escape of the insensible 
perspiration, which is thrown off in great 
quantities, and the free egress of which is of the 
utmost importance to the health of the system. 
* The tonic and reviving qualities of cold water 
are of the most remarkable character. How won- 
derfully refreshing it is to bathe merely the face 
and hands in this element ! 

On first plunging into cold water there comes a 
shock, which drives the blood to the central parts 
of the system. But immediately a reaction takes 
place, which is assisted by the exercise of swimming, 
producing, even in water of a low temperature, an 
agreeable warmth. The stay in the water should 
never be voluntarily prolonged beyond the period 
of this excitement. If the water be left while this 
warmth continues, and the body dried, the healthy 
glow over the whole surface will be delightful. 

To remain in the water after the first reaction is 
over produces a prolonged chilliness, a shrinking 
of the flesh, and a contraction of the skin, by no 
means favourable to health or enjoyment; for it is 
only in water thoroughly warmed by the summer 
heats that we may bathe for any great length of 
time with impunity. 

The sea is the best place for swimming. Owing to 
the greater specific gravity of salt water than fresh, the 
body is more buoyant in it, as are other substances. 
A ship coming out of salt water into fresh sinks 



457 



CONCLUSION. 



perceptibly in the water. The difference is nearly 
equal to the weight of the salt held in solution. 

Whenever you can, select a bottom of hard sand, 
gravel, or smooth stones. Sharp stones and shells 
cut the feet — weeds may entangle them. The 
swimmer must avoid floating grass and quicksand. 
The beginner must be careful that the water does 
not run beyond his depth, and that the current does 
not carry him into a deeper place, also that there 
be no holes in the bottom. As persons are always 
liable to accidents, cramps, &c., it is desirable that 
boys or girls should be accompanied by those who 
are older than themselves, and who will be able 
to save them in any emergency. 

Here I conclude. I have had great pleasure in 
writing these pages, because they bring me into 
friendly relation with thousands of readers, to whom, 
in my humble way, I trust I shall prove useful. 
Nor have my pupils themselves, I hope, been with- 
out benefit from these my first written instructions 
in the Art of Swimming. 




458 




BILLIARDS 

FOR BEGINNERS. 

CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCES ALL THE REST. 

AM by no means satisfied with the manner in 
which Elementary Books are usually written. They 
either presume that the reader knows everything 
U and only wants reminding of a few doubtful or ill- 
remembered points, or that he knows nothing and 
has to learn the very alphabet of the art or science he wishes 
to acquire. In this Handbook I give the reader credit for a 
certain acquaintance with the game of which it treats, while 
I by no means presume to believe that he is clever enough to 
do without my teaching. 

Well, then, it is nearly unnecessary to state that the game 
of Billiards in England is played upon a slate-topped table, 
covered with fine green cloth, and provided with elastic 
cushions and six pockets ; that the whole art and mystery of 
the game consists in forcing ivory balls into these pockets, or 
against these cushions or each other, in such a way as to make 
hazards and canons ; that the instrument with which the 
game is played is a leather-topped cue ; that in certain 
positions a rest, longer or shorter as the case may be, is 
needed ; or that the table is distinguished by certain lines, 
semicircles, and spots, to regulate the several games played 
upon it. All this, and much more of the mere alphabet of 
this excellent game, the beginner will acquire on his very first 
visit to a billiard-room. Of the History of Billiards I need 
in this treatise to say nothing. 

But there are still a few necessary instructions that cannot 
be omitted in a book professedly written for Beginners. First, 
then, I must make them acquainted with the — 



459 



BILLIARDS. 



Technical Terms 

USED IN THE VARIOUS GAMES. 

White Ball. — The plain white ivory ball used in all the ordinary 
Billiard games. The regular billiard ball is two inches and an eighth in 
circumference. 

Spot (or Spot-ball). — The white ball with a black spot inserted in order 
to distinguish it from the white ball. 

Red Ball. — The third ball with which the ordinary Winning, Losing, 
and Canon game is played ; always coloured red. 

Players (or Striker's) Ball. — The ball with which the striker plays. 

Object-ball. — The ball immediately aimed at, or struck by the player's 
ball — the ball played upon. 

Miss. — A ball which fails to strike the object-ball is termed a "miss." 
When a miss is purposely given, the stroke may be made either with the 
point or butt end of the cue, or with the butt itself. 

Coup. — A stroke in which the player's ball runs into a pocket without 
striking another ball. 

Cue.— The leather-topped stick with which the ball is struck. The 
mace, or hammer-headed cue, is now seldom used, even by ladies. 

Butt. — A heavy cue with a broad base or butt, used for pushing the 
playing ball in certain situations ; as when it is necessary to play from the 
baulk half-circle to the top of the table in order to strike a ball in baulk. 

Baulk, Baulk-line, and Baulk-circle. — The lines drawn at the bottom 
of the table, from which the players start. In Baulk is a ball within 
the baulk-line, and which cannot be played by the player whose ball is 
in hand : the semicircle described within the baulk-line. 

Breaking the Balls. — This is the striking the red ball at the com- 
mencement of the game, or at such times as the rules demand ; as, for 
instance, after a foul stroke ; or when the player's ball touches that of his 
adversary. In this last case the player must make a stroke, by running 
into a pocket or making a canon. Failing to do either of these, the game 
proceeds without the balls being broken. 

A Break.— As many points as a player can make by a succession of 
strokes, whether hazards or canons, is termed a " break." At any inter- 
mission in the act of continuous scoring, the other player goes in and 
scores as many as he can. A break of fifteen is considered good. Cooke, 
Bennett, and other fine players, often make breaks of over a hundred 
points. I have frequently scored the fifty game right off a single break ; 
and once in an American game I scored three hundred and ninety-five. 

In Hand.— A ball is said to be " in hand " when it is off the table and 
in possession of the player, by reason of its having been pocketed. > 

Hazard. — All strokes are properly hazards, but the term is only 
applied to a stroke in which one of the balls is played into a pocket. 
The Winning Hazard is one in which the object-ball is struck by the 
player's ball and pocketed ; the Losing Hazard is made by the player's 
ball running into a pocket after contact with the object-ball. 

Canon (or Carambole). — A canon is made by the player's^ ball striking 
the ball he plays at or upon, and then glancing off and striking the other 
ball. By this it will be understood that no canon can be made with fewer 
than three balls. 

Angles of the Table. — The line of direction taken by the ball after 
striking a cushion forms an angle with the cushion nearly equal to the 
angle which the original line of direction given to the ball by the cue 
makes with the cushion. Hence the axiom that the angle of reflection 
equals the angle of incidence. {See page 42.) 



46O 



— — — -' ' .» • 

TECHNICAL TERMS. 



The Bridge.— The. bridge is foamed by raising the knuckles of the 
left hand and extending the thumb, in order that between the thumb and 
forefinger, when the hand is placed on the table, a proper rest may be 
made for the cue. If the hand be hot, the forefinger and thumb should 
be chalked, in order that the cue may slide easily and pleasantly between 
them. Some players chalk the cue ; but that is not so well. The cue 
should be dry and smooth, but no part except the leather tip requires 
chalking. 

Game. — The winning, and consequent losing by the other side, of the 
game, according to the number of points played. 

Cramp Games are those in which a player gives his opponent some 
especial advantage, as twenty points out of fifty ; four pockets to one ; 
canons and hazards against canons ; two strokes to one ; both sides of 
the table against one, &c. These are commonly played for stakes by a 
first-rate against a beginner, and are therefore of little interest to the 
latter. Caveat emtor. 

Stroke. — Every impetus given to a ball by the cue of the player is 
called a stroke. 

Foul Stroke. — A stroke not recognised by the rules of the game. The 
most common foul strokes are the touching of a ball with the hand or 
person after it has been struck with the cue, or during the time it is 
rolling ; playing with the wrong ball ; failing to play the ball struck more 
than two inches from its starting -place ; playing the cue over the top of 
the ball struck at ; playing improperly out of baulk, and touching an 
opponent's ball. For all these there are various penalties, according to 
the rules of the particular games. 

Doubles, ©r Doublets, are strokes made by striking the player's ball 
against the object-ball in such a way as to cause one or the other of them 
to rebound from the cushion into a pocket. Doublets across the table are 
among the most scientific of strokes, for they depend upon an accurate 
calculation of the line of reflection after the first incidence of the ball 
struck. The Double-double is a third or fourth rebound of the ball. 

Bricole. — A doublet in which the cushion is first struck in order that a 
canon or hazard may result from the rebound of the ball. 

High Stroke. — A stroke with the point of the cue above the centre of 
the ball played on. 

Low Stroke. — A stroke below the centre. When accompanied by a 
sudden draw-back motion of the striker's hand, the low stroke becomes a 
Screw or Twist. The effect is to cause the player's ball to stop at or near 
its place, or return to the point of the cue. 

Centre Stroke. — A stroke directly in the centre of the player's ball. 

Side Stroke. — A stroke made more or less on one or other side of the 
player's ball. Its effect is to cause the ball to diverge from the direct 
line of progression towards the side on which it has been struck. 

Following Stroke. — A high pushing stroke, made by allowing the cue 
to follow after the ball, and causing both balls to roll in the same line. 

Full Stroke. — A stroke in which the centre of the player's ball is made 
to strike full in the centre of the object-ball. 

Slow Stroke. — This is a sort of slow twist or screw, by hitting the ball 
rather below the centre with a decided but slow draw-back motion. 

Stringing for the Lead.— The players strike a ball from baulk to the 
top cushion, and the ball which, on its return, stops nearest to the bottom 
cushion wins the choice of lead. If one ball strike the other, the string 
must be made again. As the first player in Billiards can only play at a 
single ball, the red, the advantage lies with the second player ; for either 
the red is moved from the spot, or the position of the white after the 
stroke may leave an easy canon. It is an old saying that with three 



46l 



BILLIARDS. 



balls on the table there are seven chances of scoring— six pockets and a 
canon. Verbunt sap. ' 

The Pair of Breeches — is when with a single stroke you make a double 
hazard in the top pockets, one ball in each. It is made by striking a full 
ball in such a way as to cause each ball to diverge at equivalent angles 
from about the centre of the table, the striker's ball being in or near the 
baulk. 

The Jenny.— A most useful stroke, made by a losing hazard in a centre 
pocket from an object-ball a few inches from the cushion. 

The Spot. — The place for the red ball, at the top end of the table. 
There is also the Middle Spot in the centre of the table, and three spots 
on the baulk-line, one in the middle and one at each end of the semicircle. 
It is not necessary that I should trouble you with the exact positions of 
these spots, as on every table they will be properly placed. 

Angled.— A ball is said to be "angled " when it is so placed in a corner 
that the striker cannot hit the object-ball. In such case the striker 
usually gives a miss, or plays bricole on to the ball he wants to hit. (See 
Rules for Pool.) 

Top of the Table.— The top end is opposite the baulk. 

The strokes above mentioned are of course capable of a 
large number of variations, according to the precise point of 
impact between the two balls^ All this we shall see by- 
and-by. 

It is usual with writers on the game — and, by the way, 
there are very few writers who are likewise players, and 
vice versa — to give diagrams of these several strokes ; but I 
have generally found that a little actual practice with the cue 
and balls, when accompanied by intelligible directions, is far 
better than written descriptions. Billiards is not like chess, 
or draughts, or whist, which may, indeed, be thoroughly 
taught by books ; for, to become a good billiard -player, 
actual practice on a good table is absolutely necessary. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE VARIOUS GAMES. 

HE several games played on the billiard- table I 
shall now describe. They are all, however, modi- 
fications of the Winning, Losing, and Canon game ; 
and, whether known as the English game, the 
French game, the American game, Pool, Pyramids, 
Skittles, the Go-back game, or Penny Pot, they all depend 
on, and are governed by, certain well-defined principles ; the 
object in each and all being to drive certain balls into the 




462 



THE VARIOUS GAMES. 



pockets, to make the strokes called canons, or to combine — 
as in the English game — winning and losing hazards and 
canons, each stroke counting a certain number of points ; the 
player or players who first accomplish the end desired winning 
the game. Many of the foreign games are played with large 
balls on a small table without pockets ; but as these are all 
inferior to the English game, and as the English game is the 
game which is most fashionable in every country to which 
Englishmen resort, I shall bestow more attention on our home 
pastime than on the Billiards of exotic cultivation. 

The Winning, Losing, and Canon Game. 

The regular game of Billiards — Billiards par excellence — is 
the Winning, Losing, and Canon Game. It is played by two 
players, with three balls ; or by four players — two and two, 
side against side. The rules for a single match or a four 
match are precisely the same, only that in the latter the player 
may instruct his partner. The game is usually played 
" fifty up " — that is, fifty points, scored thus : for every canon, 
two points ; for every white winning or losing hazard, two 
points ; for every red winning or losing hazard, three points : 
for every miss, one point ; and for every coup, three points. 

In a two-handed match each player has a white ball, the 
white and the spot-white. The red ball is placed on the spot, 
and the player who leads off either strikes it with his own 
ball, or gives a miss either in baulk or at any part of the table 
he chooses. The player continues to play as long as* he can 
score, and then his adversary does likewise. The game is 
scored on a properly constructed marking-board. At public 
tables an attendant, called the "marker," is always present to 
score the game, and decide disputes when called on by the 
players. The following rules were supplied to me by Messrs. 
Thurston and Co., of Catherine Street, Strand, billiard -table 
makers to the Queen and Prince of Wales. 

The remarks within brackets are my own, and are inserted 
for the guidance of beginners. 

Billiards may be played for any number of points — fifty 
generally ; twenty-one up, twenty-four, fifty, or a hundred 
being common numbers. Matches are played two, three, or 
five hundred up, and occasionally a thousand, or even two 
thousand, according to previous agreement between the 
players. When points are given they are marked on the 
board at the commencement of the game. 



463 



Rules of the Winning, Losing, and Canon Game. 

i. The game commences by stringing for the lead and choice of the 
balls, as in the White Winning Game. 

[The receiver of points generally leads off ; but this is not absolute, as 
the points are given to equalize the game. On commencing a 
second game, the winner of the previous game leads off.] 

2. The red ball must be placed on the upper of the two spots at the 
top of the table, and replaced there when it is pocketed or forced over 
the edge of the table, or when the balls are broken. 

[Breaking the balls is placing them as at the commencement of the 
game. Holing and pocketing are synonymous terms.] 

3. The player who breaks the balls leads off, unless when they are 
broken by mutual consent, in which case the lead should be stipulated for, 
or strung for. 

4. If a player make a stroke in a game, he must finish that game ; other- 
wise he loses it. 

5. If the striker make any points, he continues his game until he ceases 
to make points. 

6. If,_when the cue is pointed, the ball should be moved without the 
striker intending to strike, it must be replaced ; and if not replaced before 
the stroke be played, the adversary may claim it as a foul stroke. 

[If the ball be moved a couple of inches, it is reckoned as a stroke.] 

7. If a ball spring from the table, and strike one of the players or a 
by-stander, so as to prevent its falling on the floor, it must be considered 
as off the table. 

[Contrary to the practice of some clubs.] 

8. If a ball run so near the brink of a pocket as to stand there, and 
afterwards fall in, it must be replaced, and played at, or with, as the case 
may be. 

[There is no necessity for "challenging" a ball as in Bagatelle. The 
marker or umpire must decide whether the ball has stood still or 
not. This and the preceding rule apply to slow wooden tables 
rather than to the fast slate ones now in use.] 

9. If (as it may sometimes happen) a ball be spinning on the brink of a 
pocket, and although stationary for a time, afterwards fall in, in that 
case the hazard is scored, if the motion be not gone out of the ball at the 
time it falls into the pocket. 

[This must be decided by the marker, against whose decision no gentle- 
man player ever appeals.] 

10. If a ball lodge on the top of a cushion, it is considered as off the 
table. 

[This can scarcely happen on modern tables.] 

it. After the adversary's ball is off the table, and the two remaining 
balls are either upon the line, or within the stringing dots at the lower end 
of the table, where the white balls are originally placed in leading, it is 
called a baulk, and the striker, who is to play from the ring, must strike 
outside the baulk, so as to occasion his ball, in returning, to hit one of the 
balls in the baulk ; if he does not strike it, he loses one point. 

12. A Line-ball is when the centre of the ball is exactly on the line of 



464 



the baulk, in which case it is to be considered in the baulk, and cannot be 
played at except from a cushion out of the baulk. 

13. All misses to be given with the point of the cue, and the ball struck 
only once : if otherwise given the adversary may claim it as a foul stroke, 
and enforce the penalty, which is to make the striker play the stroke over 
again, or have the ball replaced where it was struck from the second 
time. 

14. A player cannot score if he makes a foul stroke. 

[It is a Foul if a striker move a ball in the act of striking ; or if he play 
with the wrong ball ; or if he touch his own ball twice in playing ; 
or if he strike a ball whilst it is running ; or if he touch another ball ; 
or if his feet are off ,the floor when playing. The penalty in all 
these cases is breaking the balls, and losing the lead. Enforcing the 
penalty for a foul stroke is entirely at the option of the adversary ; 
but it is best always to play the strict game.] 

15. If the adversary do not choose to enforce the penalty for a foul 
stroke, the striker may play on, and score all the points that he made by 
the foul stroke, which the marker is bound to score. 

16. If the striker hole the white ball (a white winning hazard), or if he 
hole his own. ball from the white ball (a white losing hazard), he gains two 
points ; if he does both, he gains four points. 

17. If the striker hole the red ball, he wins three points; and if by the 
same stroke he hole his own from the red, he wins three more. 

18. When the red ball is pocketed, or off the table, and the spot is 
occupied by the white ball, it must be placed in a corresponding situation 
at the other end of the table ; but if that should be occupied also by the 
other white ball, it must be placed in the centre of the table, immediately 
between the two middle pockets ; and wherever it is placed, there it must 
remain, until it be played at, or the game be over. 

[The usual custom is to place the red ball on the middle spot when the 
proper spot is covered ; and if the middle spot is also occupied, then 
the ball is placed on the centre baulk spot. ] 

19. If the striker play at the white ball first, make a canon, and pocket 
his own ball, he gains four points ; two for the canon, and two for the 
white losing hazard. 

20. If the striker play at the white ball first, and pocket his own ball 
and the red one, he gains five points. 

21. If the striker play at the white ball first, make a canon, and pocket 
the red and white balls, he gains seven points. 

22. If the striker play at the white ball first, make a canon, and at the 
same time pocket his own and his adversary's ball, he wins six points ; two 
for the canon, and two for each white hazard. 

23. If the striker play at the white ball first, and pocket all the balls 
without making a canon, he gains seven points. 

24. If the striker play at the white ball first, make a canon, and pocket 
all the balls, he gains nine points. 

25. If the striker play at the red ball first and pocket it, he gains three 
points ; if he pocket the red and his own ball, he gains six points. 

26. If the striker play at the red ball first, make a canon, and by the 
same stroke pocket his own ball, he gains five points ; two for the canon 
and three for the red losing hazard. 

27. If the striker play at the red ball first, make a canon, and pocket the 
red and the white ball, he gains seven points. 

28. If the striker play at the red ball first, make a canon, and at the 



465 



GG 



BILLIARDS. 



same time pocket his own and the red ball, he wins eight points ; two for 
the canon, three for the red losing, and three for the red winning hazard. 

29. If the striker play at the red ball first, and pocket his own and the 
white ball, without a canon, he gains five points. 

30. If the striker play at the red -ball first, and pocket all the balls, 
without a canon, he gains eight points. 

31. If the striker, by striking the red ball first, make a canon, and by 
the same stroke pocket his own and both the other balls, he gains ten 
points, the greatest number that can be gained by one stroke. 

[All the rules from 19 to 31 inclusive may be included in one general 
sentence ; namely, that for each canon two are scored ; for each 
white hazard, two; and for each red hazard, three.} 

32. If the striker, in taking aim, move his ball, so as to strike the ball 
he is playing at, without intending to strike it, it is a stroke, and must 
pass as such, 'unless the adversary choose to let him play the stroke over 
again. 

33. If a striker, in the act of striking, move his ball, it is a stroke. 

[Unless the ball be moved as in Rule 6.] 

34. If the striker miss the ball he intended to play at, he loses one 
point ; and if by the same stroke his own ball run into a pocket, he loses 
three points ; that is to say, his adversary scores so many points. 

[This last stroke is called a coup.} 

35. If the striker force his own or either of the other balls over the 
table, after having made a canon or a hazard, he gains nothing by the 
stroke, and his adversary plays on without breaking the balls. 

36. If the striker wilfully force his ball off the table without striking 
another ball, he loses three points ; but if the ball go over by accident, 
he loses one point only for the miss. 

[It is easy for any one to see whether a ball be purposely forced over the 
table. The marker and the company decide in cases of this sort.] 

37. If the striker play with the wrong ball, and a canon or hazard be 
made thereby, the adversary may have the balls broken ; but if nothing 
be made by the stroke, he (the adversary) may take his choice of balls 
the next stroke, and with the ball he chooses he must continue to play 
until the game is over. 

38. No by-stander or looker-on has a right to inform the adversary that 
the striker has played, or is about to play, with the wrong ball. 

39. No person, except the adversary, has a right to inform the striker 
that he is playing the wrong bail. 

[These two rules are simply the reverse of each other. ] 

40. If the adversary do not see the striker play with the wrong ball, 
or, seeing it, do not choose to enforce the penalty, the marker is bound 
to score all the points that may have been made by the stroke. 

41. If the striker's ball be in hand, and the red and the adversary's 
balls within the baulk, he (the striker) cannot play at them except from 
a cushion out of the baulk. 

[This is usually done by playing from the top cushion with the butt, or 
playing bricole from the cushion.] 

42. If the striker's ball be in hand, and the other two balls within the 
baulk, and should he, either by accident or design, strike one of them, 
without first playing out of the baulk, the adversary has the option of 
letting the balls remain as they are, and scoring a miss — of having the 



466 



THE ENGLISH GAME. 



ball so struck replaced in its original position, and scoring a miss — of 
making the striker play the stroke over again— or of making it a foul 
stroke, and breaking the balls. 

[The meaning of all this is that the penalty for a foul stroke may or 
may not be enforced by the adversary. Thurston's note to this rule 
is as follows : — " At first sight this would appear a harsh rule, with 
a heavy penalty annexed to it ; but perhaps the adverse party may 
have laid his plans with skill, and must not, therefore, have them 
unfairly frustrated with impunity. Besides, care must be taken 
that the adversary be not a sufferer by the unfair play or blunders 
of the striker."] 

43. If the striker's ball be in hand, he has no right to play at a cushion 
within the baulk, in order to strike a ball that is out of it. 

44. If the striker's ball be in hand, and he, in playing from the baulk, 
should move his ball in the act of striking, it is a stroke, although the 
ball should not go out of the baulk ; but the adversary may, if he choose, 
compel him to play the stroke over again. 

45. If the striker's ball be near the ball he plays at, and he play the 
stroke with the point of the cue, it is fair ; but if he play it with the butt 
end, the marker must decide whether it be foul or fair. 

[The principle which ought to govern the decision of the marker in such 
a case is this — namely, that the striker's butt must quit his ball before 
it comes in contact with the other ball. All strokes are fair that are 
made with the point of the cue.] 

46. If the striker's ball be on the brink of a pocket, and he, in the act 
of striking, miss the stroke, and, in drawing back his cue, knock his ball 
into the pocket, he loses three points, for a coup. 

47. If the striker, in giving a miss from the baulk, should let his ball 
remain in the baulk, without its having gone out, the adversary may 
either allow it to remain so, or compel him to play the stroke over again. 

48. If the striker, in giving a miss, should make a foul stroke, and his 
adversary claim it as such, and enforce the penalty, the miss is not scored. 

49. No person is allowed to take up a ball without permission of the 
adversary. 

[The taking up a ball while in the act of rolling is, in some clubs, made 
a penalty of three points ; in others the ball must be played over 
again.] 

50. If one of the players move, a ball by accident, it must be replaced 
to the satisfaction of the adversary. 

51. If, in the course of the game, a player take up a ball, supposing it 
to be in hand, the adversary may break the balls, or have them replaced 
to his own satisfaction. 

52. If the marker, or a by-stander, touch either of the balls, whether it 
be running or not, it must be placed as near as possible to the place it did 
occupy or would apparently have occupied. • . 

53. If, after the striker has made a canon or a hazard, he take up the 
ball, thinking the game is over, the adversary has the option of breaking 
the balls, or having them replaced. 

54. If, after the striker has made a miss or a coup, he take up a ball, 
supposing the game to be over, he loses the game. 

55. If, after the striker has made a miss or a coup, the adversary, 
thinking the game is over, take up a ball, he (the last striker) may have 
the balls replaced as they were, or break the balls 

56. If, after the striker has made a canon or hacard, the adversary, 



467 



BILLIARDS. 



thinking the game is over when it is not, take up a ball (whether running 
or not), he loses the game. 

[This, again, is a rule which varies in different clubs. ] 

57. If, after striking, the striker should obstruct or accelerate the 
running of the balls in any way, it is at the adversary's option to make it 
a foul stroke, and break the balls, or have them replaced. 

58. If, after the striker has played, the adversary should obstruct or 
accelerate the running of the balls in any way, he (the striker) may claim 
the right of breaking the balls, or having them placed to his own satis- 
faction. 

[No person has a right to offer advice to the players during the progress 
of the game. The note to this rule properly says, " But if a person 
be appealed to by one of the players, or by the marker, he has then 
a right to give an opinion, whether he be interested in the game or 
not ; and if a spectator sees the game marked wrong, he has a right 
to mention it, provided he does it in time for it to be rectified, but 
not afterwards." No person interested in the game, as a maker of 
bets or wagers, is allowed, under any circumstances, to interfere with 
its progress. It is the duty of the marker to put a stop to all such 
interference.] 

[No person is allowed to walk about the billiard-room during the game, 
make a noise, or otherwise annoy the players. It is expected that all 
persons in the room, whether they are playing or not, will conform 
to the foregoing rules, in so far as they relate to them respectively.] 

I have turned the last four rules, as given by Messrs. 
Thurston, into notes, as no rules can really be made for 
visitors or by-standers. But if they will interfere, then the 
marker must do his best for the comfort of the players. In 
all cases of doubt or difficulty the marker must decide, and 
when he is incapable of satisfying the players the opinion of 
the majority of the persons present must be taken. 

The Four-handed Game is played in precisely the same 
manner as the regular English game. There is, however, a 
variation allowed in the manner of playing it. Sometimes 
the four players take it in turns to play, each making as many 
as he can off his break ; and sometimes one partnerftremains 
a looker-on till the other is put out by a winning or losing 
hazard being made by one of the players on the opposite side. 
In either case the game proceeds till the score — usually 63 — 
is made by hazards, canons, misses, and penalties ; the side 
first making the required number, winning. 



The American Game. 

This game was introduced several years ago, and for a time 
was very popular. It consists entirely of winning hazards 
and canons. The game is commonly played sixty-two up, 



468 



THE AMERICAN GAME. 



but of course it may be played for any agreed number of 
points. The laws as to foul strokes, misses, and coups (except 
where stated otherwise in the rules) are the same as in the 
English game. 

Rules of the American Game. 

i. This game is played with four balls— two white, one dark red, and 
one light red. 

2. At the commencement of the game the dark red is placed on the 
spot in the centre of the upper half of the table, and the light red in a 
similar position at the baulk end, and is considered in baulk, consequently 
cannot be played at when the striker's ball is in hand. 

3. The baulk extends as far as the light red, and may be played from 
any part of the table within that line. 

4. String for the lead, the winner having choice. 

[The ball nearest to the top cushion, after rebounding from the bottom 
cushion, is always the first for choice of lead ] 

5. The player who leads must give a miss (which does not count) any- 
where behind the red ball, or, failing to leave it behind, has the option of 
putting it on the winning and losing spot at the end of the table. 

6. The opponent must then either play at the white ball or give a miss 
(which does not count) ; for, should he strike either of the reds, the adver- 
sary could either have it played over again, or score a miss, with the ad- 
vantage of the position of the balls. 

7. The game consists of canons and winning hazards. Losing hazards 
score against the player making them, either two or three, besides the loss 
of whatever he may have made 

8. If the player make two and lose his own ball, he loses two— that is, 
if he strike the white ball first ; but if he strike the red ball first, he loses 
three. 

9. The following is the manner in which the game is scored ; viz., 
canons, two, if made off the white on either of the red balls ; three, if off 
the two red balls; and five, off all. 

10. Hazards : two for the white, three for either of the reds, and eight if 
all are holed ; consequently it is possible to, make thirteen by one stroke. 

it. No stroke can be made if the stroke is foul ; if a foul stroke is 
made, the balls must remain as they have run, and not be broken and 
placed on the spots (as in the three-ball game) . the adversary takes 
advantage of whatever may be left, and goes on playing. 

12. In case the striker's ball touch another he cannot score. 

13. The red balls, when holed, must always be placed on their respective 
spots, where they are put at the beginning of the game ; but in case the 
spot happens to be occupied by another ball it must be held in hand till 
the balls are removed, and then spotted after the balls have done running. 

14. If the striker's ball go over the table after making a score, it counts 
against him, the same as the losing hazard. 

This game may be played with partners, four or six-handed, 
each player taking his stroke alternately. 

As a family game this is amusing,, for comparatively little 
skill is required to make canons with four balls on the table ; 
and it is easy to hole the red from the centre spot into either 
of the top or middle pockets. 



J 



469 



BILLIARDS. 



Garline (or Caroline). 

This is a Russian game, very similar in its character to the 
American game. It is played with three coloured balls — 
black, red, and blue — and two white balls ; and the game, 
usually forty, sixty-three, or one hundred and one up, is made 
entirely by winning hazards and canons. The rules as to 
misses and foul strokes are the same as in English Billiards. 
In commencing the game the red ball is placed on the 
winning spot at the top of the table, the black ball on the 
centre spot, and the blue ball on the baulk spot. The black 
ball is called the Carline, and when it is holed in either of the 
centre pockets it scores six ; lodged in either of the other 
pockets it loses six. The other coloured balls played into 
either of the corner pockets score three each ; but if played 
into the centre pockets they lose three. The white winning 
hazards score two, but white losing hazards lose two. Canons 
count in this way : from a white to a coloured ball, two points ; 
and from one coloured ball to another, three points. Suc- 
cessive canons count in like manner. Thus a canon from a 
white ball to the red (say), two , from the red to the blue, 
three ; and from the red to the black, three. And if any or all 
the balls, except the player's, be pocketed, the hazards are 
marked in addition to the canons. Thus it is possible to 
make twenty-three. Say you play at the Carline and pocket it, 
six; at the same strokes canoningon to the blue and pocketing 
it, six; then canoning on to the red and pocketing it, six ; and 
afterwards canoning- on to the white and pocketing it, five : =s 
twenty-three. But suppose — a most unlikely case, by the way 
— your own ball were then to run into a pocket, your adversary 
would score not only all you had made, but your losing 
hazard in addition ; in all, twenty-five. 

Carline is a very lively game, and may be played by two, 
four, or even six players ; the partners taking their turns 
alternately, and each player going on as long as he can score 
without failing to make a hazard or canon. This is one plan 
of playing Carline ; but there are other ways adopted in 
different parts of the country and by various players. The 
following are the rules published by Messrs. Thurston and ! 
Co. : — 

Laws of Carline. 

This game is played forty (or more) up. 
t. The balls used are two white ones, a red, a blue, and a yellow. The 
red ball is placed on the winning spot ; the blue on the centre of the baulk- 



l— 



470 



CARLINE. 



line, and is considered in baulk ; and the yellow in the centre of the table 
between the two middle pockets. 

2. The game is forty in number, and is scored by winning hazards and 
canons. 

3. The red ball may be pocketed in any pocket, and scores three ; the 
blue may be pocketed in any pocket, and scores four ; the adversary's 
ball may be pocketed in any pocket, and scores two ; the yellow ball can 
be pocketed in the middle pockets only, and scores six ; a canon scores 
two, but there is no following canon. 

4. After hazards there is a following stroke, the balls made being put 
back in their places. 

5. The striker in leading off, or when his ball is in hand, may play 
from any part of the baulk he pleases. 

6. In leading off, the striker must play his ball out of the baulk to any 
part of the table he chooses ; and the adversary must play his first 
stroke at the white ball. 

7. If the striker pocket his own ball off the blue, he loses four points — 
if off the yellow, he loses six — if off the red, he loses three — and off the 
white, two. 

8. The striker, by pocketing his own ball, loses all the points he would 
otherwise have gained by the stroke ; so that it would be possible for him 
to lose twenty-one points by one stoke ; that is, if he played at the 
yellow ball, made a canon, and pocketed all the balls. 

9. If the player in giving his lead touch one of the three balls, he loses 
one point ; if he touch two. he loses two points ; if he touch three, he 
loses three points, and the balls so moved must be replaced ; and it the 
striker's baU occupy the place of any of the three balls, he must take it 
up, and give the lead over again. 

10. If the striker force his own ball off the table after making a canon 
or hazard, he loses all the points he would otherwise have gained by 
the stroke. 

ix. If the player, in pocketing one of the three coloured balls, should 
take the place of the ball so pocketed, and one or both of the places of 
the other two coloured balls should be unoccupied, the ball made must 
be placed on the vacant spot which may be most distant from the ball of 
the player ; but if the other balls are on their own spots, he must play, 
and the ball previously held must be replaced immediately, so as to allow 
the possibility of scoring. 

12 If the striker force his adversary's ball over the table, he gains two 
points ; if the yellow, he gains six ; if the red, three ; if the blue, four. 

13. The striker in giving a miss from the baulk must pass the middle 
pocket. 

14. If any unforeseen case should arise, it must be determined by the 
rules of the ordinary game. 

The great art in playing Carline is to keep the balls before 
you, so as to make as many canons as you can ; and to make 
the winning hazards in such a way as to allow of a succession 
of hazards in one or other of the pockets. For instance, you 
play at the centre ball and hole it in the middle ; it is replaced, 
and, if you have kept well behind it, you hole it again and 
again — scoring six for each yellow winning hazard. The rule 
as to following canons—that is, canons made from the player's 
ball on to two other balls, and thence to a fourth or a fifth — 
must be determined previous to the commencement of the game. 



471 



BILLIARDS, 




CHAPTER III. 

WINDING HAZARD GAMES. 

Pool. 

OOL may be played by two or more players ; but a 
five or seven Pool is decidedly the best. The 
game consists entirely of winning hazards, each 
player playing on the one who preceded him. 
Pool is always played for a stake formed by equal 
contributions of all the players ; and he who holds out longest 
claims the whole ; or, if there be two players left at the end 
with equal chances of winning — an equal number of " lives" 
— the pool is divided between them. At starting, each player 
has three lives, every ball pocketed being termed a life. The 
white ball is placed on the winning spot, and the red plays at 
it. Failing to pocket the white, yellow plays upon red, and 
then blue upon yellow, and so on, according to the number 
of the players. When one of the company takes a life — that is, 
pockets a ball — he plays on the nearest ball to his own, when 
it has ceased to roll ; and if he take that, he plays on his 
nearest again ; and so on till he has made as many winning 
hazards as he can. The regular order of play is as follows, 
the marker calling each ball — "Red upon white, and 
yellow's your player, " &c. For every life lost, the loser pays 
a certain fixed sum to the taker of that life ; and if the striker 
miss a ball, he pays a life to him whose ball he played upon. 
Each player goes on in regular order, generally this : — 

The marker, having received each player's stake, puts the 
proper number of balls into the pool-basket, and gives them 
out one by one, without seeing them till they issue from the 
mouth of the basket, which is shaped like a bottle. Then 

The white ball is spotted, 
Red plays upon white, 
Yellow upon red, 
Blue upon yellow, 
Green upon blue, 
Brown upon green, 
Black upon brown, 
Spot; white upon black, 
White upon spot white, 
and so on, in accordance with the number of players 



472 



joining in the game. Each player makes his stroke, and 
endeavours to pocket his object-ball, or leave his own ball in 
such a position as renders it "safe"— that is to say at a 
distance from his own player or under a cushion. When all 
the lives but two are lost, the player who took the last life 
plays upon the remaining ball ; and, if he fail to pocket it, 
the stakes are divided between the survivors In most 
won* the charge for the table— usually two or three pence a 
ball— is deducted before the stakes are paid over to the 
winners. When the last two players have an unequal number 
of lives, they play on till either one or the other wins the game, 
or equalizes the lives, by pocketing a ball or giving a miss. 
The first player who loses all his lives can "star"— that is, 
pay into the common fund a sum equal to his original stake* 
and have a number of lives equal to that of the lowest in the 
game. Thus, if the lowest be one, he has one life ; two, two 
lives, &c. Poor players may come in with four or five lives, 
but they divide the pool with two or three lives against the 
one held by an ordinary player. 

The following are the rules observed in all the best clubs 
and billiard-rooms ; — 

Rules of Pool. 

i. When coloured balls are used, the players play progressively, as the 
colours are placed on the marking-board, the top colour being No. i. 

2. Each player has three lives at starting. No. i places his bali on the 
winning and losing spot ; No. 2 plays at No. x, No. 3 at No. 2 and so 
on ; each person playing at the last ball ; unless it should be 'in hand 
then the player plays at the nearest ball. ' 

3. If the striker lose a life in any way, the next player plays at the 
nearest ball to his own ; but if his (the player's) ball be in hand, he plays 
at the nearest ball to the centre of the baulk-line, whether in or out of 
baulk. 

4. Should a doubt arise respecting the distance of balls, it must (if at 
the commencement of the game, or if the player's ball be in hand) be 
measured from the centre spot in the circle ; but if the striker's ball be 
not in hand, the measurement must be made from his ball to the others 
and in both cases it must be decided by the marker, or by the majority 
of the company ; but should the distance be equal, then the parties must 
draw lots for the ball to be played at. 

5. The baulk is no protection to Pool under any circumstances. 

6. The player may lose a life by any one of the following means : by 
pocketing his own ball ; by running a coup ; by missing a ball ; by 
forcing a ball off the table ; by playing with the wrong ball ; by playing 
at the wrong ball ; or by playing out of his turn. 

7. Should the striker pocket the ball he plays at, and by the same 
stroke pocket his own, or force it over the table, he loses the life, and not 
the person whose ball he pocketed. 

8. Should the player play with or strike the wrong ball, he pays the 



473 



same forfeit to the person whose ball he should have played at as he 
would have dons- if he had pocketed his own ball. 

9. If the striker miss the ball he ought to play at, and strike another 
ball, and 1 pocket it, he loses a life, and not the person whose ball he 
pocketed ; in which case the striker's ball must be taken off the table, 
and both balls remain in hand until it be their turn to play. If the 
striker, when in hand, play with a ball on the table, he also loses a life, 
and the ball is replaced. 

10. If the striker, whilst taking his aim, inquire which is the ball he 
ought to play at, and is misinformed by any one of the company or 
by the marker, he does not lose a life ; the ball must, in this case, be 
replaced, and the stroke played again. 

11. If information is required by the player, as to which is his ball, or 
when it is his turn to play, he has a right to an answer from the marker 
or from the players. 

12. When a ball or balls touch the striker's ball, or are in line between 
it and the ball he has to play at, so that it will prevent him hitting any 
J>art of the object-ball, they must be taken up until the stroke be played ; 
and after the balls have ceased running they must be replaced. 

[Thus if a ball be angled, its player may have any, or all, the balls but his 
own and the one he plays upon removed from the table. In some 
clubs an angled ball may be taken out of the corner and played 
from a little distance from the pocket, but its player cannot take a 
life with the stroke.] 

13. If a ball or balls <*re in the way of a striker's cue, so that he cannot 
play at his ball, he can have them taken up. 

14. When the striker takes a life he continues to play on as long as 
he can make a hazard, or until the balls are all off the table ; in which 
latter case he places his ball on the spot as at the commencement. 

15. The first person who loses his three lives is entitled to purchase, or, 
as it is called, to star (that being the mark placed against his lives on the 
board to denote that he has purchased), by paying into the pool the same 
sum as at the commencement, for which he receives lives equal in number 
to the lawest number of lives on the board. 

m 16. If the first person out refuses to star, the second person may do it ; 
if the second refuses, the third may do it ; and so on, until only two' 
persons are left in the pook in which case the privilege of starring ceases. 

17. Only one star is allowed in a pool. 

[The star is shown on the marking-board. J 

18. If the striker move his or another ball, while in the act of striking 
his own ball, the stroke is considered foul ; and if by the same stroke he 
pocket a ball, or force it off the table, the owner of that ball does not lose 
a life, and the ball must be placed on the original spot ; but if by that 
stroke he should pocket his own ball, or force it off the table, he loses a 
life. 

# 19. If the striker's ball touch the one he has to play at, he is at liberty 
either to play at it, or at any other ball on the table, and it is not to be 
considered a foul stroke ; in which case, however, the striker is liable to 
lose a life by going into a pocket or over the table. 

20. After making a hazard, if the striker take up his ball, or stop it 
before it has done running, he cannot claim the life from the person 
whose ball was pocketed, it being possible that his own ball might have 
gone into a pocket if he had not stopped it. 

21. If, before a star, two or more balls are pocketed, by the same 
stroke, including the ball played at, each having one life, the owner of 



474 



the ball first struck has the option of starring ; but should he refuse and 
more than one remain, the player to whom they belong must draw lots 
for the star. 

22. Should the striker's ball stop on the spot of a ball removed, the 
ball which has been removed must remain in hand until the spot is 
unoccupied, and then be replaced. 

23. Should the striker's ball miss the ball played at, no person is allowed 
to stop the ball till it has ceased running or struck another ball, except 
the striker (or owner of the ball), who may stop the ball when he pleases 

24. If the striker should have his next player's ball removed, and stop 
on the spot it occupied, the next player must give a miss from the baulk 
to any part of the table he thinks proper ; for which miss he does not 
lose a life. 

25. If the striker has a ball removed, and any other than the next 
player's ball should stop on the spot it occupied, the ball removed must 
remain in hand till the one on its place be played, unless it should happen 
to be the turn of the one removed to play before the one on its place ; in 
which case that ball must give place to the one originally taken up • 
after which it may be replaced. 

26. If the corner of the cushion should prevent the striker from playing 
in a direct line, he can have any ball removed for the purpose of playing 
at a cushion first. 

[See note about angled balls. "Any" in this case, as in others, means 
"all" but the striker's ball and the object-ball, if the player think 
fit.] 

27. The last two players cannot star or purchase ; but they may divide, 
if they are left with an equal number of lives each ; the striker, however' 
is entitled to his stroke before the division. 

[When three players, with a life each, remain in a pool, and one gives 
a miss, the others divide without a stroke. This regulation is 
obviously fair, as it would otherwise be in the power of an unfair 
player to miss a ball and give his friend an improper chance of 
taking its whole pool.] 

28. All disputes to be decided by a majority of the players. 

29. The charge for the play to be taken out of the pool before the 
stakes are given up to the winner or winners. 

Safe play is the grand secret of good Pool. Never attempt 
to take a life without well considering where your player is, 
and where your own ball should, or be likely to, stop. Pool, 
for small stakes, is a capital game, but if indulged in too often 
your pocket must suffer, no matter how well you play. 

In the game called the Nearest Ball Pool all the laws of 
regular Pool are observed, with the following modifications: — 

In this Pool the players always play at the nearest ball out 
of the baulk ; for here the baulk is a protection. 

1. If all the balls be in the baulk, and the striker's ball in hand, he must 
lead to the top cushion, or place the ball on the winning and losing spot. 

2. If the striker's ball be within the baulk-line, and he has to play at a 
ball out of the baulk, he is allowed to have any ball taken up that may 
chance to He in his way. 

3. If all the batfs/(the striker's included) be within the baulk, and the 
striker's ball not in hand, he plays at the nearest ball. 



475 



BILLIARDS, 



Another way to play at Pool is to have only two balls, 
the players taking it in turns, and playing alternately at the 
object-ball, or taking their choice of balls. This is a slow 
game. 



Pyramids. 

Pyramids is a good game for two or four players — best -for 
two. It is played with fifteen or sixteen balls, either white 
or coloured, arranged in a pyramid, thus : — 

ooooo 

oooo 

ooo 

oo 

o 

Or thus :— 

o 

ooooo 

oooo 

ooo 

oo 

o 

The players have a white or coloured ball, sufficiently 
distinguished from the rest, with which they both play. 
The sole object of the game is to pocket the pyramid balls, 
and the player who takes the last ball wins. When sixteen 
balls form the pyramid, the last ball counts two ; the player 
who takes the last ball but one retains the original playing 
ball, and his adversary plays with the coloured ball. 
Pyramids is generally played for a certain stake on the 
game, and so much for each life or winning hazard. The 
proportion between the pool and the lives is generally one 
of the latter to three of the former — one-shilling lives and 
three-shilling pool, &c. The player who makes a winning 
hazard plays on as long as he can score. When he fails to 
pocket a ball, his adversary goes, and so on alternately, till 
all the balls but two are pocketed. Then the taker of the 
last life is the winner of the game. The player loses a life by 
making a miss or pocketing his own ball. Foul strokes are 
the same as in Billiards ; and if the player touch any ball 
other than his own with his cue, or any of the pyramid balls 
with his hand, cue, or any part of his dress, he makes a foul 
stroke, and cannot at that stroke take a life. Pyramids is a 



476 



PYRAMIDS. 



very fashionable game, but great practice is necessary in order 
to succeed at it. ** 

Laws of Pyramids. 

i. This game may be played with any number of balls, but it is gene- 
rally played with sixteen ; viz., fifteen red, and one white. 

2. At the commencement the coloured balls are to be placed on the 
table in form of a triangle, the first ball to stand on the winning spot, 
which will form the point of the triangle nearest to the centre of the table. 

3. If more than two persons play and the number is odd, each must 
play alternately ; the rotation to be decided by stringing. The player 
holding the greater number of balls to receive from each of the others 
(a certain sum per ball having been agreed upon) the difference between 
their number and his. 

4. If the number of players be even, they may form sides, when the 
partners may play alternately, or go out upon a hazard, miss, &c, being 
made, as may be previously agreed upon. 

5. The players to string for the choice of lead— the leader to place his 
ball (the white) within the semicircle at the baulk, and to play at the 
coloured balls. 

6. The next player plays with the white ball from the spot on which it 
was left by his opponent, unless it should be off the table ; in which case 
he plays from the baulk as at the commencement. 

7. None but winning hazards can be made, and the same rules are gene- 
rally to be observed as at common Pool. 

8. The player .who pockets the greatest number of balls wins the game 

9. If the player give a miss, pocket the white ball, or force it over the 
table, he loses one ; that is to say, he must place one of the coloured balls 
which he has pocketed on the winning spot, if unoccupied ; if not, it must 
be placed in a direct line behind it. 

1.0. If the striker hole his own ball, or force it over the table, and at the 
same time pocket one or more of the coloured balls, or force them over 
the table, he gains nothing by the stroke; the coloured balls so removed 
must be replaced on the table, together with one of the striker's coloured 
balls as a penalty. 

11. Should the striker losing a ball not have taken one, the first he hole? 
must be placed on the table, as in Rule 9 ; should he not take one during 
the game, he must pay, for each ball so forfeited, as much as he is playing 
for per ball. 

12. If the white ball touch a coloured one, the player may score all the 
coloured balls he pockets — he cannot give a rriiss. 

13. Should the striker move any ball in taking aim or striking, he loses 
all he might otherwise have gained by the stroke. 

14. If the striker force one or more of the coloured balls over the table, 
he scores one for each, the same as if he had pocketed them. 

[Unless (in some rooms) the ball be purposely forced over the table.] 

15. If the game be played with an even number of balls, the last hazard 
counts but one ; if with an odd number, it counts two. 

16. When all the coloured balls but one are pocketed, the player who 
made the last hazard continues to play with the white ball, and his oppo- 
nent with the red, alternately, as at Single Pool. 

17. When only two balls are on the table, and two persons, playing, 
should the striker hole the ball he is playing with, or make a miss, the 
game is finished ; if there are more than two players, and they not partners, 
the striker places a ball on the spot as in Rule 9. 



477 



BILLIARDS. 



The Losing Pyramids is the reverse of the above ; only 
losing hazards counting towards the game, and a ball being 
taken from the board for every losing hazard that is made by 
either player. Winning hazards count against the player. 

Pyramid Pool, or Shell-out. 

The following are the rules for this game, which is simply 
Pyramids played for a stake, to which all contribute, won by 
the best player, or divided between the holders of the last 
equal lives. In the game known as Shell-out the winner of 
each hazard takes a stake from the holder of the ball pocketed, 
and pays to the holder of the ball played upon for every losing 
hazard. It is a lively and interesting game. 

i. This game is played with fifteen balls; viz., fourteen red, and one 
white. 

2. At the commencement the balls are placed on the table in the shape of 
a triangle, the first ball to stand on the winning-spot, as in Rule 2, Pyramid 
game. The middle ball in the last row (which must always be the white 
ball) must be taken out, and played with, from the baulk. 

3. No. 1 plays from the baulk ; if he make a winning hazard, he con- 
tinues to play on till he has done scoring : but if he pocket his own ball, 
or force it off the table, and by the same stroke pocket any or either of 
the other balls, the ball or balls so pocketed are placed on the table, on 
the winning-spot, or, if occupied, as near to it as possible ? in a line with 
the centre of the table ; and the first ball he takes during the game s 
forfeited and placed also on the winning-spot. No. 2 then plays on. 

4. A player loses a ball by pocketing the ball he plays with, by forcing 
it over the table, by missing all the balls, by playing with the wrong ball, 
or out of his turn ; in either case he pays one ball to the person who played 
before him, one is taken from his score, and the next player proceeds. 

5. When only two balls are left on the table the game becomes Single 
Pool, and he who takes the last ball wins the Pool. 

Rules 3, 4, 6, 11, 12, 13, and 14 in the Pyramid game are to be observed 
also at Pyramid Pool. 



Single Pool. 

This rather slow game is played by two persons, for a stake 
on the Pool and so much on eaph of three Lives. It is played 
with two balls, and the sole object of the player is to pocket 
his opponent. The striker who first succeeds in taking all his 
adversary's lives wins the pool. The great art in this game is 
so to play your ball as to leave it far away and safe from the 
ball of the other player. As a means of practice for regular 
Pool it is not, however, without its merits. The Rules 
regarding misses, losing hazards, foul strokes, &c, are the 
same as in Pool. 



478 



SKITTLE POOL. 




CHAPTER IV. 

SKITTLE POOL AND MINOR GAMES. 

VERY amusing variety of Pool was introduced 
into London, I know not by whom, some few 
years ago, and for a time Skittle Pool was highly 
popular. The grand secret of its popularity, 
however, consisted in the fact that it was a game 
for beginners rather than for players. No great science or 
skill is requisite in order to play at it, and luck is a large 
element in its practice. 

Skittle Pool. 

The table is arranged for Skittle Pool by the marker, who 
places twelve skittles round the table at regular stations, about 
six inches from the cushions, and at certain defined distances 
from each other. Ten of the skittles are white, and two 
black. One of the black skittles is placed on the right-hand 
spot of the baulk-circle, and the other just in front of a white 
skittle near the right-hand middle pocket. Three balls — two 
white and a red — are employed ; and at starting the red ball 
is placed between the winning and losing spot, and a white 
ball on the centre spot in baulk. Each skittle bears a certain 
value, from one point to ten ; and the striker who succeeds in 
knocking down a skittle, after hitting a ball with the playing 
ball, wins the agreed number of points towards the game, 
which is usually played two hundred up. The first player then 
aims from any part of the baulk, with the ball in hand, at the 
red ball, and scores all he makes by the stroke. The second 
player follows with the other white ball, and the third with the 
red ; and so on in this order for as many players as join in the 
game. At a single stroke several skittles may be overturned, 
and they all count towards the striker's game. If a ball be 
pocketed, it remains till the turn of its player arrives. The 
pockets and canons count for nothing ; and the player who 
first gets the required number wins the game. Whoever 
knocks over a black skittle forfeits all the points already 
made ; but he may star as many points as the lowest marked 
on the board. A player may star as often as he is put out of 
the game, and any number of stars is allowed. Skittle Pool 
is an amusing game for young players, but in public rooms the 



479 



BILLIARDS. 



charge for the table — so much a ball, which is deducted from 
each pool — runs away with a large proportion of the stakes. 

This is the way in which I have seen Skittle Pool played. 
I am enabled, however, by the courtesy of Messrs. Thurston 
and Co., to furnish a much more complete account of the 
game as it is now played, together with the Directions for 
Placing the Skittles. These will be useful for players at 
private tables. 

The white pins or skittles at B and E are to be placed nine 
inches from the baulk-line, and those at c and D on similar 
spots at the other end of the table, in a line with the pyramid 
spot A. 

The space between B and c, and D and E, must then be 
divided into three equal parts, and on the four points thus 
obtained place white pins, F, G, H, J. Place one white pin 
at K, and another on the baulk-line at L (this pin counts 
ten), a black one at M on the baulk-line also (the distance 
for these two pins to be four inches from the spots in baulk). 
Place the remaining black one at N, at an equal distance 
between the cushion and pin at J. 

The set of billiard-balls are also to be placed as follows ; 
viz., the white and spot-white balls on the spots in baulk, 
and the red ball at an equal distance between the cushion 
and pin K. s 

N.B. After the positions of the pins have been obtained, 
the places can be marked by black plaister spots on the cloth. 
The number opposite each pin shows the number of points 
that it counts. 

All the pins or skittles round the sides or end of the table 
are to be placed their own length (say four inches) from the 
cushion. 

Rules of Skittle Pool. 

i. This game is played with the three billiard-balls and twelve skittles 
ten white, and two black, all of which are placed on the table according' 
to the diagram. 

2. The game is thirty-one up. 

3. The rotation of the players is decided by numbered counters drawn 
from a bag, one by each player, and each player has one stroke alter- 
nately, according to his rotation. 

4. Any number of persons can play, and the following order must be 
strictly attended to ; viz., the balls and skittles being placed in their 
proper position by the marker, No. 1 plays either the white ball or 
spot-white ball out of baulk, aiming at the red ball, which he must 
strike before hitting a skittle, or he cannot score ; No. 2 plays with the 
remaining white ball at either of the other balls, unless the remaining 
white ball has been removed by the first player, in which case he, No. 2 



48O 




1 

L. 



TABLE ARRANGED FOR SKITTLE POOL, THE POINT OF VIEW BEING 
TAKEN FROM THE TOP OF THE TABLE, BEHIND THE RED BALL. 



48l 



HH 



BILLIARDS. 



(as well as the following players), plays at and with either of the three 
balls at discretion. 

5. The player scores the^ number which is placed opposite the skittle 
which he displaces, unless it be a clack one, in which case be loses his 
life, but can purchase another by paying the same amount into the pool 
as at first, which he can do as often as he pleases during the game, if he 
signifies the same before the next player has made his stroke, but he 
comes in without any points he may have previously made. 

6. Any person who knocks down a black pin {after making his stroke) 
with a ball, cue, his sleeve, or in any other way, loses his life, and can 
only join in the game again by purchasing, as in Rule 5. 

7. Any skittle or skittles having been removed by a player must be 
replaced before the next player makes his stroke. 

8. Any ball occupying the place of a fallen skittle must be placed on 
its own proper spot, as at the commencement of the game, unless any 
other ball occupies that position, in which case each must be placed on 
its own proper spot. 

9. Any skittle is considered to be down if it is entirely off its spot, or 
is leaning against a ball, cushion, or other skittle. 

10. Any one playing out of turn cannot score any points which he 
would otherwise have made, and the following player takes his stroke 
without replacing the ball ; but the former has the right to play in his 
turn, if he has not lost his life by removing a black skittle. 

11. Foul strokes are made by the following means; viz., by pushing 
a ball instead of striking it ; by knocking down a white pin without 
striking a ball first, or before the balls have ceased running ; by playing 
out of turn — when all the skittles are not in their places, or the three 
balls are not on the table. Running in or jumping off the table is not 
foul. Arty one making a foul stroke cannot score. 

12. If by mistake the black and white skittles are wrongly placed, and 
a stroke is made, the white scores, and the black counts as dead ; but the 
skittles must then be placed in their proper position. 

13. Should the three balls be so covered by the pins as to prevent th«ir 
being played at, the red ball can be spotted after one miss has been given ; 
and if they are again covered, the spot ball can be spotted : a miss cannot 
be given to benefit the next player. 

14. Any one not being present at the commencement of the pool has 
the right to join in it, provided no player has then made more than one 
stroke. 

15. Any one purchasing a life and not having his stroke has his 
purchase-money returned. 

16. The charge for the game to be deducted from the pool before it is 
handed over to the winner. 



Hazards, or Penny Pot. 

This is another of the easy Pool games. It is played in 
the same way as Pool, the order of the balls is the same, and 
the same rules govern it ; but, instead of a stake to be divided, 
and three lives to each player, there is no pool staked, and 
each player has as many lives as he chooses, simply receiving 
a small fine — usually a penny, hence the name of the game — 
from the player whose life he takes, and paying to him who 



482 



MINOR GAMES. 



pockets his ball. Every striker who takes a life goes on till 
he ceases to score, playing at the nearest ball after each 
winning hazard. A life is forfeited to the player played upon 
for every losing hazard, miss, or coup. The game is con- 
tinued for any length of time at the pleasure of the players, 
and any one can retire at any moment he chooses. Penny 
Pot is a very merry and amusing game for a mixed party of 
ladies and gentlemen, and may be played with either cv.e, 
mace, or butt — or even the flat end of a stiff walking-stick 
when the number of cues is not equal to that of the players. 
I may here observe that the various games of Billiards do not 
depend for their interest on the stakes risked. I once played 
a match of a hundred up, with a famous professional, for a 
pair of gloves, and I assure you the excitement was as great 
as if it had been for a hundred guineas. 



Handicap Sweepstakes. 

This is English Billiards played by a number of persons. 
The red ball is placed on the spot, and the various players 
are handicapped according to their efficiency. The best 
player has (say) fifty to score, the second forty, the third 
thirty, the fourth twenty-five, the fifth twenty, and so on. 
The first player then strikes the red with the white ball, and 
the second goes on and makes all he can by winning or losing 
hazards and canons. When he ceases to score, the third 
plays, each one taking his turn and playing with one or other 
of the white balls, according to the proper order, from the 
place where it stopped. The players string for the start, and 
the rules of Billiards as to coups, misses, foul strokes, &c, 
are observed ; each of the players marking the number of 
points made, and the penalties incurred by the striker. 
Sometimes, however, a single point is deducted from the 
striker's score for a miss, and three for a coup, &c. , instead of 
adding the point to the scores of the rest of the players — an 
obviously fairer plan. The Handicap is played for a stake 
contributed equally by all the players, and he who first scores 
the required number wins the whole. This is a very pretty 
game for a mixed party, as, if the handicap has been well 
made, the worst player is put on an equality with the best. 

The Handicap can also be played in pairs drawn by lot, 
and the winners re-paired till two only are left, the eventual 
winner receiving the stakes. 



483 



BILLIARDS, 



The Canon Game. 

The Carambole games played in England are much the 
same as the French game described on p. 35. They require 
considerable skill to play well. Canons alone count to the 
score, and the game is usually twenty-one up. Pockets do 
not count either way, and at starting the red ball is placed on 
the spot, and the spot- white on the baulk spot. 

The White Winning Game. 

This consists of white winning hazards only, and is usually 
played twelve or twenty up. This is said to be the original 
game of Billiards, and only two white balls are used. It is 
simple, but monotonous. 

Rules of the White Winning Game. 

1. In commencing the game, string for the lead. 

2. After the first player has strung for the lead, if his adversary who 
follows him make his ball touch the other, or hole his own, he loses the 
lead. 

3. If the leader follow his ball with either mace or cue, beyond the 
middle pocket, it is no lead, and his adversary may, if he choose, insist 
on his leading again. 

4. When a hazard has been lost in any of the corner pockets, the 
leader is obliged, if his adversary require it, to lead from the end of the 
table where the hazard was lost ; but if the hazard were lost in either of 
the middle pockets, it is at the leader's option to play from either end of 
the table he pleases. 

5. If the striker do not hit his adversary's ball, he loses one point; 
and if, by the same stroke, his own ball should go into a pocket, over the 
table, or lodge on a cushion, he loses three points; viz., one for missing 
his adversary's ball, and two for pocketing his own. 

6. If the striker hole his adversary's ball, or force it over the table or 
on a cushion, he wins two points. 

7. If the striker hole his own ball, or force it over the table or on a 
cushion, he loses two points. 

8. If the striker hole both balls, or force them over the table, he loses 
two points. 

9. If the striker touch or move his own ball, not intending to make a 
stroke, it is deemed an accident, and he must, if his adversary require it, 
put back the ball in the place where it stood, and play over again. 

_ 10, He who does not play as far as his adversary's ball loses one ; or 
his adversary may oblige him to pass the ball, more especially in giving 
a miss ; or he can, if he choose, make him replace the ball, and play until 
he has passed it. 

The White Losing Game. 
This game is twenty up, and the score is made by losing 



484 



MINOR GAMES. 



hazards only, with two balls. As the object in the White 
Winning game is to pocket your adversary, so the motif in 
this is to lose your own ball off your opponent's. All the 
laws as to misses, foul strokes, &c, common to Billiards are 
observed in this game. 

The White Winning and Losing Game. 

A simple combination of the two preceding, the rules for 
Billiards governing it as well as them. Canons do not count, 
and it is commonly played twenty-one up, the players string- 
ing for the lead. 

The Winning Canon Game. 

In this all losing hazards count against the player. It is 
usually eighteen or twenty up, and consists of winning hazards, 
canons, misses, coups, &c, the forfeits being added to the 
score of the non-striker. 

The Red Winning Canon Game. 

Here the red only is allowed to be pocketed ; the canons 
being added to the winning hazards give it a little more 
variety than a merely hazard game. The following are the- 
rules by which it is governed. The game is usually plafyed 
eighteen, twenty-one, or twenty-five up, at the choice of the 
players. 

i. In commencing, string for the stroke and choice of the balls. 

2. A red ball is to be placed on the spot in the centre of the table. 

3. After the first striker has played, his adversary is to follow, and so on 
alternately throughout the game. 

4. If the striker miss both the balls, he loses one ; and if he pocket his 
own ball by the same stroke, he loses three points. 

5. If the striker hit the red ball and his adversary's with his own ball 
he wins two points. 

6. If the striker hole his adversary's ball, he wins two points ; if he hole 
the red, he wins three. 

7. If the striker hole the red and his adversary's ball by the same stroke, 
he wins five ; two for the white, and three for the red ball. 

8. If the striker make a canon, and hole his adversary's bail and the red 
ball by the same stroke, he wins seven points. 

[Always count two for the canon, two for pocketing the white, and three 
for the red ball.] 

9. Forcing any one or all the balls over the table does not reckon any 
point. 

10. If the striker hole his own ball by a foul or fair stroke, he loses either 
two or three points, according to the ball he struck first — three for 

the red, and two for the white. 



485 



BILLIARDS. 



ii. If the striker make a canon or a winning hazard, and force any of 
the balls over the table, he wins nothing by the stroke. 

12. After the red ball has beep, holed, or forced over the table, the striker 
of it is bound to see it placed on the proper spot before he strikes again • 
otherwise he can win no points while the ball is out of its place and the 
stroke is deemed foul. ' 

xx. If after the red .ball has been holed or forced over the table, either 
of the white balls should he upon, or be so near the spot that the red 
cannot be placed in its proper situation without their touching each other, 
the red ball must then be placed on the spot in the centre of the table 

14. If, after the striker has made a canon, or holed his adversary's or 
the red ball, he should touch either of the balls which remain on the table 
with hand, cue, or otherwise, he cannot score the points he made by the 
stroke, as it is deemed foul. 

15. If the striker play with the wrong ball, ©r miss both the balls, he loses 
one point ; and if the ball should go into a pocket by the same stroke, he 
loses three points. 

One Pocket to Five. 

An amusing Cramp game, played commonly sixteen, 
eighteen, or twenty up. The best player selects a pocket, 
usually a corner one, or he may allow his opponent to name 
the pocket ; and all the balls he lodges in that pocket count 
towards the game ; those holed in either of the other pockets 
scoring against him. The player who has the five pockets 
is, on the contrary, allowed to score in all the pockets but 
the one selected by his opponent, in which if either of the 
balls happen to fall, the points are scored to the other side. 
Winning and losing hazards, and canons, count as in Billiards, 
all the rules of which game apply to this. The giving of five 
pockets to one is equal to about thirty in fifty. The grand 
secret in this game is to avoid the pocket or pockets belonging 
to the other side, and to drive the balls to your own part of 
the table. Five Pockets to Four was the great game of 
Mr. Kentfield, the famous "Jonathan " of Brighton. 

Two Pockets to Four. 

This Cramp game is equal to giving seventeen points out of 
fifty. It is played in precisely the same way as Billiards, all 
the balls lodged in the opponent's pockets becoming forfeits 
to the non-striker. 

Side against Side. 

Billiards under difficulties. One player takes the pockets ©n 
one side of the table, and the other the pockets on the other 
side. The game is scored by winning and losing hazards and 



486 



MINOR GAMES. 



canons, and no advantage accrues to either player from choice 
of sides, if both be right-handed ; but with a left-handed 
player the left side of the table is of course the most advan- 
tageous. All hazards made in the opponent's pockets count 
against the player. The game is usually twenty-one up, and 
is governed by the rules of Billiards. 

The Nomination Game. 

This is the ordinary game of Billiards, with a difference. 
Each player is obliged to name his stroke, and, if he fail to 
make it, any score made by him is counted by his adversary. 
This game is seldom played, and in the hands of any but 
very good players is very uninteresting. All the rules of 
Billiards are observed. 

The Commanding Game. 

This game, like the last, is regular Billiards, with the dif- 
ference that the opponent names each stroke the player is to 
make. Then, if the player fail, any hazard or canon other 
than the one commanded goes to the other side. It is usually 
played by a professor against a tyro, and, except under such 
circumstances, is dull and stupid. Rules as in Billiards. 



The Go-back (or Pull-back) Game. 

This is another modification of Billiards, and can only be 
played between a good and a bad player. It is usually 
played sixteen up, though of course any number of points 
agreed upon may be played. In the hands of a good player 
sixteen is no great number to get off a break ; and the 
peculiarity of the Go-back is that the superior player goes 
back to nil every time his opponent scores a hazard — not a 
canon; while the latter, on the contrary, scores all he can 
make. This is often a rooking or gambling game, and 
beginners are therefore advised to fight shy of strangers who 
propose to play at it with them. 



There are several other Cramp games that need only to be 
mentioned. 

The Doublet Game is played with either two or three 



487 



BILLIARDS. 



balls, and all the hazards are made by a double from the 
opposite cushion. When three balls are employed all the 
canons, as well as all the hazards, both winning and losing, 
must be made by doubles. All hazards made without the 
doublet score against the player. This, indeed, is French 
Billiards as it was formerly played. 

The Bricole Game is, like the Doublet game, played from 
the cushion, which is first struck with the player's ball, in 
order that it may rebound to the object-ball. The player 
forfeits all losing hazards made with his own ball, and counts 
all winning hazards and canons. Rules as in Billiards. 

Choice of Balls. — This is Three-ball Billiards*, with the 
variation that each player in turn takes his choice of the 
ball he wishes to play with. With three balls placed near 
to each other, thus — 

OO 

o 

I have made over three hundred canons. This game is com- 
monly played by a good player — who follows the ordinary 
plan, and canons only with his own ball — against a bad one, 
who is allowed to play with and at any of the three. Rules, 
otherwise, as in Billiards. Sixteen up. 

The Bar-hole Game is like One Pocket to Five, except 
that a particular pocket is barred to both players, and any 
hazard in that pocket is scored to your opponent. 

White against Red. — One player strikes at the white 
ball, and the other at the red ; and as the red counts three 
for a hazard, and the white only two, the advantage is with 
the former. It may be played either with or without 
canons, and with winning hazards only, or winning and 
losing hazards combined with canons. 

The Cushion Game is played from the top of the cushion — 
the frame of the table, instead of from the table itself. All 
canons and hazards so made count as in Billiards. A rook- 
ing game, and to be avoided, as no man offers to play at 
it unless he is well up in the science of the cue. 

Non-cushion Game.— In this the ball of the player is 
not allowed to touch the cushion, under a penalty of one 
point. Canons and hazards count as usual. In playing 
back at a ball the player is allowed to strike one cushion only. 
Sixteen up is the number which wins this absurd game. 



488 




The French Game. 

The game commonly played in France consists altogether 
of canons. The table is smaller than ours, without pockets, 
the balls much larger, and the cues considerably heavier and 
wider at their tips. Played on an English table, pockets and 
misses count for nothing either way. When the French game 
is begun the red ball is placed on the spot, and the non- 
striker's ball on the centre baulk spot. The striker then 
plays at the red, and if he make a canon goes on again, till 
he fails to score. Then the second player canons, if he can, 
from the spot on which his ball stopped ; and so on alternately. 
The game is usually twenty- one canons, and three balls must 
always be kept in play. When either the red or white are 
pocketed they are replaced on their several spots. In 
England the French Canon game is not much played. 
1 The rules as to foul strokes, &c, are the same as in the 
English game. 

The Spanish Game. 

Kugel-partie, or Skittles, is played by two persons with 
three balls — red, and two white— -and five, six, seven, or nine 
skittles set up close together in the middle of the table, 
thus : — 

© or O or O or 

ooo oo ooo oo 
o ooo oo ooo 

o oo 
o 

The red ball is placed on the spot, and the two white balls on 
the outside spots in baulk. The first player then strikes the 
red ball, and endeavours to canon on the skittles. Failing to 
accomplish his object, the second player goes on, and so 
alternately. The game is twenty-one up, and is scored by 
winning hazards and canons, as in our Winning Hazard game, 
and by knocking down the skittles. 

If, after hitting an *object-ball> the striker knock down a 
skittle, he gains two points ; if he knock down two skittles, 
he gains four points, and so on ; two points for every pin 
overturned after contact between his own and the object-ball. 
If he succeed in knocking down the middle pin alone, he 
scores five; and if he is fortunate enough to floor the lot, he 



489 



wins the game off the stroke. To pocket the red is to win 
three points, and two for each pin down by the same stroke ; 
to pocket the white, two points, and two for each pin knocked 
down by the canon. 

But if the player knock down the pin with his own ball, 
before striking another ball, he loses two points for every pin 
overturned; and if he knock over the whole of the pins, 
without first striking a ball, he loses the game. A losing 
hazard from the white forfeits two points to his adversary, and 
all the points made by toppling over the skittles. Thus, 
suppose the player to strike the red ball and pocket it, make 
a canon and knock down two skittles, and then run into a 
pocket, he loses twelve points : three for the red, two for the 
canon, four for the pins, and three for the losing hazard. 

The following are the rules for the Spanish Game : — 

This gskne is played with three balls and five wooden skittles, which 
skittles are placed in the centre of the table about two inches and a 
quarter apart, forming a diamond square. 

The game is thirty-one up, and is scored by winning hazards and 
canons (the same as in the English Winning game), and by knocking 
down the pins. 

i. If the player, after striking a ball, should knock down a skittle, he 
gains two points ; if he knock down two, he gains four points ; and so on, 
scoring two points for each skittle. If he knock down the middle one 
alone, he gains five points ; but if he should knock them all down by one 
stroke, he wins the game. 

2. If the striker hole his own ball from another ball, he loses all the 
points he would otherwise have gained by the stroke. 

3. If the striker pocket the red ball, he gains three points for that, 
and two for each skittle he may knock down by the same stroke. 

4. If the striker pocket the white ball, he gains two points for that, and 
two for each skittle he may knock down by the stroke. 

5. If the striker knock down any skittles with his own ball, before 
striking another ball, he loses two for each skittle so knocked down. 

6. If the player, in the act of striking, should knock down any of the 
skittles with his cue, he loses as many points as he would otherwise have 
gained by the stroke. 

7. If the striker cause his own ball to fly off the table, he loses three 
points ; and if after making a canon or hazard, he loses as many points as 
he would otherwise have gained. 

8. If any unforeseen case should arise, it must be determined by the 
rules of the ordinary game. 

There are several other foreign games — German Pyramids 
(Pyramiden partie), the German Sausage game (Wursl 
partie\ &c. ; the game du la Royale, &c. ; but these are so 
seldom played in England that they are not worth describing, 
moreover they are far less interesting than our English games 
already described. 



490 



SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES. 




CHAPTER V. 

THE SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF 
BILLIARDS. 

E now come to the real difficulties of the noble 
game, the pons asinorum, over which so few climb 
without damage to temper and purse. Having 
shown you what games to play, it now becomes 
my business to teach you, in as plain terms as I 
can use, how to play them. 

The very first thing to learn in Billiards is to strike a ball 
with fairness, certainty, and precision. This can only be 
done with a good, firm, steady bridge. The wrist should 
rest firmly on the table, about seven or eight inches from the 
ball, and the tips of the fingers should touch the table so as 
to form a counterpoise to the wrist, with the palm hollowed 
so as to raise the knuckles, and the thumb extended slightly — 
neither too close to the fingers nor too far away. The bridge 
should be so made as to be at once firm and perfectly free : 
certain strokes require the hand to be raised on the tips of the 
finger, while the screw and others render the lowering of the 
thumb necessary. Nothing is more common than to see a 
young player make a bad bridge, bending his fingers instead 




FIG. I. — THE BRIDGE. 

of extending them, throwing them out like a fan instead of 
keeping them close together, resting the hand flat on the table, 
doubling it up like a fist, cocking up the little finger, and so 
on. All this is to be avoided if you would become an easy 
and elegant player. 

Then as to the handling of the cue. Choose a cue of 
moderate length and weight, not too fine* at the tip, nor too 
flat and broad. To find the proper length of the cue, select 
one that will stand easily under your chin. A too long 
or too short cue will effectually cripple your chances of 



49I 



becoming a good player. Grasp it firmly, but not tpo 
tightly, at about five or six inches from its butt, and make 
the stroke rather from the shoulder than from the fo7'e-arm. 
The direction in italics, however, applies more directly -to 
winning than to losing hazards. For slow losing hazards and 
light canons many players hold the cue between the fingers 
and thumb. I do not, however, recommend much variation 
in the manner of using the cue, though it will be found 
that many strokes require a slight deviation from the regular 
method. For instance, winning hazards require the cue to 
be held tightly, while losing hazards may be better made 
with a light and easy grasp. In playing a ball from under 
the cushion the cue must be shortened, and the stroke made 
with a firm push ; in the following stroke the cue must be 
allowed to flow, as it were, after the ball ; and in the screw, 
or twist, the stroke must be sudden and quick, with a draw- 
back motion, more or less decided, according to the strength 
of the stroke and the part of the ball struck. 

In making your stroke point your cue at the part of the 
ball you wish to strike, draw it back six or seven inches, and 
then hit the ball with a firm blow, more or less hard accord- 
ing to circumstances. Avoid all see-sawing action, and 
endeavour to make your stroke freely and evenly by one 
decided impulse. A great point is to keep the cue as 
nearly, horizontal to the table as you can, and to avoid 
shifting its height up and down as you take aim. My own 
plan is to take correct aim, drop the tip of my cue for a 
second on the table, then raise it to the proper height, draw 
it well back, and make the stroke by one full, free impulse. 
But, in fact, the handling of the cue and the making of the 
bridge cannot be fully taught on paper. A single lesson 
from a good player will be more useful than all the book- 
teaching in the world. 

Position is important. Stand firmly and easily on your 
feet, not too widely apart, and keep the knees straight. 
Nothing is so inelegant as bent knees at a billiard-table. 
Let the stoop to the table be made from the hips, and not from 
the knees. A right-handed player will slightly advance his 
left foot and incline his head, while a left-handed striker will 
do just the reverse. 

In order to make a true and successful stroke you must 
keep the tip of your cue well chalked, avoid all jerks and 
overstrained actions, take accurate aim, and be careful not 
to raise your arm too high above the level of the table. Hand 



492 



SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES. 



and eye should be in unison. First observe the position of 
the object-ball, and then, by an almost simultaneous impulse, 
take your aim, and, looking only at your striking ball, make 
the stroke. 

When you use the rest put the head of it sufficiently near 
to the ball, and keep the cue in as horizontal a position as you 
can. The proper distance from the ball will allow you to see 
the striking ball over the head of the rest— say from eight to 
twelve inches. The rest needs to be held lightly in the left 
hand, and the cue must be taken between the fingers and 
thumb, with the palm downwards. It is not necessary to say 
anything about the mace, as it is seldom used ; but in the use 
of the butt or the butt-end of your own cue you must not strike 
at the ball, but push with the butt by a firm, flowing action. 
To do this properly you must place the head of the butt close 
to the ball you have to strike, and hold it near its end between 
your fingers and thumb, and not in the palm of your hand. 

The Balls and Cues. 

Having acquired the knack of properly making the Bridge 
and using the Cue, the next point is to know where to strike 
your ball. A diagram will assist us here. Suppose the 
following figure to be the ball : 




FIG. 2.— THE DIVIDED BALL. 



493 



BILLIARDS. 



Here we. have a number of imaginary lines and circles, a a 
divides the ball- into two equal halves. If you strike above 
the centre, the ball travels swiftly ; if below it, its pace is more 
slow ; and the lower you strike it the slower is its progression, 
till it either stops dead or returns to the point of the cue. 
The points A B and B c, on the left-hand upper side, give the 
parts for the left side-stroke, and C B and B A the right-hand 
side-stroke ; while A D E give the corresponding side-strokes 
below the centre. When struck on the right-hand side, the 
ball diverges to the right ; and when struck on the left side, 
the points of divergence are to the left of the point of contact 
between cue and ball. This, in truth, is the main theory of 
the Side-stroke, about which, however, I shall have some- 
thing more to say. {See page 56 et seq. ) 

In commencing practice at Billiards the amateur will find 
it much more easy to divide the object-ball. Thus, if half the 
striking ball is made to impinge on half the object-ball, we 
call that stroke a half ball; and so, with- the greater or lesser 
points of contact between the two balls, we get a three-quarter 
ball, a third ball, an eighth ball, a very fine ball, &c. This, 
again, will be best understood by referring to a diagram. 




o <*o <5 *£> 



6 '6 



o 



a 





FIG. 



3.— DIVIDING THE OBJECT-BALL. 

In the upper row (1) a is a full ball, made by striking 
directly in the centre of the object-ball ; b is a half ball, in 
which the contact is about half of each ball ; c a third ball, when 
the contact is still less; d an eighth ball; and e and f 'very fine 
balls. The lower. line of balls (2) shows the points of contact 
in a different direction ; and the two diagrams taken together 



494 



THE BALLS AND CUES. 



will be sufficiently explanatory. Remember that the slighter 
the contact between the striker's ball and the object-bait \ the wider 
the divagence after contact, consistently, of course, with the 
strength or force of the stroke, which, if too strong, breaks 
through the regular angles, and falsifies the axiom that " the 
angles of incidence and reflection always correspond." 




FIG. 4. — WAY OF MAKING THE STROKES. 

Another little diagram will show us how to make the several 
strokes mentioned. For ihe/ull stroke (a) the player's ball 
must be struck full in the centre, so as to meet the object- 
ball full; then both balls will travel in about the same line. 
For the stopping stroke, or screw {b), the ball must be struck 
firmly, more or less below the centre, with a sharp draw- 
back motion ; when, on reaching the object-ball, it will 
either stop still at the point of contact, or return to the 
striker. This is one of the most useful strokes at Billiards. 
The secret of the screw is this : the ball, being struck below 
its centre, travels by a series of under-and-under revolutions, 
contrary to its usual mode ; and then when it comes in contact 
with another ball or with the cushion, or when its twist is 
exhausted, its direction is reversed, and it comes back in 
the regular over-and-over fashion. You may illustrate this 
with a boy's hoop, which, if you take it below its centre, and 
throw it forward with a jerk, will travel onwards for a certain 
distance, and then return to the thrower, in a regular wheel. 
The twist of the cricket-ball is produced in the same way. 
You can also make the twist, or screw, by striking the ball on 
the top {d), when it will jump ; or on the top side {e), when it 
will spin forward and return. These latter strokes are neces- 
sary when the ball struck is very near the object-ball. Of 
course all these strokes will be varied by the amount of side 
given to the striker's ball. The following stroke {c) is made by 
striking the ball rather high, and giving to your arm a sort of 
flowing motion, as already explained. Recollect that the 
higher you strike your ball the swifter it will travel, and the 
lower you strike it the slower it will go, till it stops altogether. 



495 



BILLIARDS. 



It is by no means so difficult to divide the object -ball as 
may appear on reading these directions. After a little practice 
the eye gets so accustomed to the imaginary lines on the ball, 
that the billiard-player can without difficulty hit any part of 
the ball with his cue, and cause the two balls to strike each 
other with almost mathematical precision. The deflection of 
the balls from each other after contact is due either to the part 
of the striker's ball struck by the cue, or to the degree of im- 
pingement between the striker's ball and the object-ball. In 
the first case we have the side-stroke pure and simple ; and in 
the last we have what billiard-players have agreed to call the 
division of the object-ball. When the two actions are combined 
we say that we divide both balls. In the best styles of play, by 
the best players, this combination of forces is accomplished 
with great neatness and accuracy. 

Now we come to the principle upon which hinges all the 
science of Billiards — namely, that the angle of reflection is 
equal to the angle of incidence. The meaning of this phrase is 
this, that "the direction of the motion produced in a movable 
elastic body projected against a body that is fixed and at rest is 
simple and determinate, and is alike under all the varieties of 
velocity and modes of projection ; the reaction will invariably 
equal the action, and be the counterpart thereof ; or, in other 
words, the course of the body after contact will be the counter- 
part of the motion originally imparted to it ; hence the angle of 
reflection must uniformly be equal to the angle of incidence." 

For the sake of those of my readers who are not mathe- 
matical, I will illustrate this fact by a diagram. 



/ 


x 


/ 

/ 
/ 


\ 


/ 
/ 

/ 

/ 
• 
/ 




6 


c (D 



FIG. 5. — ANGLES OF INCIDENCE AND REFLECTION. 

If the ball a be propelled against the cushion at D, it will 
form with the line D c the angle A D c : the return of the ball 
will be found to be nearly equal to the other angle produced 
by the line dropped through the point of contact. This is the 
theory ; but it must be remembered that the stronger or harder 



496 



THE BALLS AND CUES. 



the stroke, the more acute the angle, and vice versd. The axiom 
is, however, sufficiently true for our purpose, and may form 
an almost infallible guide to the young player in the making 
of canons and hazards. When, however — as in the case of 
one ball striking another — two elastic and moving bodies come 
into contact, the angle is modified by the degree of impinge- 
ment. The natural angle of 45 degrees is produced by a 
moderately hard stroke on the player's ball and a half-ball 
on the object-ball. 

Angles of the Table. 

Of course young players begin by endeavouring to make 
canons and hazards ; but a knowledge of the angles of the 
table will be found of great assistance to them. Thus it will 




FIG. 6. — ANGLES. 



FIG. 7. — ANGLES AND DOUBLETS. 



tend greatly to facilitate his game and educate his hand if he 
practice the angles in figs. 6 and 9, where the angles of 
incidence and reflection are correctly indicated. Let him place 
the balls in the positions shown, and, striking them from their 



497 



11 



BILLIARDS. 



places, endeavour to produce the corresponding angles marked 
with the dotted lines. 

In all the diagrams the striker's ball is represented by 
an open circle, and the object-ball by a black one. The first 
line of progression — which forms the angle of incidence — is 
shown by a straight line, and the return line— which forms 
the angle of reflection — by a dotted line. 

In fig. 7 we have a few other lines of angles for "keeping 
the baulk. " These may be multiplied indefinitely all over, 
across, and up and down the table. The centre illustration (a) 




FIG. 8. — STRENGTHS. 



FIG. 9.— ANGLES. 



in fig. 7 shows a most neat and useful stroke made by com- 
bining the full stroke with the screw. If the centre ball be 
struck low, with a good draw-back, one white ball will be 
forced into the pocket, and the middle ball, returning to the 
other white one, will canon and send it into the opposite 
pocket, and probably follow in after it. This is the well- 
known centre ten-stroke, when the middle ball is white, and 
the cushion ball first struck red. 



498 



ANGLES OF THE TABLE. 



Another illustration of the angles is seen in the little 
figure {b) in fig. 9. The rule holds good whether one 
leg of the angle be much shorter than the other or not ; 
thus you may always calculate on making certain strokes 
with some degree of accuracy, this degree of course depend- 
ing upon the strength of the stroke, and the amount of ''side" 
given to your own ball, or the quantity of "division" imparted 
to the object-ball. 

Fig. 8 shows the degree and nature of the deflection 
produced by a hard and by a moderate stroke. It is hardly 
necessary to say that illustrations of this fact might be mul- 
tiplied to any extent. By the way, it may be as well to notice 
that this theory of angles can be usefully applied to the healthy, 
though unfortunately not too respectable, game of skittles. 



"Winning Hazards. 

The first strokes a young player should learn to make are 
winning hazards. These may be played at all degrees of 




FIG. IO. —WINNING HAZARDS. 



FIG. II. -WINNING HAZARDS. 



499 



BILLIARDS. 



strength, but they are most effective when made with mode- 
rate strength. A "stop-ball" struck rather below the cent-re 
is one of the strokes that will be found extremely useful in 
Pool or Pyramids. By it you may make the hazards shown 
in fig. 12. To play a winning hazard and stop at the point 
of concussion with the object -ball is a tour deforce that requires 
practice and considerable command of cue ; for you must 
recollect that all the fine strong strokes made by Cooke, 
Bennett, Roberts, Hughes, and other professional players, 
are acquired as a scholar learns his lesson — by dint of steady 
study and long practice. The two strokes shown in fig. 12 are 
to stop in the circle and make the hazard ; and to make the 
winning hazard in the far corner pocket, and draw back your 
own ball in the near pocket. They must be played with a 
low draw-back with good strength, but no violence. Hard 
hitting is destructive to all elegant and successful play. 




FIG. 12. — STOP-BALLS. FIG. 13. — WINNING HAZARDS. 

The winning hazards in diagrams io, n, and 13 suf- 
ficiently explain themselves. That part of your ball is to be 



5CO 



WINNING HAZARDS. 



struck which is shown in the figures. The whole art and 
mystery of winning-hazard striking is to hit the object -ball 
full for the pocket. If it and your own ball be in a straight 
line for the pocket, then all you have to do is to strike a full 
ball ; but if the object-ball be at an angle on either side to the 
pocket, then you must play a half, third, quarter, or fine ball, 
in order to make : t straight to the pocket. Understand by the 
last expression that what you have to do in order to "make the 
ball straight to the pocket " is to hit it in such a way as will 
send it in the direction you choose. In all the hazards shown 
in diagrams io, n, 12, and 13, your own ball is to be struck 
full in the centre, and you produce the necessary deflection of 
the object-ball by dividing it according to the plan I have 
already explained. It is not necessary that I should tell you 
how much division to put upon the object-ball in each in- 




FIG. 14. — WFNNING HAZARDS. 



FIG. IS- — WINNING HAZARDS. 



dividual instance. It is a perfect fallacy to suppose that the 
young player can follow printed directions so minutely as to 
be able to distinguish for himself between a half and a third 



Soi 



BILLIARDS. 



ball, much less between a quarter and an eighth. What the 
tyro has to do is to place the white and red balls in the positions 
severally indicated in the diagrams, and, by aid of eye, hand, 
and common sense, endeavour to make the hazards shown. 

In fig. 14 the hazards from the baulk to the middle pocket 
are by no means difficult ; but they require precision in striking 
the object-ball finely and decidedly. So, also, do the strokes 
shown in diagrams 15, 16, and 17. In each case the direction 
of the ball to be struck, and the part of the object-ball that 
must receive the blow from the playing-ball, is as nearly 
shown as may be. 

The Spot-stroke (a), shown in fig. 14, is highly useful. 

There are several ways of playing the Spot-stroke. One is to 
play direct at the red, and stop your own ball just behind it ; 
another is to play a gentle ball, which just lodges the red in 
the pocket and leaves your own ball in a position favourable 
for making the hazard in the other corner pocket. In the first 
case you must play a low stop-stroke, with just sufficient force 
to make the hazard, and at the same time bring your own ball 
four or five inches back from the red. You will find this diffi- 
cult to repeat above two or three times, because of the double 
danger of stopping your ball on the spot and of receding too 
far. A safer plan is to play a gentle stroke on to the red, 
and reverse the position of your own ball. But this is not an 
easy stroke by any means, for, if you look at the position of 
the balls with regard to the corner pockets, you will find that, 
though the red is straight to the corner, the white is not straight 
to the red. A little "side " is therefore to be placed on 
your own ball, and the red to be slightly divided : in effect 
you must divide both balls, in order to leave a hazard in one 
pocket after you have made it in the other and replaced the 
red on the spot. The chief difficulty in the Spot-stroke is to 
recover position after each hazard. First make sure of the 
hazard, with just strength enough to carry the red ball to the 
pocket. Then play in such a manner as will leave your ball 
behind the spot, on one or the other side, for the succeeding 
stroke. This must be done, either in the ways shown above, 
or by playing off the top cushion, so as to bring your ball 
back again behind the red. Every stroke must, therefore, be 
made with the double intention of making the hazard and 
gaining the position. And this can be accomplished only 
by dint of long, patient, and intelligent practice. 

The Slow Sc?-ew is a stroke that may be advantageously em- 
ployed in making winning hazards. esDecially in cases in 



502 



WINNING HAZARDS. 



which the balls lie close together (as in fig. 12). The way to 
make the slow screw is to hit your ball well below the centre, 
with a sharp twisting stroke. At the instant the stroke is 
made the wrist must be slightly turned inward, so as to give 
the necessary screw to the ball. It is, however, impossible to 
satisfactorily describe this peculiar action of the wrist. Prac- 
tice only can make you master of it. 

Losing Hazards. 

Losing Hazards require a different sort of treatment from 
Winning Hazards. In the latter force and decision may accom- 
plish a great deal, while in the former a fine, delicate touch, a 
light hand, and a quick eye, are the true secrets of success. In 
nothing on the billiard-table is the master-touch so evident as 




FIG. 17. — LOSING HAZARDS. 



in the clean and successful making of losing hazards. Cor- 
rect calculation of angles, nice division of the object-ball, 
proper quantity of "side," good appreciation of strength — that 
is, the relative elasticity of the balls to the cushion — are all 



503 



BILLIARDS. 



necessary to the making of losing hazards. Knowledge of 
strengths enables the player to keep the balls before him, and 
in a succession of hazards and canons to make a good break. 
A thorough player seldom needs to use the rest, because when 
he plays a stroke he not only makes the hazard he plays for, 
but leaves his ball in a position to make another hazard or 
canon. This is the perfection of Billiards. 

The losing hazards shown in figs. 1 6, 17, and 18 will be 
easily understood. They are to be made by dividing the object- 
ball, and playing with moderate strength. The hazards in the 
top pocket (a) require half-balls, while that in the corner (6) 
requires a little left-hand side put on the playing-ball, striking 
the cushion and object-ball at the same instant. This stroke 
is often made at Pool or Pyramids when you try to play a 
winning hazard. It is a very pretty stroke to accomplish 
with neatness and certainty. 




FIG. 18. — LOSING HAZARDS. 



FIG. 19. — LOSING HAZARDS. 



The losing hazards in the middle pocket are easily made ; 
the great aim being to bring the object-ball back to about 



504 



LOSING HAZARDS. 



the same place, in order that you may repeat the stroke. 
This requires a nice adjustment of strength ; and, when well 
done, several hazards may be made in one or other of the 
middle pockets, the position of the playing-ball being shifted 
from left to right or from right to left of the baulk according 
to circumstances. The proper placing of the player's ball in 
baulk is only to be acquired by practice, a few inches more 
or less from the centre making a considerable difference in 
the line travelled by the object-ball. 

The hazards in the left-hand baulk corner are somewhat 
more difficult to make, in consequence of your being obliged 
to divide both balls. Try them in the positions indicated, and 
you will soon find that you must put "side" upon your own 
ball: in these cases, whether you play for hazards in the 
right or left-hand pocket, the in-side must be put on your 




FIG. 20. — LOSING HAZARDS. 



PIG. 21. — LOSING HAZARDS. 



ball, the side always taking effect according to the manner 
of striking your ball. Supposing you wish your ball to hug 
the cushion, therefore, you must put on the in-side : the 



505 



BILLIARDS. 



object-ball will fly off at a tangent, and your own ball will 
proceed straight to the pocket. 

There is only one stroke in fig. 19 that needs remark — the 
other hazards being plainly enough shown in the diagram. 
This is the line-ball. The object-ball being out of baulk 
place your own ball as close to it as you can, and gently push 
it into the corner pocket without moving the object-ball. This 
very beautiful and highly effective stroke may be repeated as 
many as a dozen times. 

The losing hazards in figs. 20 and 21 need no particular 
description. In them it is only absolutely necessary to divide 
the object-ball ; but in making these strokes players generally 
divide both balls. Of course it will be understood that 
strokes of a similar character may be made in all the pockets, 
according to the respective places of the balls. 

Remarks on the hazards in figs. 22, 23, 24, and 25 are 




FIG. 22. — LOSING HAZARDS. 



FIG. 23. — LOSING HAZARDS. 



hardly necessary, so well are they indicated in the diagrams. 
Division of the object-ball or division of both balls may be 



S06 



LOSING HAZARDS. 



employed at pleasure ; screw being put on where it is neces- 
sary, as shown in the hazards in the corner pockets and the 
one in the centre pocket in fig. 24. 

Hundreds of cases might be given ; but, as they would 



f)^ 




FIG. 24. — LOSING HAZARDS. 



FIG. 25. — LOSING HAZARDS. 



rather puzzle than assist the pupil, I prefer to leave the illus- 
trations of losing hazards to the practical science that is only 
to be acquired on the table itself. 

Canons. 

You all know what a canon is ; I therefore refer you at once 
to the diagrams, with only a remark or two in explanation. 

Here will be seen the direction taken by your ball after con- 
tact with the object-ball. All the strokes shown in figs. 26 
to 32, inclusive, are canons by natural angles, without the use 
of side-stroke. They can all be made by full open strokes on 
the centre of your own ball, the division of the object-ball 
being made as shown in the diagrams. I have not thought 



507 






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\ \\ *. 




\ \Y b 




*. / % * 




s* » 




/ \ • b 


*. >• 



o 



A X 



/\\\\\NS 

■■■ 000 000' 



o 




c 









Q 

o.\ 
o.N\ 

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n O. i'. 
Q. c!\ ;i 

Q '/ !• \ \ \] V 1 .1 

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FIG. 26. — CANONS. 



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FIG. 27. — CANONS. 



c 



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FIG. 28. — CANONS. 



3C 



FIG. 29. — CANONS. 



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508 



F\7t") 




FIG. 30. — CANONS. 



FIG. 31. — CANONS. 




FIG. 32.— CANONS. 



FIG. 33. — CANONS. 



509 



it necessary to show the direction taken by the object-ball, 
as that would have involved a confusing number of lines. 

In fig. 27 the canons a require more or less screw and 
draw-back ; the canons b a division of the object- ball from the 
half, with screw (to square the ball lowest in the figure) to an 
eighth, or thereabouts, to make the uppermost canon. The 
canons c require a simple division of the object-ball, as also 
do those marked d. All these are easy of execution ; and if 
they be struck fairly and with good, though not extreme 
strength, they will be made by the natural angles of the table 
—-always remembering the important axiom that the angles of 
incidence and reflection are, for all practical purposes, equal to 
each other. These canons may be increased at pleasure. I 
have given only those which are most obvious and which 
most frequently occur in the course of ordinary play. 
^ The canons in figs. 30, 31, 32, and 33 are of a similarly 
simple character, and in order that the beginner may accustom 
himself to the making of them he should try them successively, 
and only be content when he can make them easily. In 
%• 33 tn e canons a and b require your ball to be struck rather 
high, in order that the distance may be fairly travelled : the 
longer the distance, the higher the stroke ; the harder the 
stroke, the more acute the angle. Of course canons are 
frequently combined with winning and losing hazards ; but it 
will be sufficient for the learner to try for a single stroke, and 
if any others follow, so much the better for his game. Re- 
member the fable of the dog and the shadow, and lose not a 
certainty by endeavouring to grasp at too much. Always 
have an object^ in view when you are making your stroke, 
draw an imaginary line for every canon, and play with 
strength enough to effect your object. 

The Side-stroke. 

You have, ere this, pretty well familiarized your mind with 
the nature of the Side-stroke. I need therefore only remark 
that it is one of the most useful adjuncts to Billiards ever 
devised. It was quite unknown to the older writers, and 
is even now but imperfectly practised by ordinary players. 
Briefly, the side-stroke is a method of striking the ball on its 
side which causes it to travel on an axis different from its true 
axis— higher or lower, more to the right or the left, according 
to the manner in which it is struck. I cannot better illustrate 
this removal of the ball's travelling axis than by referring to 



510 



THE SIDE-STROKE. 



the way in which you play a ball out of baulk, and into baulk 
again. By striking a ball a little on one side or the other 
you shift the rolling axis of the ball— raising or lowering it 
as the case may be. See this diagram, and you will imme- 
diately comprehend the nature of the side-stroke :— 



I \v< "t — ,Z~ — • — I 




VX^Q 



\ 



L 



\ o 
o o 



o 



FIG. 34. — ILLUSTRATING THE SIDE-STROKE. 

The effect of the side-stroke is to cause the ball struck to 
travel slowly on its false axis towards the object-ball or 
cushion. As soon as contact takes place, with either ball or 
cushion, the player's ball assumes a series of rather rapid 
twists or curls, and flies off at an angle more acute or obtuse 
than that which belongs to the regular natural angle. The ball 
must always be struck on the same side as that which you intend 
it to travel after contact ; for the side does not take full effect 
till the contact has been made. A very hard blow will defeat 
the side given to the ball, and a rather gentle one will commonly 
produce the effect intended. In making the side-stroke you 
must aim directly and distinctly at the part you wish to strike, 
draw back your cue, and then, with an indescribable twist or 
turn of the wrist at the instant of striking, make the correct 
stroke. The quantity of side given to your ball is only to be 
determined by practice. Refer to the diagram of the Divided 
Ball, p. 39, and you will see the parts into which it is divided 
by imaginary lines ; and according to the distance from the 
centre, above or below the central lines, will be the amount 



511 



BILLIARDS. 



of deflection taken by the ball after it has been struck. 
This is very difficult to describe; but, once acquired, the 
side-stroke is easy of execution. 

All the strokes that can be made by dividing the object- 
ball can be made by the side-stroke ; but the reverse of the 
proposition is not true ; for the parabolic curve assumed by 
the ball after it has been struck on its side cannot be pro- 
duced by simple division of the object-ball. The side cannot 
be communicated to the object-ball. This is, I know, contrary 
to the opinion of some writers and many players, but I stake 
my professional reputation on the correctness of the assertion. 
Extreme side will take effect before the object-ball or cushion 
is struck ; as you may see by striking a side ball into the centre 
of the table and watching the deviation it makes from the 
natural angle of 45 degrees when the side ceases to act. 




oc 



FIG. 35. — SIDE-STROKE CANONS. FIG. 30.— SIDE-STROKE CANONS. 

I do not recommend young players to depend too much on 
the side-stroke, for nothing is more deceptive; but you cannot 



512 



THE SIDE-STROKE. 



become a thoroughly good player till you have made yourself 
master of it. 

The side-stroke is particularly useful in canons. In fig. 35 
you will observe the effect (1) of a gentle side-stroke ; while 
in cases 2 and 3 a more decided side is necessary. Various 
side-stroke canons are shown in figs. 36 and 37. 




FIG. 37.— SIDE-STROKE CANONS. FIG. 38. — SIDE-STROKE CANONS. 

In fig. 38 (case a) the power of the side-stroke is par- 
ticularly well shown. Here a canon can be made on either 
of the balls, from the striking-ball to the red, and thence to 
the others. In case c the player's ball must be struck very 
high, with a strong in- side, when the red will be passed and 
one of the balls against the cushion reached without diffi- 
culty. This is rather a practice stroke than a particularly 
useful one. Not so with case b, which is a regular canon, 
made by the employment of a small amount of side properly 
applied. In all these cases care must be taken to fairly 
strike the ball, and not to slip the point of the cue off its top. 
Case d is a following stroke an which a canon is made by 



513 



KK 



BILLIARDS. 



removing the object-ball and continuing the passage of your 
own ball to the other white one. This is to be made with 
a light stroke and moderate side. Many other instances might 
be adduced ; but it will suffice to observe that in cases where 
your ball is near to the object-ball, or when you are near to a 
cushion, the side may be very effectually applied. When you 
wish to make the angle more acute than is ordinarily the case, 
then the side may be applied ; but in general play it should 
be used rather as a resource in difficult situations than as a 
means of attaining an easily acquired end. 

Stand well behind your ball, and deliver your stroke with 
ease and precision — giving freedom to the arm, and easy play 
to the wrist. It is perhaps easier to play with side than to 
divide the object-ball, from the fact that you put the side on 
the ball immediately under your eye, while you divide the 
ball that is distant from your cue's point. For this reason 
most players adopt a mixed style, and divide both balls. A 
round-tipped cue, well chalked, is generally thought best for 
the making of side-strokes; though some players prefer a 
broad flat-tipped cue. 

Cramp-strokes. 

There are scores of Cramp-strokes : I need only refer to a 
few of the more common. 

Case I (fig. 39) is useful in many instances. When your 
ball is close to the red in either corner you may push it into 
the pocket with a slight side ; and if another ball be placed as 
in the diagram, an eight-stroke will be made — 3 for the red 
winning hazard, 3 for the white losing hazard off the red, and 
2 for the canon you must make. The red ball will first fall 
into the pocket, then the canon will be made, and the white 
ball will drop easily after the red. 

Case 2 (fig. 39) is an instance of a ten-stroke. Theplaying- 
ball must be struck sharply on the in-side, when the red will 
fall into the corner pocket and your ball will fly to the opposite 
corner, cross to the cushion, and make the canon on the ball 
over the middle pocket, holing it and following in after it. 
A ten-stroke of another kind, which requires a strong side 
nicely put on, is shown in fig. 41 {a). Case b shows the 
ordinary effect of the side — very useful in particular situations. 

In fig. 40 I have given two instances of the Basket-stroke {a). 
Here, in order to make the ball pass round a basket or hat 
placed on the table, and canon from one ball to another, a 
strong side must be put on, and the object-ball struck full: 



5 H 




FIG. 39.— CRAMP-STROKES. 



FIG. 40.— CRAMP-STROKES. 



-f)c 




jC 



FIG. 41. — CRAMP-STROKES. 



FIG. 42. — CRAMP-STROKIS. 



515 



BILLIARDS, 



the kiss and the side combined will cause your ball to curl 
round the basket and get the canon. 

Case b is hardly a cramp-stroke ; for what you want to 
effect is to make the losing hazard in the corner pocket. 
This is accomplished with a strong side and a kiss. 

Case c, fig. 40, is a very common rooking stroke. The 
player places the three balls together, the red in the centre, 
and then offers to bet that he will play the middle ball away 
without disturbing the others. When the wager is taken, as it 
commonly is, the player holds his cue firmly, and strikes the 
red ball hard, near the top, which causes it to rise a little 
from the table and pass over the others ; or rather the small 
circumference of the red ball passes through the wide opening 
left by the upper halves of the two white balls. 

Fig. 42 shows the dip {a) by which the player's ball is 
made to jump over the red and fall on the white on the other 
side. This is also done by striking the ball on the top. 
Case b is made by a kiss, the red ball being close to the 
cushion and struck full : the strong side on the playing-ball 
combines with the kiss to cause it to curl back to the ball 
below the baulk and make a canon. Case c> in which both 
balls are pocketed in the corner, is also made by a strong side 
and kiss, the object-ball and the cushion being struck at the 
same moment. 



Concluding Remarks. 

Always play for some definite object. Regulate your stroke 
to the object to be achieved. In the regular game do not pot 
the white ball, as, though you may score two, you have only 
one ball to play at afterwards. When the red ball is over a 
pocket and you wish to hole it, play with sufficient strength to 
bring your own ball away from the pocket in case you miss it. 
When you cannot score, play for safety. When the red is in 
baulk, and there seems no chance of scoring otherwise, you 
can pocket the white. Never dispute the marker's decision. 
Avoid the man who offers to show you a few good strokes, 
carries a bit of chalk in his pocket, and calls the marker by 
his Christian name. Keep the balls before you. Play with 
better men than yourself, and observe their style. Do not 
knock the balls about without an object. Never bet with 
strangers. Keep your temper ! 



Sl6 



BAGATELLE. 



Several games are played on the Bagatelle-board, two or mdre persons 
playing. 

Rules for La Bagatelle. 

i. Any number may play, whether singly or in " sides." 

2. Each player "strings for lead," and he who lodges his ball in the 
highest hole begins. 

3. The player who wins the lead takes possession of the nine balls, and 
begins the game. 

4. The black ball is placed on the spot in front of the first hole, and 
the player plays from the baulk by striking at the black ball, and 
endeavouring to hit it, or his own ball, or both balls, into a hole or holes. 

5. The black ball counts double into whichsoever hole it falls. 
[Sometimes a black ball and a red ball are used, both of which count 

double. The cups are numbered, and into whichsoever cup the balls 
fall, so many are counted for the player. The board is numbered 
thus : — 



897 

4 6 



(spot.) 



BAULK-LINE. 

[The usual plan is to try to drop the black ball in the seven or the eight, 

and the white in the opposite hole, and thus score twenty-two or 

twenty-three at one stroke.] 

6. The striker's ball must be placed within the baulk-line, and is struck 

with the cue at the black ball. The remainder of the balls are then 

driven up the board in like manner, and the sum total of the holes made 

is the striker's score. 

7. Any number of rounds may be played for the game, as agreed on 
previous to its commencement. 



517 



8. The player (or side) obtaining the highest score wins the game. 

9. Any ball that rebounds beyond the baulk-line, or is forced over the 
board, is not to be again played during that round. 

Sans Egal. 

1. The person who takes the lead (decided as in "La Bagatelle ") 
makes choice of four balls of either colour, places the black ball on the 
spot, and commences by striking up one of his balls. 

2. The other player then strikes up one of his, and so on alternately. 

3. He that holes the black ball counts it towards his game, and also 
all that he may hole of his own. 

4. If a player hole any of his adversary's balls, the number is scored to 
the owner of them. 

5. The player who makes the greatest number of points in each round 
wins the game, and takes the lead in the next. 

The Canon Game. 

1. Choice of balls, and the lead having been decided, the black is 
placed on the spot, and the adversary's ball equidistant between cups 
Nos. 1 and 9. 

g 2. If the player canon, he scores two. If at the same time he hole 
either of the balls, he also scores the number marked in the cups, the 
black ball counting double. 

3. The striker continues to play as long as he scores. 

4. There is no score unless a canon be made, and all points made by a 
ball without a canon count for the other side. 

5. If either the adversary's or the black ball are holed, or roll beyond 
the baulk-line, they must be replaced on their respective spots. 

6. The black ball must be always struck by the player's ball, or in 
default of this the adversary scores five. A miss also counts five to the 
adversary. 

7. The game is 120 or 150, as may be agreed upon. 

When there are pockets to the table the white and red balls pocketed 
count each two, and the black ball three. Sometimes three is counted 
for a canon from the black to the red ball, and vice versa, and two for 
a Canon from the white to a coloured ball, or from a coloured to a white 
one. 

Hold the cue with a firm, but not too tight a grasp, and strike the cue 
ball in the centre. A modification of the side-stroke may be well intro- 
duced occasionally ; but the more advantageous play is to divide the 
object-ball. By it you may make such a calculation of the angles as will 
enable you to hole your ball with tolerable certainty. Beware of playing 
too hard ; Bagatelle requires much less force than Billiards. 



518 



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Navy," "The Newfoundland and Watch Dog," in Webb's Book on 
Dogs, &c. 

The work will contain anecdotes and tales of their life and habits, with special reference 
to their hunting and fishing exploits, nomadic tendencies, domestic life and attachments; 
also an account of their points and breeding. Wherever possible, photographs will be 
used in illustrating the work, which will be bound in two volumes : the first comprising 
tales and anecdotes, the second their history, points, and breed. Cloth, handsomely bound 
and illustrated, size crown 8vo., about 250 pages. Cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. each, or 6s. the two 
volumes. 



A companion volume to " Guess Me," crown 8vo., price 3s. 6d. 
New and elegant cloth gilt binding. 

Endless Mirth and Amusement. 

A capital and clever collection of Mirthful Games, Parlour Pastimes, 
Shadow Plays, Magic, Conjuring, Card Tricks, Fireworks, Chemical 
Surprises, Forfeits, &c. &c. By Charles Gilbert. Illustrated by 
George Cruikshank and others. 



Crown 8vo., price 3s. 6d., cloth gilt, companion book to the above, 

Guess Me. 

A grand and most curious collection of Conundrums, Speaking and 
Acting Charades, Enigmas, Rebuses, Double Acrostics, Picture Proverbs 
and Pictorial Hieroglyphics, Square Words, Puzzling Pictures, Puzzles, 
&c. &c. By Frederick D'Arros Planche, and Illustrated by George 
Cruikshank and others. 



DEAN & SON, Publishers & Factors, St ^unstau's "Buildings, 160a, Fleet St. 



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